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  • 1.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    A Dynamic Approach to Causal Ambiguity - How Organizational Learning Affects Causal Ambiguity2015Inngår i: Proceedings of ICICKM 2015 The 12th International Conference on Intellectual Capital Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning / [ed] Vincent Ribière & Lugkana Worasinchai, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    A model for measuring resource immobility2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Framtidens företagande.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Framtidens företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Framtidens företagande.
    Can environmentally oriented CEOs and environmentally friendly suppliers boost the growth of small firms?2020Inngår i: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 325-334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The core question addressed in the natural resource‐based view (NRBV) of the firm is how to develop and exploit resources beneficial for both the natural environment and firm performance. Due to the resource constraints and increased competition facing small manufacturing firms, achieving this is a challenge for such companies. Building on the NRBV and resource orchestration literatures, we examine the relationship between green purchasing capabilities (GPCs), CEO's environmental orientation(EO), and firm growth. Results from 304 Swedish small manufacturing firms indicate a significant relationship between GPC and growth, and this relationship is positively moderated by the EO of the CEO.

  • 4.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande.
    Rent appropriation management of strategic human capital in practice2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Resource immobility and sustained performance: A systematic assessment of how immobility has been considered in empirical resource-based studies2016Inngår i: International journal of management reviews (Print), ISSN 1460-8545, E-ISSN 1468-2370, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 371-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The core notion of the resource-based view (RBV) is that the possession of certain resources can result in superior performance and, in order for this performance to be sustained, these resources cannot be perfectly mobile. Whereas previous reviews have mainly focused on the relationship between resources and temporary performance, no studies have systematically analyzed the extent to which empirical RBV studies have specifically considered immobility of resources. By analyzing a sample of 218 empirical RBV studies, the authors found that 17% of the studies directly measured some dimension of immobility (by, for example, actually measuring the level of social complexity, unique history, tacitness or tradability). Fewer than 2% of the studies measured the outcome of resource immobility, i.e. sustained performance differences. Based on these results, this paper discusses the consequences of overlooking this key dimension of the RBV (i.e. immobility) and suggests that, and discusses how, future research should consider resource immobility to a greater extent.

  • 6.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Entrepreneurial orientation and employee well-being2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    An integrated approach to rent appropriation and rent generation2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Svensson, Lotten
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Entrepreneurially oriented in what? A business model approach to entrepreneurship2015Inngår i: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 433-449Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and argue for the necessity of deconstructing the entrepreneurship concept by analyzing entrepreneurial orientation (EO) at various levels of the business model.

    Design/methodology/approach – Literature review supplemented with five illustrative cases.

    Findings – A business model approach to entrepreneurship enables identification of the component of the business model in which entrepreneurship was started. This has several implications for analysis of the EO-performance relationship and for the identification of antecedents to EO.

    Originality/value – The EO of firms has generally been analyzed at a generic level, i.e. the concept has been used to measure and analyze the overall entrepreneurship of firms. In this paper, the authors argue that EO can be present in various dimensions of a business and that firms can be entrepreneurial in certain areas and conservative in other areas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    A founder's heritage: the development of organizational identity2019Inngår i: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 73-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to understand how a former family firm strategically makes use of the founder's legacy to preserve its organizational identity. Following a single case study approach, it draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data. We show how central organizational activities are affected by a founder's heritage long after the formal exit has taken place, illustrating the central, enduring, and distinctive elements of organizational identity a founder has. Regardless of ownership forms, the family company founder's legacy is used to legitimize new owners and maintain the organization's identity. However, centripetal moves complicate the preservation of the organizational identity, whereas a high focus on value leveraging in another ownership form opens up for centrifugal approaches which strengthen the entrepreneurial dimension of organizational identity.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    A founder’s heritage: the development of psychological ownership2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesIs a founder “leaving” an organization by selling it, or are there aspects of the founder left even though, the founder does not have a formal occupation or ownership in the organization?Will there be a legacy of the founder and how will this affect the psychological ownership? What is the founder’s heritage from a psychological ownership perspective?The purpose is to understand the consequences of a business sale of the founder and from a psychological ownership perspective.

    Prior WorkDrawing on the work of psychological ownership and founder heritage, the work combines important literatures to shed light on an important empirical phenomenon, i.e. the exit of a founder/entrepreneur and its consequences for the organization.

    ApproachThis study follows a single case study approach and draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data.

    ResultsWe show how central activities are affected by a founder’s heritage over long time after the formal exit has taken place. We illustrate the development of a founder’s psychological ownership before and after he has formally sold the legal ownership.

