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  • 1.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluating Multi-Attributes on Cause and Effect Relationship Visualization2017In: Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP 2017): Volumne 3: IVAPP / [ed] Alexandru Telea, Jose Braz, Lars Linsen, SciTePress, 2017, p. 64-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings about visual representations of cause and effect relationship's direction, strength, and uncertainty based on an online user study. While previous researches focus on accuracy and few attributes, our empirical user study examines accuracy and the subjective ratings on three different attributes of a cause and effect relationship edge. The cause and effect direction was depicted by arrows and tapered lines; causal strength by hue, width, and a numeric value; and certainty by granularity, brightness, fuzziness, and a numeric value. Our findings point out that both arrows and tapered cues work well to represent causal direction. Depictions with width showed higher conjunct accuracy and were more preferred than that with hue. Depictions with brightness and fuzziness showed higher accuracy and were marked more understandable than granularity. In general, depictions with hue and granularity performed less accurately and were not preferred compared to the ones with numbers or with width and brightness.

  • 2.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Component-based Simulator for Supporting Research on Situation Recognition2009In: Intelligent Sensing, Situation Management, Impact Assessment, and Cyber-Sensing: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 / [ed] John F Koegel Buford, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009, p. Article ID 735206-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on information fusion and situation management within the military domain, is often focused on data-driven approaches for aiding decision makers in achieving situation awareness. We have in a companion paper identified situation recognition as an important topic for further studies on knowledge-driven approaches. When developing new algorithms it is of utmost importance to have data for studying the problem at hand (as well as for evaluation purposes). This often become a problem within the military domain as there is a high level of secrecy, resulting in a lack of data, and instead one often needs to resort to artificial data. Many tools and simulation environments can be used for constructing scenarios in virtual worlds. Most of these are however data-centered, that is, their purpose is to simulate the real-world as accurately as possible, in contrast to simulating complex scenarios. In high-level information fusion we can however often assume that lower-level problems have already been solved - thus the separation of abstraction - and we should instead focus on solving problems concerning complex relationships, i.e. situations and threats. In this paper we discuss requirements that research on situation recognition puts on simulation tools. Based on these requirements we present a component-based simulator for quickly adapting the simulation environment to the needs of the research problem at hand. This is achieved by defining new components that define behaviors of entities in the simulated world.

  • 3.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Attempting to increase the Performance of Petri net based Situation Recognition2010In: Proceedings of the 22nd Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Benelux Association for Artificial Intelligence , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation recognition is an important problem to solve for introducing new capabilities in surveillance applications. It is concerned with recognizing a priori defined situations of interest, which are characterized as being of temporal and concurrent nature. The purpose is to aid decision makers with focusing on information that is known to likely be important for them, given their goals. Besides the two most important problems: knowing what to recognize and being able to recognize it, there are three main problems coupled to real time recognition of situations. Computational complexity — we need to process data and information within bounded time. Tractability — human operators must be able to easily understand what is being modelled. Expressability — we must be able to express situations at suitable levels of abstraction. In this paper we attempt to lower the computational complexity of a Petri net based approach for situation.

  • 4.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    DESIRER: a Development Environment for Situation Recognition Research2010In: Proceedings 2010 Second WRI Global Congress on Intelligent Systems: GCIS 2010: Volume 1 / [ed] Xinhan Huang, Li Da Xu, Zu De Zhou, Zhun Fan, M. M. Gupta, & Pan Wang, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2010, p. 143-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation recognition is an important problem within the surveillance domain, which addresses the problem of recognizing a priori defined patterns of interesting situations that may be of concurrent and temporal nature, and which possibly are occurring in the present flow of data and information. There may be many viable approaches, with different properties, for addressing this problem however, something they must have in common is good efficiency and high performance. In order to determine if a potential solution has these properties, it is a necessity to have access to test and development environments. In this paper we present DESIRER, a development environment for working with situation recognition, and for evaluating and comparing different approaches.

  • 5.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evolving Petri Nets for Situation Recognition2010In: GEM 2010: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Methods / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, Ray R. Hashemi, Ashu M. G. Solo, CSREA Press, 2010, p. 29-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation recognition is an important problem to address for developing newcapabilities in the surveillance domain.  It is concerned with recognizing a priori defined situations of interest, which can be of concurrent and temporal nature, possibly occurring in a continuous flow of data and information. It is however a complex task to manually define what constitutes an interesting situation, and we therefore investigate the possibility of using genetic algorithms for evolving Petri nets for situation recognition. Our results show that: (1) it is possible to evolve complex Petri nets, (2) it is possible to increase the performance of manually  designed Petri nets, and (3) a dynamic genome representation consisting of  complex genes is beneficial compared to a representation consisting of bit strings.

  • 6.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Situation Recognition and Hypothesis Management Using Petri Nets2009In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference (MDAI 2009) / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Masahiro Inuiguchi, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 303-314Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation recognition – the task of tracking states and identifying situations - is a problem that is important to look into for aiding decision makers in achieving enhanced situation awareness. The purpose of situation recognition is, in contrast to producing more data and information, to aid decision makers in focusing on information that is important for them, i.e. to detect potentially interesting situations. In this paper we explore the applicability of a Petri net based approach for modeling and recognizing situations, as well as for managing the hypothesis space coupled to matching situation templates with the present stream of data.

