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  • 1.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Use of kitting to ease assemblers' cognitive workload2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, University of Oulu , 2011, s. 77-82Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The higher level of product variation in the automotive industry leads to an increasing workload for the assembler that has to search, fetch and assemble all the variants. This puts high demands on the information that is given to the assembler to fulfil the assembly task. This paper describes the impact of information overload and sources, and their influence on the assembler. Through observations conducted in the Swedish automotive industry, the study has shown that the assembly personnel perceive the kit as structured information and that structured kits are able to present distinct information at a certain place to the assembler, which in turn reduces the searching, resulting in decreased cognitive workload.

  • 2.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Thorvald, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Kitting as an information source in manual assembly2012Inngår i: Advances in Ergonomics in Manufacturing / [ed] Stefan Trzcieliński & Waldemar Karwowski, CRC Press, 2012, s. 346-353Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In manual assembly, a strategy to meet the goal of efficient production is the increased use of kitting as a material supply principle. Even though kitting is already implemented in industry, there are still uncertainties regarding the effects of introducing kits, particularly from a human factors perspective.

    This paper presents initial steps in the development of a method to be used for the evaluation of kitting. This from an information source point of view and for studying effects related to productivity and quality. The methodology is projected to act as a foundation for how to carry out a subsequent comprehensive case study. The purpose of the case study is to explore how kitting affects the cognitive workload compared to the ordinary material rack combined with part numbers used in the current manufacturing industry. This is done by measuring productivity; time spent on assembling a product, and quality; number of assembly errors. One step in the methodology development process, which is described in this paper, was to conduct a pilot study, primarily to test the methodology related to the selection of measurement parameters, as well as for getting experiences from running the methodology with real test subjects.

  • 3.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, UK.
    Case, Keith
    Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, UK.
    Thorvald, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Cognitive Aspects Affecting Human Performance in Manual Assembly2016Inngår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXX / [ed] Yee Mey Goh, Keith Case, IOS Press, 2016, s. 231-236Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the handling of information in assembly work environments. Several studies involving both literature reviews, case studies andobservations were conducted to find factors that affect human performance in manual assembly. The main experiment with 36 subjects used a mixed method design with a quantitative study, including time and errors as dependant measures,a qualitative study, including workload ratings, and a questionnaire. The experiment involved the assembly of a pedal car and the components werepresented using structured kits, unstructured kits and material racks. Assembly information was presented as text & component numbers or photographs, and situations with and without component variation were considered. Among theresults it was found that assembly times and workload ratings were lower when using a kit, whereas using a material rack resulted in perceived decreased workflow and increased stress and frustration. Assembly times and workload ratings were lower when using photographs, whereas using text and numbers increased mental workload.

  • 4.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Case, Keith
    Loughborough University, United Kingdom.
    Thorvald, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Interaction Effects Affecting Human Performance in Manual Assembly2018Inngår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press, 2018, s. 265-270Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study aimed at investigating interaction effects affecting personnel in manual assembly. The main experiment with 36 subjects used a mixed method design which included a quantitative study, including time and errors as dependent measures, and a qualitative study, including workload ratings and a questionnaire. The overall task in the experiment was to assemble components on a pedal car. The main factors involved were assembly information (text & component numbers or photographs), material presentation (using structured kits, unstructured kits and material racks) and component variation (situations with and without component variation). It was found that performance, measured in assembly time, was best when combining photographs with no component variants and when using an unstructured kit.

  • 5.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    De Vin, Leo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Attention, Interpreting, Decision-Making and Acting in Manual Assembly2006Inngår i: IMC23, 2006, s. 165-172Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    De Vin, Leo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Piamonte, Paul
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ergonomics Analysis in a Virtual Environment2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Manufacturing Conference, IMC 23, 2006, s. 165-172Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK / Volvo Powertrain Sweden, Skövde, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    De Vin, Leo J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Piamonte, Paul
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ergonomics analysis in a virtual environment2007Inngår i: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 198-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation can support the design of an ergonomic workplace by enabling early assessment of ergonomic conditions in a virtual environment. An important feature is the possibility to study alternative solutions or the effect of improvements from an ergonomics perspective. To be able to conduct an efficient and reliable evaluation in a virtual environment, an objective analysis method is essential. Such an analysis method should be integrated in the simulation software, and support a company's everyday ergonomics work process. In order to gain from existing ergonomics knowledge within a company, the possibility to implement such wisdom in the current simulation software becomes important. This paper presents an implementation work done with the purpose of integrating an established ergonomics work process into a virtual environment. It describes the benefits of an ergonomics work process where simulation and evaluation at early stages of a design process are key factors. The paper will also describe the integration process, i.e., the technical issues as well as the change in work methods.