    Implications and ValueThe paper aims at contributing to the entrepreneurial and founder exit-literature by adding a process perspective. Unlike it is sometimes assumed in the entrepreneurship literature is an exit not necessarily a clear-cut and once and for all decision. The paper contributes also psychological ownership literature by highlighting its continuity after the formal sale of the legal ownership and its consequences for the organization.

  • 11.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Family businesses as venture capitalists: the exception that proves the rules?2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Remembering the Founder in Times of Ownership and Leadership Changes2016Inngår i: RENT Proceedings 2016, Antwerp, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Is a founder “leaving” an organization by selling it, or are there aspects of the founder left even though, the founder does not have a formal occupation or ownership in the organization?

    What are the motives of a founder to sell his organization? Will there be a legacy of the founder and how will this affect the organization’s identity? By questioning ‘who were we?’ or ‘who have we been?’ the relevance of organizational history becomes apparent. But how does this work in practice when a founder is not any longer part of the dominant coalition of the organization?

    The purpose is to understand the heritage of a founder, and the consequences for the organizational identity when the founder exits.

    Prior Work

    Drawing on the work of entrepreneurial exit and organizational identity, including imprinting, the work combines important literatures to shed light on an important empirical phenomenon, i.e. the exit of a founder/entrepreneur.

     

    Approach

    This study follows a single case study approach and draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data.

     

    Results

    We show how central activities are affected by a founder’s heritage over long time after the formal exit has taken place. We illustrate this by analyzing the consequences of changes in ownership and leadership after the founder’s exit. The founder becomes an artefact which allows to signal continuity and discontinuity depending on the different owners’ perspectives.

     

    Implications and Value

    The paper aims at contributing to the entrepreneurial and founder exit-literature by adding a process perspective. Unlike it is sometimes assumed in the entrepreneurship literature is an exit not necessarily a clear-cut and once and for all decision. The paper contributes also to the organizational identity literature by highlighting the central role a founder can have for an organization.

  • 13.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Brunninge, Olof
    University of Jönköping.
    Giving Up The Family Name While Staying A Family Business: The Family Business As Acquirer2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Going private: A socioemotional wealth perspective on why family controlled companies decide to leave the stock-exchange2017Inngår i: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 74-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose is to understand the process of ‘going private’ decisions in family firms by applying a socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective, specified in the following research questions: how do socioemotional wealth considerations influence owning families’ decisions to delist their publicly-listed companies? How do socioemotional wealth considerations change after the delisting of a firm? Based on case studies of two family firms, we elaborate upon the balancing of socioemotional and financial wealth considerations by the family owners, the assessment of which changes over time. Ultimately, we propose that the experiences from being listed can lead to the reevaluation of financial, as well as socioemotional, wealth considerations. By delisting, the companies reclaim independence and control, and the identity as a private family-owned firm becomes once again pronounced. We develop the SEW-perspective by viewing the decision to delist as a mixed gamble, in that owning families have to weigh personal and financial losses against SEW gains, thereby indicating how SEW-considerations change over time. We find that owning families are willing to sacrifice current SEW, accepting current financial losses for prospective increased SEW. Additionally, in this study we extend the argument that decisions to leave the stock market are tradeoffs between competing factors.

  • 15.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Going private: Why family controlled, publicly-listed companies decide to leave the stock-exchange2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Brorström, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Edström, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Uthålligt företagande: Om regionala förutsättningar och förhållningssätt2012 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Edström, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    University of Borås.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Brorström, Björn
    University of Borås.
    Regional Resilience2018Inngår i: The Resilience Framework: Organizing for Sustained Viability / [ed] Stefan Tengblad, Margareta Oudhuis, Singapore: Springer, 2018, s. 213-229Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Evansluong, Quang
    et al.
    Lund University School of Economics and Management.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    The family influences of EO development in immigrant family businesses2018Inngår i: Sustainable entrepreneurship: A win-win strategy for the future, Toledo, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how family influences the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) process in immigrant family business. To fulfill the purpose, we employ inductive multiple case studies with in-depth interviews.  We rely on seven cases of immigrant entrepreneurs of Chinese, Icelandic, Turkish, Cameroonian, Mexican and Lebanese who established firms in Sweden. Our results suggest that EO development trajectories vary in regard to first and second immigrant entrepreneurs, low and high-tech sectors and host and home countries. Thus, family dynamics facilitates the development of entrepreneurial orientation over time through transforming, translating and transferring across generations and contexts. Our study indicates that, through family dynamics, EO is developed as a (1) transferring process of the founders’ proactiveness between the family in the home and host country; (2) translating process of risk-taking between the family companies in the home country to immigrant family company in the host country and (3) transforming process of innovativeness between the home and the host country.