     

  • 7.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University.
    Towards Template-based Situation Recognition2009In: Intelligent Sensing, Situation Management, Impact Assessment, and Cyber-Sensing: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 / [ed] Stephen Mott, John F. Buford, Gabe Jakobson, Michael J. Mendenhall, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009, p. Article ID 735205-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of tracking and identifying developing situations is an ability of importance within the surveillance domain. We refer to this as situation recognition and believe that it can enhance situation awareness for decision makers. Situation recognition requires that many subproblems are solved. For instance, we need to establish which situations are interesting, how to represent these situations, and which inferable events and states that can be used for representing them. We also need to know how to track and identify situations and how to determine the correlation between present information about situations with knowledge. For some of these subproblems, data-driven approaches are suitable, whilst knowledge-driven approaches are more suitable for others. In this paper we discuss our current research efforts and goals concerning template-based situation recognition. We provide a categorization of approaches for situation recognition together with a formalization of the template-based situation recognition problem. We also discuss this formalization in the light of a pick-pocket scenario. Finally, we discuss future directions for our research on situation recognition. We conclude that situation recognition is an important problem to look into for enhancing the overall situation awareness of decision makers.

  • 8.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Department of Decision Support and Autonomy, Saab AB, Sweden.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Fusion supporting Team Situation Awareness for Future Fighting Aircraft2010In: FUSION 2010: 13th international Conference on Information Fusion, 26-29 July 2010, EICC, Edinburgh, UK, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. Article number 5712064-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the military aviation domain, the decisionmaker, i.e. the pilot, often has to process huge amounts of information in order to make correct decisions. This is further aggravated by factors such as time-pressure, high workload and the presence of uncertain information. A support system that aids the pilot to achieve his/her goals has long been considered vital for performance progress in military aviation. Research programs within the domain have studied such support systems, though focus has not been on team collaboration. Based on identified challenges of assessing team situation awareness we suggest an approach to future military aviation support systems based on information fusion. In contrast to most previous work in this area, focus is on supporting team situation awareness, including team threat evaluation. To deal with these challenges, we propose the development of a situational adapting system, which presents information and recommendations based on the current situation.

  • 9.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Adaptation using iterated estimations2002In: Advances in Case-Based Reasoning: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference, ECCBR 2002, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, September 4–7, 2002 / [ed] Susan Craw, Alun Preece, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2002, p. 88-102Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Information visualisation in clinical odontology: Multidimensional analysis and interactive data exploration2001In: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, ISSN 0933-3657, E-ISSN 1873-2860, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 133-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1995, the MedView project, based on a co-operation between computing science and clinical medicine was initiated. The overall goal of the project was to develop models, methods and tools to support clinicians in their daily diagnostic work. As part of MedView, two information visualisation tools were developed and tested as solutions to the problem of visualising clinical experience derived from large amounts of clinical data. The first tool (The Cube) was based on the idea of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) parallel diagrams, an idea similar to the notion of 3D parallel co-ordinates. The Cube was developed to enhance the clinician's ability to intelligibly analyse existing patient material and to allow for pattern recognition and statistical analysis. The second tool (SimVis) was based on a similarity assessment-based interaction model for exploring data, and was designed to help clinicians to classify and cluster clinical examination data. User interaction was supported by 3D visualisation of clusters and similarity measures. Both tools were tested on a knowledge base containing about 1500 examinations obtained from different clinics. Clinical practice indicated that the basic ideas are conceptually appealing to the involved clinicians as the tools can be used for generating and testing of hypotheses.

  • 11.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Similarity measures for structured representations: A definitional approach2000In: Advances in Case-Based Reasoning: Proceedings of the 5th European Workshop, EWCBR 2000, Trento, Italy, September 6–9, 2000, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2000, p. 380-392Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    The use of a uniform declarative model in 3D visualisation for case-based reasoning2002In: Advances in Case-Based Reasoning: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference, ECCBR 2002, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, September 4–7, 2002, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2002, p. 103-117Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Using a Uniform Declarative Model in 3D Visualisation of Medical Data2003In: Proceedings of Winter Meeting 2003, Nösunds Värdshus & Orangeri, January 15–17, 2003, Göteborg: Department of Computing Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden , 2003, p. 64-78Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jontell, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    SOMWeb: A Semantic Web-Based System for Supporting Collaboration of Distributed Medical Communities of Practice2008In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 10, no 3, p. e25-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Background: Information technology (IT) support for remote collaboration of geographically distributed communities of practice (CoP) in health care must deal with a number of sociotechnical aspects of communication within the community. In the mid-1990s, participants of the Swedish Oral Medicine Network (SOMNet) began discussing patient cases in telephone conferences. The cases were distributed prior to the conferences using PowerPoint and email. For the technical support of online CoP, Semantic Web technologies can potentially fulfill needs of knowledge reuse, data exchange, and reasoning based on ontologies. However, more research is needed on the use of Semantic Web technologies in practice.

