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  • 1.
    Alfredson, Jens
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Sweden.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    Saab Aeronautics, Sweden.
    Intelligent Fighter Pilot Support for Distributed Unmanned and Manned Decision Making2015In: Intelligent Applications for Heterogeneous System Modeling and Design / [ed] Kandarpa Kumar Sarma, Manash Pratim Sarma, Mousmita Sarma, IGI Global, 2015, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter highlights important aspects of an intelligent fighter pilot support for distributed unmanned and manned decision making. First the background is described including current trends within the domain, and characteristics of a decision support system are discussed. After that a scenario and example situations are presented. The chapter also includes reflections of an intelligent fighter pilot support for distributed unmanned and manned decision making from the joint cognitive systems view, regarding human interoperability, and function allocation.

  • 2.
    Alfredson, Jens
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    System Characteristics and Contextual Constraints for Future Fighter Decision Support2016In: International Journal of Information System Modeling and Design, ISSN 1947-8186, E-ISSN 1947-8194, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on decision support systems for fighter aircraft has to regard future manned and unmanned cooperating aircraft. This paper highlights system characteristics and contextual constraints to guide research as well as system development. Long term trends have been identified for the domain that has to be coped with, including the transformation of the fighter pilot from pilot to tactical decision maker. Automation strategies have to be developed to support manned and unmanned aircraft in a joint cognitive system. For instance, for intelligent fighter pilot support, for distributed unmanned and manned decision making, function allocation has to be concerned. For function allocation it is important not only to regard which agent is best at performing a task but also to regard the risk/cost of performing a task in this kind of potentially hazardous context.

  • 3.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    Saab Aeronautics, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Transparency of Automated Combat Classification2014In: Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 11th International Conference, EPCE 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Don Harris, Springer, 2014, p. 22-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an empirical study where the effects of three levels of system transparency of an automated target classification aid on fighter pilots’ performance and initial trust in the system were evaluated. The levels of transparency consisted of (1) only presenting text–based information regarding the specific object (without any automated support), (2) accompanying the text-based information with an automatically generated object class suggestion and (3) adding the incorporated sensor values with associated (uncertain) historic values in graphical form. The results show that the pilots needed more time to make a classification decision when being provided with display condition 2 and 3 than display condition 1. However, the number of correct classifications and the operators’ trust ratings were the highest when using display condition 3. No difference in the pilots’ decision confidence was found, yet slightly higher workload was reported when using display condition 3. The questionnaire results report on the pilots’ general opinion that an automatic classification aid would help them make better and more confident decisions faster, having trained with the system for a longer period.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Division of Information and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Levin, Britta
    Division of Information and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Division of Information and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    Saab Aeronautics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Johan
    Saab Aeronautics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Cognitive Systems Engineering Perspective on Fighter Cockpit Design Evaluation2015In: HCI International 2015 - Posters’ Extended Abstracts: International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2–7, 2015. Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Constantine Stephanidis, Springer, 2015, p. 628-633Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a method for evaluating fighter aircraft cockpit design solutions is suggested, taking into account the specific needs and limitations that come from working in the context of developing modern fighter aircraft cockpit design. In this context flight simulators are an essential tool for evaluation. A general problem when using simulators for evaluations is the amount of data generated, and how to approach this data. There is a need to develop methods to manage the data and extract relevant data in order to make it usable in the design and development process. The approaches described also aim at connecting the simulator data to the overall joint goals of the pilot-fighter-aircraft system in accordance with the CSE approach to systems development.