  • 8.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Volvo Car Corporation, Manufacturing Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    De Vin, Leo J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Reduction of ergonomics design flaws through virtual methods2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 39th annual Nordic Ergonomic Society Conference, Lysekil, Sweden, October 1-3, 2007 (NES 2007) CD-ROM, Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A work method for product and production system development that includes virtual methods for ergonomics analysis is presented and argued.The proposed work method is described and illustrated with an example,which the authors believe shows how a virtual work method can contribute to a better workplace design, and thereby, if utilised, would have prevented some of the design flaws that existed in the actual final product design in the example. This paper will also present the outcome, gain, and setbacks that are connected to the use of virtual work analysis methods within a design process.

  • 9.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Möller, S.
    Volvo Information Technology AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    De Vin, Leo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Sundin, A.
    National Institute for Working Life - West, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    A Roadmap Towards Cost Calculation Methods Connected to Ergonomics Analysis and Simulation2005Inngår i: Ergonomics as a tool in future development and value creation : proceedings: NES2005 in Oslo - Norway, Nordic Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Conference, 10-12 October 2005 / [ed] Bo Veiersted, Knut Inge Fostervold, Kristian S. Gould, Oslo: Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2005, s. 312-316Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Thorvald, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    De Vin, Leo J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    The impact of information presentation on work environment and product quality: A case study2008Inngår i: Ergonomics is a lifestyle = Vinnuvistfræði er lífstíll: NES 2008 : abstracts, Kópavogur: Vinnuvistfræðifélag Íslands , 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Case, Keith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Thorvald, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    De Vin, Leo J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    An assembly line information system study2008Inngår i: Advances in manufacturing technology - XXII: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Manufacturing Research (ICMR2008) / [ed] Kai Cheng, Harris Makatsoris & David Harrison, Uxbridge: Brunel University , 2008, s. 181-188Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Case, Keith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, UK.
    Marshall, Russell
    Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, UK.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Summerskill, Steve
    Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, UK.
    Gyi, Diane
    Department of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.
    Sims, Ruth
    Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, UK.
    HADRIAN: Fitting Trials by Digital Human Modelling2009Inngår i: Digital Human Modeling: Second International Conference, ICDHM 2009 Held as Part of HCI International 2009 San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 Proceedings / [ed] Vincent G. Duffy, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, s. 673-680Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropometric data are often described in terms of percentiles and too often digital human models are synthesised from such data using a single percentile value for all body dimensions. The poor correlation between body dimensions means that products may be evaluated against models of humans that do not exist. Alternative digital approaches try to minimise this difficulty using pre-defined families of manikins to represent human diversity, whereas in the real world carefully selected real people take part in 'fitting trials'. HADRIAN is a digital human modeling system which uses discrete data sets for individuals rather than statistical populations. A task description language is used to execute the evaluative capabilities of the underlying SAMMIE human modelling system as though a 'real' fitting trial was being conducted. The approach is described with a focus on the elderly and disabled and their potential exclusion from public transport systems.

  • 13.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Limkull, Dan
    De Vin, Leo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Hansson, Lars
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Towards Dynamic Ergonomics Analysis of Work Sequences inVirtual Environments2007Inngår i: the 17th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2007, 2007, s. 581-588Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Manikin Characters: User Characters in Human Computer Modelling2006Inngår i: Contemporary Ergonomics, Taylor & Francis, 2006, s. 499-503Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Predefined manikins to support consideration of anthropometric diversity by product designers2007Inngår i: Digital Human Modeling, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, s. 110-119Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the complexity involved in considering targeted product users’ anthropometric variation in multivariate design problems, such as the design of workplaces or vehicle interiors. The authors argue for the advantages of offering designers a number of predefined digital human models to incorporate in the CAD product models. A study has been carried out in order to illustrate the use of predefined digital human models in vehicle interior design by using the Digital Human Modelling (DHM) tool RAMSIS. The paper takes a designer’s view of digital human modelling and illustrates how DHM can be of great value in the design process, but also considers what implications this has on the functionality and usability of DHM tools.