     

    Objectives: The objectives of this research were to (1) study the communication of distributed health care professionals in oral medicine; (2) apply Semantic Web technologies to describe community data and oral medicine knowledge; (3) develop an online CoP, Swedish Oral Medicine Web (SOMWeb), centered on user-contributed case descriptions and meetings; and (4) evaluate SOMWeb and study how work practices change with IT support.

    Methods: Based on Java, and using the Web Ontology Language and Resource Description Framework for handling community data and oral medicine knowledge, SOMWeb was developed using a user-centered and iterative approach. For studying the work practices and evaluating the system, a mixed-method approach of interviews, observations, and a questionnaire was used.

    Results: By May 2008, there were 90 registered users of SOMWeb, 93 cases had been added, and 18 meetings had utilized the system. The introduction of SOMWeb has improved the structure of meetings and their discussions, and a tenfold increase in the number of participants has been observed. Users submit cases to seek advice on diagnosis or treatment, to show an unusual case, or to create discussion. Identified barriers to submitting cases are lack of time, concern about whether the case is interesting enough, and showing gaps in one’s own knowledge. Three levels of member participation are discernable: a core group that contributes most cases and most meeting feedback; an active group that participates often but only sometimes contribute cases and feedback; and a large peripheral group that seldom or never contribute cases or feedback.

    Conclusions: SOMWeb is beneficial for individual clinicians as well as for the SOMNet community. The system provides an opportunity for its members to share both high quality clinical practice knowledge and external evidence related to complex oral medicine cases. The foundation in Semantic Web technologies enables formalization and structuring of case data that can be used for further reasoning and research. Main success factors are the long history of collaboration between different disciplines, the user-centered development approach, the existence of a “champion” within the field, and nontechnical community aspects already being in place.

  • 15.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jontell, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Torgersson, Olof
    University of Gothenburg.
    Towards Pragmatic Patterns for Clinical Knowledge Management2007In: Building Common Ground on the Web: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Pragmatic Web (ICPW'07) / [ed] Simon Buckingham Shum, Mikael Lind, Hans Weigand, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2007, p. 65-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a research program for identifying, modeling, and making use of generic pragmatic patterns for clinical knowledge management that support evidence-based medicine (EBM). Part of this program is SOMWeb, a system based on Semantic Web technologies, which is used for knowledge sharing and dissemination within an oral medicine community. A study of the use of SOMWeb has been conducted as the first step in the elicitation of important contextual factors and communicative activities involved in knowledge sharing processes in oral medicine. One such activity, community discussion activation, is described using consultation patterns together with the collaboration patterns of [5]. The general need for context-aware health information systems and the prospective use of approaches within Pragmatic Web in the pursuit of EBM are also discussed.

     

  • 16.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Göteborg University.
    Jontell, Mats
    Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University.
    Collaboration Patterns in an Online Community of Practice in Oral Medicine2008In: eHealth Beyond the Horizon – Get IT There: Proceedings of MIE2008, The XXIst International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics, Göteborg, Sweden, May 25–28, 2008, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008, p. 175-180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SOMWeb is an online collaboration system based on Semantic Web technologies, which is used for knowledge sharing and dissemination within an oral medicine community in Sweden. Based on a previous study of the use of SOMWeb, general patterns of interaction and communicative activities involved in community collaboration have been identified. The patterns for one such activity, distance consultation, are described and modeled using techniques from the Pragmatic Web. It is also shown how patterns could inform system design

  • 17.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers, University of Technology/University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers, University of Technology/University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jontell, Mats
    Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The Origin, Representation, and Use of Collaboration Patterns in a Medical Community of Practice2008In: Emerging Technologies and Information Systems for the Knowledge Society: Proceedings of the First World Summit on the Knowledge Society, WSKS 2008, Athens, Greece, September 24–26, 2008 / [ed] Miltiadis D. Lytras, John M. Carroll, Ernesto Damiani, Robert D. Tennyson, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 403-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Founded on the Semantic Web technologies OWL and RDF, SOMWeb is an online community of practice that is used for knowledge sharing and dissemination within an oral medicine community in Sweden. It is shown how patterns for communication and collaboration within SOMWeb can be identified and represented in OWL, in terms of knowledge components, such as ontologies describing domain knowledge, user models, and organization models. It is described how patterns could be put into use and inform the design of future versions of SOMWeb.