  • 19.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Constructive business advice?: Different trajectories between family businesses and startups2017Inngår i: Journal of Family Business Management, ISSN 2043-6238, E-ISSN 2043-6246, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 309-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the verbal content and its impact on panel-basedbusiness advice meetings (springboards) for family business owners and startup entrepreneurs. Further,the study also investigates how panel-based advising assists entrepreneurship.Design/methodology/approach – The investigated springboards concern family business owners whorun established firms and startup entrepreneurs who are applying for venture capital. Data from 12 differentspringboards are collected and studied by content analysis.Findings – The outcomes indicate that advising is more constructive for the family business owners than forthe startup entrepreneurs. This can mainly be explained by the rational screening that follows the businessplan concept and group dynamics which appear in these meetings.Research limitations/implications – The study was conducted in Sweden and concerns Swedish familybusiness owners and startup entrepreneurs. It reveals different speech patterns that appear during organizedadvice-giving and its implications depending on the type of entrepreneur.Practical implications – This study provides potential input to change the institutional practice ofpanel-based business advice, which will likely support entrepreneurs in their business development andnetwork building.Originality/value – This study is the first to investigate the verbal content in panel-based business advicefor family business owners. Further, it provides a deeper understanding of the institutionalized conditionsthat this kind of advising builds on.

  • 20.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Resiliens genom regional företagskultur2014Inngår i: Organisatorisk resiliens: Vad är det som gör företag och organisationer livskraftiga? / [ed] Stefan Tengblad och Margareta Oudhuis, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 1:1, s. 235-251Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Andersén, Jim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    The impact of business advice: interplay between entrepreneur and experts2016Inngår i: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 285-305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During a springboard session, the entrepreneur meets an expert panel which gives himor her strategic advice. How these meetings transpire is of great importance when itcomes to the support of regional, as well as national entrepreneurship and economicgrowth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what is verbally expressed duringthese meetings and how this can assist entrepreneurship. Eleven different springboardsare investigated via the method of content analysis. These springboards concernedentrepreneurs who merely sought strategic business advice or those who applied forventure capital. The results indicate that the entrepreneurs who applied for venturecapital had less use for the advice than the other group. This can partly be explainedby panel members’ focus on risk and the institutionalized conditions which build on arational discourse.

  • 22.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    A theory of venture capital family business (VCFB): professionalization trajectories2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Venture capital as well as family firms are very heterogeneous populations of firms. Extant literature has studied the interaction and connection between the groups of firms. However, only recently, researcher began to look at those firms which are part of both group at the same. Firms which are labeled venture capital family businesses (VCFB) (Ljungkvist & Boers, 2017). Recent research suggests that the interaction of family firms and VC firms can be distinguished into three separate phases (Schickinger, et al., 2018). Based on these phases, the paper develops propositions on how VCFB firms develop their professionalization trajectories in these phases. Thus, the presented propositions highlight how the family owners’ actions and behavior are related to professionalism and how it influences the three phases of investing.

  • 23.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande. Witten Institute for Family Business, Universität Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.
    Another hybrid?: Family businesses as venture capitalists2017Inngår i: Journal of Family Business Management, ISSN 2043-6238, E-ISSN 2043-6246, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 329-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper addresses the phenomenon of venture capital firms which are also family businesses(VCFBs). The purpose of this paper is to explore and understand the phenomenon of VCFB by answering thefollowing questions: What are the features of professionalization in VCFBs? And, how do professionalizationand types of family businesses explain the strategies and governance of VCFBs?Design/methodology/approach – As an explorative case study, it maps the Swedish venture capital (VC)industry and compares two VCFBs and their business investments with regard to strategy and governance.Findings – By suggesting two major configurations, the study explains how family business developmentand levels of professionalization relate to differences in VCFBs’ strategies, which in turn, affect theirgovernance. The personal VCFB features active owners who personally take responsibility roles and stronglyfocus on customers and relationships. The administrative VCFB strongly focuses on predetermined financialmetrics, high ethical awareness among board members, and ongoing interplay between the active familyboard members and minority shareholders.Research limitations/implications – The study was conducted in Sweden and concerns Swedish VCFBs.The paper contributes to the literature by combining the two currently separate research streams, i.e. familybusiness and VC, highlighting the importance and consequences of family ownership in VC businesses.Practical implications – The present study provides stock market investors and stock analysts with adeeper understanding of VCFBs’ strategy incentives. By identifying the kind of VCFB and its relation tostrategy, more reasonable assessments and analyses of the VCFBs’ actions will be possible. Family firms willingto accept VC-finance should consider the type of VC and the potential consequences of family ownership.Originality/value – This study is the first to classify VC firms as family businesses. Moreover, it shows thefeatures of professionalization in VCFBs by suggesting a set of configurations.