  • 5.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab AB.
    Towards Enhanced Tactical Support Systems2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots operate high-performing powerful aircraft, equipped with complex sensor systems, in a dynamic and hostile environment. The pilots need to have control over their own aircraft as well as the developing situation surrounding them. Moreover, the fighter pilot rarely is on a mission by himself, but collaborates with teammates to achieve the goals jointly. This collaboration between fighter aircraft cannot take place without technology in the form of a tactical support system (TSS) that aids the pilots with information retrieval and decision-making. A TSS in a fighter aircraft fuses data from different sources and organizes the information in order to assist the pilot in building situation awareness and support in the decision-making during missions. The capabilities of the aircraft and its sensors, as well as the design of the TSS will directly affect how the pilots can perform the missions. The technology and the design at the same time enable and constrain the possible acting space, such that the tactics and plans for the missions will be a consequence of these factors. Hence, the design and development of such a complex system requires deep knowledge about the users and understanding of how they will operate the system. High usability is among the requirements for such a specialized and advanced system as the TSS, and in order to achieve this there is a need to understand the circumstances the system will be used in. Due to the complex nature of the military operations and the difficulties to access the domain for others than pilots, it is challenging for designers of the TSSs to obtain this needed knowledge. Therefore, this thesis aims at investigating the nature of the operations, as well as the practice of user participation in the domain, in order to increase the designers’ knowledge and give guidance to how users should participate in the development of the systems. 

    Several methods that aim to design efficient and usable systems are available. User-centered design is a holistic philosophy that prescribes that the interests and needs of the users should be in focus through the whole development process in order to achieve better systems. At the core of user-centered design is to increase the knowledge about the users and their needs. This thesis applies two perspectives, which both contributes to fulfill the goal of user-centered design of the TSSs by obtaining more knowledge about the users. The two perspectives are: a better understanding of how the users/pilots utilize the TSS to perform teamwork during missions, and an insight into how the users/pilots participate during the development process of the TSSs. 

    The teamwork perspective is motivated by the fact that fighter pilots perform a majority of their missions collaborating in teams. Their teamwork is depending on technology since the pilots are separated from each other in their fighter airplanes. Understanding this teamwork is hence a key to understanding the users in this domain. This thesis investigates the nature of teamwork between fighter pilots based on a theoretical teamwork model, the  “Big Five” of effective teamwork proposed by Salas, Sims, and Burke (2005). The “Big Five” model contains eight elements that Salas et al. identified as necessary for effective teamwork: adaptability, backup behavior, closed-loop communication, shared mental models, mutual performance monitoring, team orientation, mutual trust, and team leadership. The user-participation perspective is based on the notion that involving the users in different stages through the development process will benefit the results. However, user participation can take many different forms. The users can have different roles during the process, and the impact their opinions will have on the product can vary. This thesis investigates user participation and the roles the users, i.e. pilots, have in the development process of fighter aircraft of TSSs and cockpit interfaces. 

    These two perspectives are each assigned an aim in the investigation. For the first aim, Increase the knowledge about how fighter pilots collaborate in teams during missions with the current systems, ten fighter pilots were interviewed about their views on teamwork. The teamwork elements of the “Big Five” model are explored and described for the military fighter context. With this knowledge, a task performance cycle is proposed which shows were in the cycle of a mission each teamwork element is most important. Finally, a modified teamwork model adapted for mission performance for fighter pilots is suggested.

    For the second aim, Increase the knowledge about how pilots can and should participate in the design process of fighter aircraft interfaces, a study on how pilots participate in the design work of cockpit interfaces is conducted. The inquiry is based on a questionnaire, which was distributed to designers of fighter cockpit interfaces. The results indicate that the designers think the pilots have and should have many different roles in the design process. The designers wish to be able to observe pilots at work to a greater extent and to obtain more information and ideas from them. They also think that pilots should be more involved as examiners and testers. However, pilots should not be designers or decision-makers regarding design, according to the majority of respondents. 

    The presented contributions of the team-related research in this thesis are a deeper understanding and rich descriptions of how fighter pilots perform missions from a teamwork perspective. The teamwork elements are examined, and their relations and their importance during mission performance are described. For example, it was found that the abilities to monitor each other, to adapt, and to communicate were the most important factors for effective teamwork during a mission. For the investigation of how designers of pilot interfaces work with user representatives in the design process, the contribution is a description of the different roles the users can have during the development process in this domain. The results are primarily intended to inform designers of tactical support systems and cockpit interfaces. However, other domains where team members are distributed, and are highly dependent on technology for their teamwork, should benefit from the findings. 