  • 18.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jontell, Mats
    Clinic of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Odontology, Göteborg University, Sweden .
    Nazari, Nader
    Department of Computing Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Information visualisation in clinical medicine using 3D parallel diagrams: A case history2000In: Medical Infobahn for Europe: Proceedings of MIE2000 / [ed] Arie Hasman, Bernd Blobel, Joachim Dudeck, Rolf Engelbrecht, Günther Gell, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2000, p. 8-13Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Torgersson, Olof
    Department of Computing Science, Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University.
    Enhancing usefulness of declarative programming frameworks through complete integration2002In: Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Logic Programming Environments (WLPE’02), Copenhagen, Denmark, July 31, 2002, CoRR , 2002, p. 111-122Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Knowledge acquisition and modeling in clinical information systems: A case study2002In: Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management: Ontologies and the Semantic Web: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference, EKAW 2002, Sigüenza, Spain, October 1–4, 2002 / [ed] Asunción Gomez-Perez, V. Richard Benjamins, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2002, p. 96-101Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Department of Computing Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg University.
    MedView: A declarative approach to evidence-based medicine2002In: Health Data in the Information Society: Proceedings of MIE2002 / [ed] György Surján, Rolf Engelbrecht, Peter McNair, IOS Press, 2002, p. 577-581Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torgersson, Olof
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jontell, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    SOMWeb: Towards an Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing in Oral Medicine2005In: Connecting Medical Informatics and Bio-Informatics: Proceedings of MIE2005 – The XIXth International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics, 28–31 August 2005, Geneva, Switzerland / [ed] Rolf Engelbrecht, Antoine Geissbuhler, Christian Lovis, George Mihalas, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2005, p. 527-532Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a net-based society, clinicians can come together for cooperative work and distance learning around a common medical material. This requires suitable techniques for cooperative knowledge management and user interfaces that are adapted to both the group as a whole and to individuals. To support distributed management and sharing of clinical knowledge, we propose the development of an intelligent web community for clinicians within oral medicine. This virtual meeting place will support the ongoing work on developing a digital knowledge base, providing a foundation for a more evidence-based oral medicine. The presented system is founded on the use and development of web services and standards for knowledge modelling and knowledge-based systems. The work is conducted within the frame of a well-established cooperation between oral medicine and computer science.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson Friberger, Marie
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Malmö University.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Collaboration processes, outcomes, challenges and enablers of distributed clinical communities of practice2011In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 519-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern healthcare's need for knowledge sharing and bridging the research–practice gap requires new forms of collaboration, in which clinicians of varying clinical and research expertise work together over geographical and organisational borders. To support such distributed communities of practice (CoPs), an understanding of their collaboration processes, outcomes, challenges and enablers is needed. The article examines these issues through a case study of a long-running CoP, the Swedish Oral Medicine Network (SOMNet). SOMNet's main form of collaboration is monthly telephone conference meetings centred on case consultations. Cases are submitted by the clinicians via a Web-based system. The methods used were interviews, observations, and a questionnaire. The work adds to previous research by studying a distributed CoP explicitly focused on supporting the transfer of scientific results from researchers to practitioners. We found that the regular meetings give a rhythm to the community. The centrality of cases means an immediate benefit for the submitter while the community is provided an authentic context for learning. SOMNet yields opportunities for help and learning for diverse expertise levels; the type of benefits is affected by the participant's degree of oral medicine knowledge and collaboration involvement. There are challenges in accommodating varying levels of expertise and encouraging those less experienced to participate. Enablers of the collaboration include the participation of experts, meeting facilitators and well-adapted ITs.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Collaboration Patterns in a Medical Community of Practice2008In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW 2008), 29th September–3rd October 2008, Acitrezza, Catania, Italy: Poster abstracts, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Experiences in Modeling Clinical Examinations in Oral Medicine Using OWL2007In: Proceedings of the OWLED 2007 Workshop on OWL: Experiences and Directions, CEUR-WS.org , 2007, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the modeling of clinical examinations in oral medicine using OWL. Based on experiences from our previous work and knowledge model, requirements for an ontology for examinations in oral medicine are identified. OWL can be used to address most, but not all, of the requirements. We found a lack of guidance for several design choices and for development of OWL ontologies at different levels of sophistication. However, using OWL gives us the ability to come back and refine the knowledge model after initial deployment.