  • 24.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Resilience and family businesses and regional culture2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Structural crisis? Regional culture and resilience in family business-dominated regions in Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 425-446Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to understand the interdependence between regional culture and resilience in family business-dominated regions.

    Design/methodology/approachThe study is based on a literature review and helps to fill the knowledge gap regarding regional culture and resilience in family business-dominated contexts.

    FindingsWe highlight similarities and differences between two regions of Sweden with distinct regional cultures that support resilience. A number of norms that are significant in generating resilient regions are identified. One key finding is that the regional culture developed during the proto-industrial era, in connection with home production, still affects and contributes to resilience in these family business-dominated regions.

    Research limitations/implicationsThe study is based on two case studies, so no generalizable conclusions can be drawn.

    Practical implicationsFor policy-makers, our study shows that structural crises can be overcome with a strong regional culture, as it can foster resilience. However, regional culture is hard to implement by political decisions. For owners and managers of organizations, our study suggests that it is essential to consider regional culture as an important factor for the organization.

    Originality/valueThis study draws on a comparison of two regions in Sweden with explicit regional cultures.

  • 26.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    The founder’s psychological ownership and its strategic implications2019Inngår i: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the change of the founder’s psychological ownershipwhen s/he sells the business and its implications for the organization’s strategy.Design/methodology/approach – The study contributes with a longitudinal study of psychologicalownership, accounting for its development over time in a Swedish e-commerce company. By applying a casestudy methodology, conclusions are drawn from a vast amount of archival data and interviews. The empiricalmaterial covers the transition from a founder-run, family-owned to a first foreign-owned, and currentlyprivate-equity owned company.Findings – Theoretically, it extends understandings of psychological ownership and its strategicimplications by including former legal owners; that is, how psychological ownership changes after legalownership ceases. Thereby, it develops the individual dimension (founder and former owner) of psychologicalownership as well as its collective dimension (employees toward founder). The paper contributes to thepsychological ownership founder and exit-literatures by highlighting continuity after the formal sale of legalownership and its consequences for the organization.Practical implications – It finds that new legal owners can use this heritage to signal continuity andlaunch strategic changes by transforming it into artifacts.Originality/value – This study extends the understanding of development of psychological ownership offounders from foundation to exit and its consequences for the organization’s strategy. This extension shedsnew light on founders as artifacts of organizations and thereby their role for the organizational heritage.

  • 27.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Andersén, Jim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping International Business School - JIBS .
    Rapid growth of founder-led companies: the role of resource orchestration2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of resource orchestration in rapidly growing founder-led companies.  

    Design/methodology/approach – Based on a comparative case study of founder-led companies, the resource orchestration in a founder-led family firm is compared with a founder-led one. To comprehend the complexity of resource orchestration, a large amount of archival data and interviews are used. By using data derived from a period of ten years, the present study has a longitudinal approach.

    Findings – By uncovering the resource management process, the findings indicate a difference in focus between the founder-led family firm and the founder-led firm. The resource orchestration in the family firm focuses to a greater extent on the early stages of the resource management process, i.e. the recruitment of new staff, the incorporation and the control of “right” values and norms. On the other hand, the founder-led business puts a higher focus on performance metrics and the documented coordination of teams and customers. However, both companies rely largely on self-organizing teams. By revealing the management role in a dynamic industry, the present study criticizes and extends general findings of the resource orchestration literature. Moreover, it contributes to the organizational culture and firm growth entrepreneurship literature.      

    Practical implications – The study shows how founder-based companies can grow successfully in a dynamic environment. Furthermore, it reveals how software companies’ resources can be managed and bundled in a successful manner.

    Originality/value – the present study conveys fine-grained insights in complex management processes operating in a dynamic environment.

  • 28.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Framtidens företagande.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Framtidens företagande.
    Samuelsson, Joachim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Framtidens företagande.
    Three stages of Entrepreneurial Orientation: The Founder’s role2019Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 285-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the development of the five dimensions ofentrepreneurial orientation (EO) over time by taking a founder’s perspective.Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on an in-depth single-case study. It combinessemi-structured interviews in the company with archival data, such as annual reports, press clips andinterviews in business magazines.Findings – The results indicate that the EO dimensions change from being personalized and directlysolution-oriented to being intangible value-creation-oriented.Originality/value – By suggesting ownership-based EO configurations, this study contributes insights intohow different ownership forms propel EO. These configurations – that is, personal, administrative based andintangible focused – show the impact of the EO dimensions and provide a systematic and theoreticalunderstanding of EO change over time.