  • 16.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    The impact of manikin family configuration on accommodation2005Inngår i: Ergonomics as a tool in future development and value creation : proceedings: NES2005 in Oslo - Norway, Nordic Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Conference, 10-12 October 2005 / [ed] Bo Veiersted, Knut Inge Fostervold, Kristian S. Gould, Oslo: Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2005, s. 91-95Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    de Vin, Leo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Demands on technology from a human automatism perspective in manual assembly2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM2008, Skövde, Sweden, June 30 - July 2 / [ed] Leo J. De Vin, Amos H. C. Ng, Peter Thorvald, W. G. Sullivan & M. M. Ahmad, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2008, s. 632-638Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    de Vin, Leo
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Information Presentation in Manual Assembly – A Cognitive Ergonomics Analysis2008Inngår i: Ergonomics is a lifestyle = Vinnuvistfræði er lífstíll: NES 2008 : abstracts, Kópavogur: Vinnuvistfræðifélag Íslands , 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In current practice, information is often presented to the operators under the false belief that more information leads to better quality. However, one must consider the cognitive capacity limitations of the human operator and design information systems based on these constraints. Important questions include what medium to use; audio, visual, paper based or computer screen systems? Also the syntax in terms of symbols and text, together with information content and the formatting of the system are important factors that will require much focus to result in a good information system. The paper describes a case where paper-based assembly instructions of a major automotive company have been studied, focusing on information design and cognitive ergonomics in information seeking behaviour. Within the case study, the paper-based information system has been evaluated with two focuses: automatic information behaviour (automatism) and consistency of information presentation in the operator graphical user interface (GUI). It is suggested that systems that do not offer clear and easy-to-find entry points to information will eventually cause quality issues in production.

  • 19.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Case, KeithHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Loughborough University.
    Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11-13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden2018Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Mechanical and Manufacturing Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK.
    Applying cognitive science to digital human modelling for user centred design2012Inngår i: International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1742-5549, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 90-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To build software which, at the press of a button, can tell you what cognition-related hazards there are within an environment or a task, is probably well into the future if it is possible at all. However, incorporating existing tools such as task analysis tools, interface design guidelines and information about general cognitive limitations in humans, could allow for greater evaluative options for cognitive ergonomics. The paper discusses previous approaches to the subject and suggests adding design and evaluative guiding in digital human modelling that will help a user with little or no knowledge of cognitive science to design and evaluate a human-product interaction scenario.

  • 21.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Incorporating Cognitive Aspects in Digital Human Modeling2009Inngår i: Digital Human Modeling: Second International Conference, ICDHM 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009. Proceedings / [ed] Vincent G. Duffy, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, s. 323-332Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To build software which, at the press of a button, can tell you what cognition related hazards there are within an environment or a task, is probably well into the future if it is possible at all. However, incorporating existing tools such as task analysis tools, interface design guidelines and information about general cognitive limitations in humans, could allow for greater evaluative options for cognitive ergonomics. The paper will discuss previous approaches on the subject and suggest adding design and evaluative guiding in DHM that will help a user with little to no knowledge of cognitive science, design and evaluate a human-product interaction scenario.

  • 22.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    The effect of information mobility on production quality2014Inngår i: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 120-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the use of a hand-held unit as an information source in manual assembly. Having a mobile information system, such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), that can be brought at all times, as opposed to a stationary one, such as a computer terminal, is hypothesised to increase the information range and thus improves assembly performance. The increased information range is argued to be due to assembly workers employing a cost-benefit strategy, where the cost of gathering information is compared with the assumed benefit of it. This article reports empirical data comparing the use of a mobile information carrier with a traditional stationary computer, and results show that the use of a PDA significantly improves quality, whereas productivity does not significantly improve quality. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis.

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