  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Modeling Contexts of Knowledge Sharing in an Online Community for Oral Medicine2007In: CONTEXT '07 Doctorial Consortium Proceedings, Roskilde: Roskilde University , 2007, p. 30-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To support knowledge sharing between practitioners of oral medicine throughout Sweden, the SOMWeb system for community collaboration has been constructed, based on Semantic Web technologies. A large function of the system is to support the discussion of difficult and interesting cases at a monthly telephone conference. From our observations of these meetings, a the users’ responses to a questionnaire, and discussions with users, we find that many of the improvements that can be made to enable further use of the system relate to adding the use of context. Some initial thoughts on what would be relevant to represent in relation to context are given, such as the experience of the practitioner, the reason for adding a case to the system, and the current activity of the user. The long-term aims of this work is to identify aspects of context relevant to online communities of practice in healthcare, and to investigate how these contexts can be modeled using Semantic Web technologies.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Representing Clinical Knowledge in Oral Medicine Using Ontologies2005In: Connecting Medical Informatics and Bio-Informatics: Proceedings of MIE2005 - The XIXth International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics / [ed] Rolf Engelbrecht, Antoine Geissbuhler, Christian Lovis, George Mihalas, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2005, p. 743-748Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical ontologies like GALEN, the FMA or SNOMED represent a kind of “100% certain” medical knowledge which is not inherent to all medical sub-domains. Clinical radiology uses computerized imaging techniques to make the human body visible and interprets the imaging findings in a clinical context delivering a textual report. For clinical radiology few standardized vocabularies are available. We examined the definitions given in the glossary of terms for thoracic radiology published by the Fleischner Society. We further classified these terms with regard to their definitions in terms of (a) describing visible structures on the image itself, (b) referring to ontological entities of the body (anatomical or pathological), and (c) terms imposing knowledge on structures visible on the image, epistemologically representing ontological entities of the body. Each ontological/epistemological definition was rated on a scale of vague/weak-sound/strong and put in context with the evaluation comments for the use of the terms given in the glossary itself. The result of this distinction shows that clinical radiology uses many terms referring to ontological entities valid for representation in a medical ontology. However, many epistemological terms exist in the terminology which impose epistemological knowledge on ontological entities. The analysis of the evaluation comments reveals that terms classified as sound (ontologically) and strong (epistemologically) are evaluated higher than terms bearing vague or weak definitions. On the basis of this, we argue that the distinction between ontological and epistemological definitions is necessary in order to construct epistemologically-sensitive application ontologies for medical sub-domains, like clinical radiology, where knowledge is fragmented in terms of description, inferred from a description, concluded on the basis of imaging, or other additional information with varying degrees of certainty.

  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Study of Use and Needs of an Online Community of Practice in Oral Medicine2008In: eHealth beyond the horizon – get IT there: Poster abstracts of the 21st International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics (MIE 2008), Göteborg, Sweden, May 25–28 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lindahl, Fredrik
    Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    An Online Community for Oral Medicine Supporting Structured Case Entry2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how Semantic Web technologies have been used in an online community for knowledge sharing between clinicians in oral medicine in Sweden. The main purpose of this community is to serve as repository of interesting and difficult cases, and as a support for monthly teleconferences. All information regarding users, meetings, news, and cases is stored in RDF. The community was built using the Struts framework and Jena was used for interacting with RDF.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Lindahl, Fredrik
    Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Enabling an online community for sharing oral medicine cases using semantic web technologies2006In: The Semantic Web - ISWC 2006: 5th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2006, Athens, GA, USA, November 5-9, 2006. Proceedings / [ed] Isabel Cruz, Stefan Decker, Dean Allemang, Chris Preist, Daniel Schwabe, Peter Mika, Mike Uschold, Lora M. Aroyo, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2006, p. 820-832Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how Semantic Web technologies have been used in an online community for knowledge sharing between clinicians in oral medicine in Sweden. The main purpose of this community is to serve as repository of interesting and difficult cases, and as a support for monthly teleconferences. All information regarding users, meetings, news, and cases is stored in RDF. The community was built

  • 31.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    Department of Data Fusion and Tactical Control, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Situational Adapting System supporting Team Situation Awareness2010In: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks VII: Proceedings of SPIE Security & Defence 2010 / [ed] Edward M. Carapezza, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2010, p. Article No. 78330S-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military fighter pilots have to make suitable decisions fast in an environment where continuously increasing flows of information from sensors, team members and databases are provided. Not only do the huge amounts of data aggravate the pilots’ decision making process: time-pressure, presence of uncertain data and high workload are factors that can worsen the performance of pilot decision making. In this paper, initial ideas of how to support the pilots accomplishing their tasks are presented. Results from interviews with two fighter pilots are described as well as a discussion about how these results can guide the design of a military fighter pilot decision support system, with focus on team cooperation.

  • 32.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Human-Centered Automation for Improving Situation Awareness in the Fighter Aircraft Domain2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA 2012), IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 191-197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in technology and the need for improving the pilots' working situations have stimulated the growth of automated functions within the fighter aircraft domain. Functions that aid the pilots perform their tasks and to make decisions fast in an often rapidly changing environment have been introduced with the ultimate aim of easing the pilots' workloads and improving their situation awareness. However, both positive and negative effects of automating pilots' tasks have been documented, such as decreased workload and skill degradation, and it has been acknowledged that it is important to consider the needs of the human operator when designing automated functions. Human-Centred Automation (HCA) has been suggested as an approach for designing automated systems that brings forward the positive effects of automation. However, how to apply the concept of HCA in light of the specific prerequisites and demands of the modern fighter aircraft domain has not been fully investigated. This paper presents the results from interviews made together with fighter aircraft system developers, where the concept of HCA was investigated. Their opinions of the applicability of the concept of HCA within the fighter aircraft domain is represented as well as their thoughts about identified HCA guidelines in relation to the proposed support system. Conclusions drawn from the study are that HCA is indeed an important concept to consider within the domain as well as that the proposed guidelines could be of great use during the design process. Additionallly, insight into how to design automated support systems with the concept of HCA in mind is given.