  • 29.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Österlund, Urban
    University of Borås.
    Dubious entrepreneurship and abnormal growth in a quasi-market2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Österlund, Urban
    Jönköping International Business School / University of Borås, Sweden.
    Quasi-markets and abnormal growth: The case of the Swedish personal assistant industry2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the growth of a quasi-market industry and the distribution of capital generated by the industry´s private companies.

    Methodology: Using a longitudinal case study approach, descriptive panel data and a regression analysis highlight the development of medium-sized companies within the personal care assistance (PA) industry.

    Findings: This study shows a quasi-market growth cycle and how the hierarchical organizational dimension explains key figure differences between the business types of independent firms (undivisionalized) and conglomerate subsidiaries.

    Originality: This study is the first to reveal that quasi-market conditions open up for broad redistributions of capital to non-related conglomerate-owned industries. Thereby, non-intended industries receive public funding advantages.

  • 31.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Österlund, Urban
    University of Jönköping / University of Borås.
    Quasi-markets and abnormal growth: The case of the Swedish personal care assistance industry2018Inngår i: International Journal of Business Strategy, ISSN 1553-9563, E-ISSN 2378-8585, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 5-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the growth of a quasi-market industry and the distribution of capital generated by the industry´s private companies. Methodology: Using a longitudinal case study approach, descriptive panel data and a regression analysis highlight the development of medium-sized Swedish companies within the personal care assistance (PA) industry. Findings: This study demonstrates a quasi-market growth cycle and how the hierarchical organizational dimension explains key figure differences between the business types of independent firms (undivisionalized) and conglomerate subsidiaries. Originality: This study is the first to reveal that quasi-market conditions open up for broad redistributions of capital to non-related conglomerate-owned industries. Thereby, non-intended industries receive public funding advantages.

  • 32.
    Pashang, Hossein
    et al.
    Borås University, Sweden.
    Österlund, Urban
    Borås University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Borås University, Sweden.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Accounting principles and judgement2015Inngår i: International Journal of Business Strategy, ISSN 1553-9563, E-ISSN 2378-8585, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 69-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting principles are a set of ethical constructs that primarily serve to shift accounting towards the locus of ethical judgment. As such, principles help putting the ethical accountability at the “fields” of the entities and provide judgmental relationships or “fit” between ethical consideration and standards as well as various practices of accounting in innumerable ways. However, the current research debates of the ethical issues in accounting have been discursively shaped upon a set of distinctions that researchers make between two sets of dominant standards. These standards are drawn from the contexts of U.S, respectively International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) codifications. This notion should be added that these standards are uncritically defined as being either rules-based or principles-based. In fact, the current accounting debate treats the ethical issues in accounting through the focus on the technical features of the standards. This study will argue that the ethical problem of accounting cannot be adequately approached by the repeated references into the technical natures of the rules-based and principles-based standards. By highlighting the ethical roots of the accounting principles, we will emphasize that analysis of the standards and ethical issues in accounting needs to be judgmentally associated with the propositional promises of the accounting principles.

  • 33.
    Samuelsson, Joachim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Andersén, Jim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Formal accounting planning in SMEs: the influence of family ownership and entrepreneurial orientation2016Inngår i: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 691-702Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeSeveral studies have highlighted the importance of management accounting practices such as formal short-term planning and formal long-term planning for SME performance. However, few studies have considered what actually explains differences in the use of formal planning (from a management accounting approach) in SMEs. Family ownership and EO are two plausible explanations for such differences. The aim of this study is therefore to examine how family ownership and EO are correlated to the use of formal short-term planning and formal long-term planning in SMEs.

    Design/methodology/approachIn this study, we examined how family ownership and entrepreneurial orientation affect the use of formal planning by analyzing a sample of 156 Swedish manufacturing SMEs, using multivariate regression analysis.

    FindingsAs could be expected, we were able to validate the notion that family firms use less formal planning than non-family firms. However, in contrast to some previous studies, we found that there is a strongly positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and the use of formal short-term planning and long-term planning.

    Originality/valueWhereas many previous studies on family business have assumed that family firms use less formal planning than non-family firms, the present study is one of few to actually confirm this notion. Also, this study has provided strong evidence that EO is positively correlated to the use of formal planning, in the short term and in the longer term.

  • 34.
    Österlund, Urban
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Effects of Capital Structure, Composition of Managament Team and Performance Among Swedish SME Companies2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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