  • 6.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Teamwork Model for Fighter Pilots2016In: Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 13th International Conference, EPCE 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Don Harris, Springer, 2016, Vol. 9736, p. 221-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots depend on collaboration and teamwork to perform successful air missions. However, such collaboration is challenging due to limitations in communication and the amount of data that can be shared between aircraft. In order to design future support systems for fighter pilots, this paper aims at characterizing how pilots collaborate while performing real-world missions. Our starting point is the “Big Five” model for effective teamwork, put forth by Salas et al. [1]. Fighter pilots were interviewed about their teamwork, and how they prepare and perform missions in teams. The results from the interviews were used to describe how pilots collaborate in teams, and to suggest relationships between the teamwork elements of the “Big Five” model for fighter pilots performing missions. The results presented in this paper are intended to inform designers and developers of cockpit displays, data links and decision support systems for fighter aircraft.

  • 7.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Elements of team effectiveness: A qualitative study with pilots2016In: 2016 IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 21-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots performing air missions rely heavily on teamwork for successful outcomes. Designing systems that support such teamwork in highly dynamic missions is a challenging task, and to the best of our knowledge, current teamwork models are not specifically adapted for this domain. This paper presents a model of task performance for military fighter pilots based on the teamwork model “Big Five” proposed by Salas, Sims, and Burke [1]. The “Big Five” model consists of eight teamwork elements that are essential for successful team performance. In-depth interviews were performed with fighter pilots to explore and describe the teamwork elements for the fighter aircraft domain. The findings from these interviews are used to suggest where in the task cycle of mission performance each teamwork element comes in to play.

  • 8.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab AB, Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab AB, Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Fighter pilots' teamwork: a descriptive study2019In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 62, no 7, p. 880-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The execution of teamwork varies widely depending on the domain and task in question. Despite the considerable diversity of teams and their operation, researchers tend to aim for unified theories and models regardless of field. However, we argue that there is a need for translation and adaptation of the theoretical models to each specific domain. To this end, a case study was carried out on fighter pilots and it was investigated how teamwork is performed in this specialised and challenging environment, with a specific focus on the dependence on technology for these teams. The collaboration between the fighter pilots is described and analysed using a generic theoretical model for effective teamwork from the literature. The results show that domain-specific application and modification is needed in order for the model to capture fighter pilot's teamwork. The study provides deeper understanding of the working conditions for teams of pilots and gives design implications for how tactical support systems can enhance teamwork in the domain. Practitioner summary: This article presents a qualitative interview study with fighter pilots based on a generic theoretical teamwork model applied to the fighter domain. The purpose is to understand the conditions under which teams of fighter pilots work and to provide guidance for the design of future technological aids.

  • 9.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Informing the Design of Fighter Aircraft Cockpits Using a Teamwork Perspective2019In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation: Proceedings of the AHFE 2018 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, July 21–25, 2018, Loews Sapphire Falls Resort at Universal Studios, Orlando, Florida, USA / [ed] Neville Stanton, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 3-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a research process where fighter pilots’ behaviors were investigated from a teamwork perspective and the findings conveyed to the designers of cockpit interfaces in order to improve the fighter aircraft system. The teamwork perspective was selected because fighter aircraft are complex systems that require an advanced and trained pilot, who also, in addition to managing the aircraft systems needs to be a team player, collaborating with team members during dynamic and fast-paced circumstances to achieve the mission goals. A generic theoretical model for effective teamwork was selected as a starting point and a survey was conducted in order to investigate how fighter pilots collaborate during missions. The teamwork model and the survey results were then presented at workshops with designers of cockpit interfaces participating. The focus on the workshops was pilot teamwork and several design ideas aiming at improving the system for collaboration were generated.

  • 10.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Understanding Team Effectiveness in a Tactical Air Unit2015In: Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 12th International Conference, EPCE 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Don Harris, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9174, p. 472-479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective team work is regarded as a key factor for success in missions performed by fighter aircraft in a Tactical Air Unit (TAU). Many factors contrib-ute to how a team will succeed in their mission. From the existing literature on teamwork, Salas, Sims and Burke [1], suggested five main factors and three sup-porting mechanisms for effective team work. These were proposed as the “Big Five” of teamwork. This article investigates if the model offered by Salas et al. is applicable to a TAU of fighter aircraft. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with six fighter pilots. The results of these interviews imply that the model has relevance for the teamwork in a TAU. Moreover, this paper discusses impli-cations for the design of future decision-support systems that support team effec-tiveness. 