  • 33.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Human-Centred Automation and the Development of Fighter Aircraft Support systems2011In: Proceedings of the Swedish Human Factors Network (HFN) Conference, Linköping, Sweden, November 24-25, 2011, Human Factors Network (HFN) , 2011, p. 21 sidor-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Human-Centred Automation of Threat Evaluation in Future Fighter Aircraft2011In: Informatik 2011 / [ed] Hans-Ulrich Heiß, Peter Pepper, Holger Schlingloff, Jörg Schneider, Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik , 2011, p. 502-513Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been considered crucial to develop decision support systems that aid fighter pilots achieve their goals. Such systems often require automation of tasks formerly performed manually by the pilots, in situations characterized by huge amounts of (possibly uncertain and incomplete) sensor data and contextual information, time-pressure and dynamically changing tasks. Thus, careful investigations must be performed so as to develop such systems that provide accurate support for their users. This paper reports on the findings concerning research within the field of human-centred automation as well as presents empirical results concerning the applicability of automation guidelines when designing information fusion based support systems in the fighter aircraft domain.

  • 35.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab AB, Aeronautics, SE-581 88 Linköping, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Johan
    Saab AB, Aeronautics, SE-581 88 Linköping, Sweden.
    The Applicability of Human-Centred Automation Guidelines in the Fighter Aircraft Domain2011In: Proceedings of the 29th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE´11) / [ed] Anke Dittmar, Peter Forbrig, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2011, p. 67-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation – To guide the development of human-centred automation within the fighter aircraft domain.

    Research approach – Identified human-centred automation guidelines have been analysed in relation to existing fighter aircraft automated functions together with system developers at Saab Aeronautics.

    Findings/Design – The results show that the human-centred automation guidelines have been considered during the development process. From these results, implications for the design of guidelines and for the design of automated systems in the aircraft domain are drawn.

    Research limitations/Implications – Deeper analysis of how automated functions can support pilots in future fighter aircraft is needed since the proposed guidelines are too general for the military fighter aircraft domain. Thus, future work involves an evaluation of the guidelines together with fighter aircraft system developers and/or military strategists. Such analysis must be carried out with specific automated functions in mind.

    Originality/Value – By comparing with existing automated functions, the research makes contributions to HCA guidelines to be used in the fighter aircraft domain. Suggestions of human-centred automation improvements within the fighter aircraft domain are presented. The analysis has also identified differences between the proposed guidelines and parts of the studied implementation examples.

    Take away message – The HCA guidelines must be adapted according to the specific tasks that the automated functions are intended to assist the operators with. To adapt the automation according to the level of experience of the operators as well as to expand the cooperative automation functions between aircraft in a team have been identified as future directions for automation improvements within the fighter aircraft domain.

  • 36.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Transparency of military threat evaluation through visualizing uncertainty and system rationale2013In: Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: Applications and Services / [ed] Don Harris, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, no PART 2, p. 263-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Threat evaluation (TE) is concerned with determining the intent, capability and opportunity of detected targets. To their aid, military operators use support systems that analyse incoming data and make inferences based on the active evaluation framework. Several interface and interaction guidelines have been proposed for the implementation of TE systems; however there is a lack of research regarding how to make these systems transparent to their operators. This paper presents the results from interviews conducted with TE operators focusing on the need for and possibilities of improving the transparency of TE systems through the visualization of uncertainty and the presentation of the system rationale. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 37.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Davidsson, Staffan
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Presenting system uncertainty in automotive UIs for supporting trust calibration in autonomous driving2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (AutomotiveUI’13), New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, p. 210-217Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the impact of visualizing car uncertainty on drivers' trust during an automated driving scenario, a simulator study was conducted. A between-group design experiment with 59 Swedish drivers was carried out where a continuous representation of the uncertainty of the car's ability to autonomously drive during snow conditions was displayed to one of the groups, whereas omitted for the control group. The results show that, on average, the group of drivers who were provided with the uncertainty representation took control of the car faster when needed, while they were, at the same time, the ones who spent more time looking at other things than on the road ahead. Thus, drivers provided with the uncertainty information could, to a higher degree, perform tasks other than driving without compromising with driving safety. The analysis of trust shows that the participants who were provided with the uncertainty information trusted the automated system less than those who did not receive such information, which indicates a more proper trust calibration than in the control group.

  • 38.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    Saab Aeronautics, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Transparency of Automated Combat Classification2014In: Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 11th International Conference, EPCE 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Don Harris, Springer, 2014, p. 22-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an empirical study where the effects of three levels of system transparency of an automated target classification aid on fighter pilots’ performance and initial trust in the system were evaluated. The levels of transparency consisted of (1) only presenting text–based information regarding the specific object (without any automated support), (2) accompanying the text-based information with an automatically generated object class suggestion and (3) adding the incorporated sensor values with associated (uncertain) historic values in graphical form. The results show that the pilots needed more time to make a classification decision when being provided with display condition 2 and 3 than display condition 1. However, the number of correct classifications and the operators’ trust ratings were the highest when using display condition 3. No difference in the pilots’ decision confidence was found, yet slightly higher workload was reported when using display condition 3. The questionnaire results report on the pilots’ general opinion that an automatic classification aid would help them make better and more confident decisions faster, having trained with the system for a longer period.

  • 39.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Byttner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nowaczyk, Slawomir
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Supporting analytical reasoning: A study from the automotive industry2016In: Human Interface and the Management of Information: Applications and Services: 18th International Conference, HCI International 2016 Toronto, Canada, July 17-22, 2016. Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Sakae Yamamoto, Springer, 2016, p. 20-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the era of big data, it is imperative to assist the human analyst in the endeavor to find solutions to ill-defined problems, i.e. to “detect the expected and discover the unexpected” (Yi et al., 2008). To their aid, a plethora of analysis support systems is available to the analysts. However, these support systems often lack visual and interactive features, leaving the analysts with no opportunity to guide, influence and even understand the automatic reasoning performed and the data used. Yet, to be able to appropriately support the analysts in their sense-making process, we must look at this process more closely. In this paper, we present the results from interviews performed together with data analysts from the automotive industry where we have investigated how they handle the data, analyze it and make decisions based on the data, outlining directions for the development of analytical support systems within the area.

  • 40.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Bayesian network approach to threat evaluation with application to an air defense scenario2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008, Cologne, 30 June 2008–3 July 2008, IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 1352-1358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a precise description of the threat evaluation process is presented. This is followed by a review describing which parameters that have been suggested for threat evaluation in an air surveillance context throughout the literature, together with an overview of different algorithms for threat evaluation. Grounded in the findings from the literature review, a threat evaluation system have been developed. The system is based on a Bayesian network approach, making it possible to handle imperfect observations. The structure of the Bayesian network is described in detail. Finally, an analysis of the system’s performance as applied to a synthetic scenario is presented.

  • 41.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Comparison between Two Approaches to Threat Evaluation in an Air Defense Scenario2008In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference, MDAI 2008 Sabadell, Spain, October 30-31, 2008. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 110-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Threat evaluation is a high-level information fusion problem of high importance within the military domain. This task is the foundation for weapons allocation, where assignment of blue force (own) weapon systems to red force (enemy) targets is performed. In this paper, we compare two fundamentally different approaches to threat evaluation: Bayesian networks and fuzzy inference rules. We conclude that there are pros and cons with both types of approaches, and that a hybrid of the two approaches seems both promising and viable for future research.

     

  • 42.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Suite of Metaheuristic Algorithms for Static Weapon-Target Allocation2010In: GEM 2010: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Methods / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, Ray R. Hashemi, Ashu M. G. Solo, CSREA Press, 2010, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of allocating defensive weapon resources to hostile targets is an optimization problem of high military relevance. The need for obtaining the solutions in real-time is often overlooked in existing literature. Moreover, there  does not exist much research aimed at comparing the performance of different  algorithms for weapon-target allocation. We have implemented a suite of  metaheuristic algorithms for solving the static weapon-target allocation problem, and compare their real-time performance on a large set of problem instances using the open source testbed SWARD. The compared metaheuristic algorithms are ant colony optimization, genetic algorithms, and particle swarm optimization. Additionally, we have compared the quality of the generated allocations to those generated by a well-known maximum marginal return algorithm. The results show that the metaheuristic algorithms perform well on small- and medium-scale problem sizes, but that real-time requirements limit their usefulness for large search spaces.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A survivability-based testbed for comparing threat evaluation algorithms2008In: Proceedings of the 2nd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2008) / [ed] H. Boström, R. Johansson, Joeri van Laere, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2008, p. 22-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Threat evaluation is the process in which threat values are assigned to detected targets, based upon the inferred capabilities and intents of the targets to inflict damage to blue force defended assets. This is a high-level information fusion process of high importance, since the calculated threat values are used as input when blue force weapon systems are allocated to the incoming targets, a process often referred to as weapon allocation. Threat values can be calculated from a number of different parameters, such as the position of the closest point of approach (CPA) with respect to blue force defended assets, time required to reach the CPA, the target’s velocity, and its type. A number of algorithms for calculating threat values have been suggested throughout literature, however, criteria to evaluate the performance of such algorithms seem to be lacking. In this paper, we discuss different ways to assess the performance of threat evaluation algorithms. In specific, we describe how threat evaluation algorithms can be compared to each other, using a survivability criterion. Survivability is measured by running the threat evaluation algorithms on simulated scenarios and using the resulting threat values as input to a weapon allocation module. Depending on how well the threat evaluation is performed, the ability of the blue force weapon systems to eliminate the incoming targets will vary (and thereby also the survivability of the defended assets).