  • 11.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User Participation in the Design of Cockpit Interfaces2017In: Advances in Ergonomics Modeling, Usability & Special Populations / [ed] Marcelo Soares, Christianne Falcão & Tareq Z. Ahram, Springer, 2017, Vol. 486, p. 51-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the nature of user participation in the process of designing fighter aircraft cockpits. The role of the users, i.e. pilots, in the design of cockpit interfaces is explored. We present the results of an on-line questionnaire with twelve designers of cockpit interfaces for fighter aircraft. The results show that the designers have highlighted the need for more opportunities to observe the pilots, and they wish to obtain more information and ideas from them. Moreover, a larger involvement from users as examiners and testers in the evaluation process was desirable. Access to users was considered unproblematic and the risk of misunderstandings was reported to be low. Moreover, the designers did not support the idea that users should design or take design decisions.

  • 12.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Singer, Gideon
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Enhancing Situation Awareness with a Large Area Display2013In: Book of Abstracts for the 4:th CEAS Conference, 2013 / [ed] Tomas Melin, Petter Krus, Emil Vinterhav, Knut Övrebö, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2013, p. 125-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long term vision of presenting the "Big picture" to the pilot as Eugene Adams envisaged in the 80´s is about to become true. Today we have the technical solutions to be able to collect and present the information on one large display in a structured and beneficial way. Saab Aeronautics has studied possibilities for a large area display (LAD) and its potential use in a future manned fighter aircraft context. This paper addresses what could be gained by introducing a large area display and why this is a desirable way forward. A LAD is essential for helping the pilot to achieve an improved Situation Awareness. Collected information from different sensors is fused together and presented in one view. A LAD offers the possibility to have one overview of the situation and one zoomed-in detailed picture at the same time on the same display. The pilot can easily pan the view and select interesting areas to zoom in to. The area on a LAD has the benefit of providing a homogeneous display area. Also, information that is dynamically presented to various places, such as dynamic symbols or cursors etcetera is easier to follow, and has a continuous motion, in the homogeneous display area of a LAD. By arranging information in close proximity in a LAD pair-wise comparisons can be made better than when the perceptual task is divided between displays.The tactical overview is often complex and requires many layers and icons to provide a clear and dynamic visual presentation to the aircrew. A LAD makes it easier to visualize the different zones to fly in and to give a good overview of the whole mission. With a LAD it will also be possible to expand and enlarge pictures and video inputs using a pilot selectable display section. Pictures and video can be displayed in the most optimal format for the situation and managed in a flexible manner. Using new cuing solutions such as touch control and innovative command options will enable the designer to utilize new display feedback capabilities more intuitive to the future user. A LAD will offer flexibility in the layout of display. Display modes can be tailored to the optimal size depending on content and mission phase and not constrained to a limited display area. Also, the use of a LAD opens up for synergies with other display techniques including multi-modal interaction and advanced visual display design. For instance, the use of perspective representations is potentially aided by a large display area. Use of peripheral vision (eg. visual flow) increase drastically with a LAD that can make use of a larger field of view.

  • 13.
    Svensson, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Media and Information Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Department of Media and Information Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Design implications for teamwork in ATC2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In air trafc control (ATC), teamwork is a key component among air trafc control operators (ATCOs) to safely direct the aircraft through the sky and on the ground. To be able to design for future ATC systems, we must understand how ATCOs work together, their teamwork, and how they experience and perceive teamwork, in diferent ATC environments. We conducted interviews with 16 ATCOs working in four diferent ATC environments (en-route control, terminal area control, tower control for a small airport and tower control for a large airport in Sweden) and analysed the results in the light of the “Big Five” model of teamwork. The main contributions of this paper are to show: (1) how eight teamwork factors are diferently manifested by the ATCOs in the diferent ATC environments, (2) that teamwork in ATC is important during routine operations, during stressful work, and during abnormal situations, and (3) that the design of the organisation, the environment, and the tools, afects teamwork and the importance of diferent teamwork factors.

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