     

  • 44.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A testbed based on survivability for comparing threat evaluation algorithms2009In: Intelligent Sensing, Situation Management, Impact Assessment, and Cyber-Sensing: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 -- Volume 7352 / [ed] John F Koegel Buford, SPIE , 2009, p. Article ID 73520C-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Threat evaluation is the process in which threat values are assigned to detected targets, based upon the inferred capabilities and intents of the targets to inflict damage to blue force defended assets. This is a high-level information fusion process of high importance, since the calculated threat values are used as input when blue force weapon systems are allocated to the incoming targets, a process often referred to as weapon allocation. Threat values can be calculated from a number of different parameters, such as the position of the closest point of approach (CPA) with respect to blue force defended assets, time required to reach the CPA, the target's velocity, and its type. A number of algorithms for calculating threat values have been suggested throughout literature, however, criteria to evaluate the performance of such algorithms seem to be lacking. In this paper, we discuss different ways to assess the performance of threat evaluation algorithms. In specific, we describe an implemented testbed in which threat evaluation algorithms can be compared to each other, based on a survivability criterion. Survivability is measured by running the threat evaluation algorithms on simulated scenarios and using the resulting threat values as input to a weapon allocation module. Depending on how well the threat evaluation is performed, the ability of the blue force weapon systems to eliminate the incoming targets will vary (and thereby also the survivability of the defended assets). Our obtained results for two different threat evaluation algorithms are presented and analyzed.

  • 45.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    An empirical investigation of the static weapon-target allocation problem2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2009) / [ed] Ronnie Johansson, Joeri van Laere and Jonas Mellin, University of Skövde , 2009, p. 63-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The allocation of weapons to targets (such as missiles and hostile aircrafts) is a well-known resource allocation problem within the field of operations research. It has been proven that this problem, in general, is NP-complete. For this reason, optimal solutions to the static weapon-target allocation (WTA) problem can not be obtained in real-time for large-scale problems. We try to find the limit for how large problems that can be solved optimally in real-time by exhaustive search algorithms through running empirical experiments. We also propose a heuristic genetic algorithm for solving larger-scale problems.

  • 46.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Detection of vessel anomalies: A Bayesian network approach2007In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP 2007), IEEE Computer Society, 2007, p. 395-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe a data mining approach for detection of anomalous vessel behaviour. The suggested approach is based on Bayesian networks which have two important advantages compared to opaque machine learning techniques such as neural networks: (1) possibility to easily include expert knowledge into the model, and (2) possibility for humans to understand and interpret the learned model. Our approach is implemented and tested on synthetic data, where initial results show that it can be used for detection of single-object anomalies such as speeding.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Implementation and integration of a Bayesian Network for prediction of tactical intention into a ground target simulator2006In: Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2006), Florence, Italy, July 10–13, 2006, IEEE Computer Society, 2006, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prediction of the enemy's intention is a main issue of threat analysis, and, hence, will be an important part of the C2-systems of tomorrow. A technique that can be useful for this kind of predictions is Bayesian networks (BNs). We have developed a BN for prediction of the enemy's tactical intention, and the implemented BN has been integrated into a ground target simulation framework. The general problem of how to find appropriate prior distributions for BNs has been addressed by developing a tool for data collection, which may make it easier to come up with appropriate prior distributions, by learning conditional probability tables from collected cases, i.e. parameter learning

  • 48.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Performance Evaluation of TEWA Systems for Improved Decision Support2009In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2009) / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Masahiro Inuiguchi, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 205-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In air defense situations, decision makers have to protect defended assets through assigning available firing units to threatening targets in real-time. To their help they have decision support systems known as threat evaluation and weapon allocation (TEWA) systems. The problem of performance evaluation of such systems is of great importance, due to their critical role. Despite this, research on this problem is close to non-existing. We are discussing the use of survivability and resource usage cost as comparative performance metrics, which can be used for comparing the effectiveness of different system configurations, by using simulations. These metrics have been implemented into a testbed, in which we have performed some comparative experiments. Our results show that changes of individual parts of the threat evaluation and weapon allocation system configuration can have a large effect on the effectiveness of the system as a whole, and illustrate how the metrics and the testbed can be used.

     

  • 49.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Real-time Allocation of Defensive Resources to Rockets, Artillery, and Mortars2010In: FUSION 2010: 13th international Conference on Information Fusion, 26-29 July 2010, EICC, Edinburgh, UK, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. Article number 5712026-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection of defended assets such as military bases and population centers against ballistic weapons (e.g. rockets and mortars) is a highly relevant problem in the military conflicts of today and tomorrow. In order to neutralize threats of this kind, they have to be detected and engaged before causing any damage to the defended assets. We propose algorithms for solving the resource allocation problem in real-time, and empirically investigate their performance using the open source testbed SWARD. The results show that a particle swarm optimization algorithm produce high quality solution for small-scale problems, and that agenetic algorithm yields the best solutions for the largest tested problem instances.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Real-time Allocation of Firing Units To Hostile Targets2011In: Journal of Advances in Information Fusion, ISSN 1557-6418, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 187-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection of defended assets such as military bases and population centers against hostile targets (e.g., aircrafts, missiles, and rockets) is a highly relevant problem in the military conflicts of today and tomorrow. In order to neutralize threats of this kind, they have to be detected and engaged before causing any damage to the defended assets. We review algorithms for solving the resource allocation problem in real-time, and empirically investigate their performance using the open source testbed SWARD. The reults show that many of the tested algorithms produce high quality solutions for small-scale problems. A novel vaiant of particle swarm optimization seeded with an enhanced greedy algorithm is described and is shown to perform best for large instances of the real-time allocation problem.

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