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  • 1.
    Atarijabarzadeh, Sevil
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Fibre & Polymer Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Fibre & Polymer Technol, Stockholm, Sweden / ABB, Corp Res, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hillborg, Henrik
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Fibre & Polymer Technol, Stockholm, Sweden / ABB, Corp Res, Västerås, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Fibre & Polymer Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Fibre & Polymer Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Image Analysis Determination of the Influence of Surface Structure of Silicone Rubbers on Biofouling2015In: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430, article id 390292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on how the texture of the silicone rubber material affects the distribution of microbial growth on the surface of materials used for high voltage insulation. The analysis of surface wetting properties showed that the textured surfaces provide higher receding contact angles and therefore lower contact angle hysteresis. The textured surfaces decrease the risk for dry band formation and thus preserve the electrical properties of the material due to a more homogeneous distribution of water on the surface, which, however, promotes the formation of more extensive biofilms. The samples were inoculated with fungal suspension and incubated in a microenvironment chamber simulating authentic conditions in the field. The extent and distribution of microbial growth on the textured and plane surface samples representing the different parts of the insulator housing that is shank and shed were determined by visual inspection and image analysis methods. The results showed that the microbial growth was evenly distributed on the surface of the textured samples but restricted to limited areas on the plane samples. More intensive microbial growth was determined on the textured samples representing sheds. It would therefore be preferable to use the textured surface silicone rubber for the shank of the insulator.

  • 2.
    Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    a Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), València, Spain / Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain.
    Kittikorn, T.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Strömberg, E.
    KTH/ School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm.
    Santonja-Blasco, L.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain / Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, United States.
    Martínez-Felipe, A.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain / Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, Spain.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain.
    Ek, M.
    Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm.
    Water absorption and hydrothermal performance of PHBV/sisal biocomposites2014In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 108, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of biocomposites of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) and sisal fibre subjected to hydrothermal tests at different temperatures above the glass transition of PHBV (T-H = 26, 36 and 46 degrees C) was evaluated in this study. The influences of both the fibre content and presence of coupling agent were focused. The water absorption capability and water diffusion rate were considered for a statistical factorial analysis. Afterwards, the physico-chemical properties of water-saturated biocomposites were assessed by Fourier-Transform Infrared Analysis, Size Exclusion Chromatography, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Scanning Electron Microscopy. It was found that the water diffusion rate increased with both temperature and percentage of fibre, whereas the amount of absorbed water was only influenced by fibre content. The use of coupling agent was only relevant at the initial stages of the hydrothermal test, giving an increase in the diffusion rate. Although the chemical structure and thermal properties of water-saturated biocomposites remained practically intact, the physical performance was considerably affected, due to the swelling of fibres, which internally blew-up the PHBV matrix, provoking cracks and fibre detachment. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Gil-Castell, O.
    et al.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia, Spain.
    Badia, J. D.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia, Spain / Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Escola Tecnica Superior d'Enginyeria, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot, Spain.
    Kittikorn, T.
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH e Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.
    Strömberg, E.
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH e Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ek, M.
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH e Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia, Spain.
    Impact of hydrothermal ageing on the thermal stability, morphology and viscoelastic performance of PLA/sisal biocomposites2016In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 132, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the combined exposure to water and temperature on the behaviour of polylactide/sisal biocomposites coupled with maleic acid anhydride was assessed through accelerated hydrothermal ageing. The biocomposites were immersed in water at temperatures from 65 to 85 degrees C, between the glass transition and cold crystallisation of the PLA matrix. The results showed that the most influent factor for water absorption was the percentage of fibres, followed by the presence of coupling agent, whereas the effect of the temperature was not significant. Deep assessment was devoted to biocomposites subjected to hydrothermal ageing at 85 degrees C, since it represents the extreme degrading condition. The morphology and crystallinity of the biocomposites were evaluated by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The viscoelastic and thermal performance were assessed by means of dynamic mechanic thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetry (TGA). The presence of sisal generally diminished the thermal stability of the biocomposites, which was mitigated by the addition of the coupling agent. After composite preparation, the effectiveness of the sisal fibre was improved by the crystallisation of PLA around sisal, which increased the storage modulus and reduced the dampening factor. The presence of the coupling agent strengthened this effect. After hydrothermal ageing, crystallisation was promoted in all biocomposites therefore showing more fragile behaviour evidencing pores and cracks. However, the addition of coupling agent in the formulation of biocomposites contributed in all cases to minimise the effects of hydrothermal ageing. 

  • 4.
    Gil-Castell, O.
    et al.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.
    Badia, J. D.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain / Departament de Química Orgànica i Analítica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain / Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain.
    Strömberg, E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.
    Effect of the dissolution time into an acid hydrolytic solvent to taylor electrospun nanofibrous polycaprolactone scaffolds2017In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 87, p. 174-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrolysis of the polycaprolactone (PCL) as a function of the dissolution time in a formic/acetic acid mixture was considered as a method for tailoring the morphology of nanofibrous PCL scaffolds. Hence the aim of this research was to establish a correlation between the dissolution time of the polymer in the acid solvent with the physicochemical properties of the electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds and their further service life behaviour. The physico-chemical properties of the scaffolds were assessed in terms of fibre morphology molar mass and thermal behaviour. A reduction of the molar mass and the lamellar thickness as well as an increase of the crystallinity degree were observed as a function of dissolution time. Bead-free fibres were found after 24 and 48 h of dissolution time with similar diameter distributions. The decrease of the fibre diameter distributions along with the apparition of beads was especially significant for scaffolds prepared after 72 h and 120 h of dissolution time in the acid mixture. The service life of the obtained devices was evaluated by means of in vitro validation under abiotic physiological conditions. All the scaffolds maintained the nanofibrous structure after 100 days of immersion in water and PBS. The molar mass was barely affected and the crystallinity degree and the lamellar thickness increased along immersion preventing scaffolds from degradation. Scaffolds prepared after 24 h and 48 h kept their fibre diameters whereas those prepared after 72 h and 120 h showed a significant reduction. This PCL tailoring procedure to obtain scaffolds that maintain the nanoscaled structure after such long in vitro evaluation will bring new opportunities in the design of long-term biomedical patches. 

  • 5.
    Gil-Castell, Oscar
    et al.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia, Spain.
    Badia, J. D.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia, Spain / Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Escola Tecnica Superior d'Enginyeria, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot, Spain.
    Kittikorn, Thorsak
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University Songkhla, Thailand.
    Strömberg, Emma
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martínez-Felipe, Alfonso
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia, Spain / Departamento de Química Organica, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA), Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, Spain.
    Ek, M.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ribes-Greus, Amparo
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Spain.
    Hydrothermal ageing of polylactide/sisal biocomposites: Studies of water absorption behaviour and Physico-Chemical performance2014In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 108, no special issue, p. 212-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An accelerated hydrothermal degrading test was designed in order to analyse the synergic effect of water and temperature on PLA/sisal biocomposites with and without coupling agent. As well, the physicochemical properties of biocomposites were monitored along the hydrothermal test by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Size Exclusion Chromatography and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The addition of fibre induced higher water absorption capability and promoted physical degradation, as observed in the surface topography. During the processing of biocomposites and throughout the hydrothermal ageing, a reduction of molecular weight due to chain scission was found. As a consequence, a faster formation of crystalline domains in the PIA matrix occurred the higher the amount of fibre was, which acted as a nucleating agent. Higher crystallinity was considered as a barrier against the advance of penetrant and a reduction in the diffusion coefficient was shown. The addition of coupling agent presented a different influence depending on the composition, showing an inflection point around 20% of sisal fibre. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Kittikorn, Thorsak
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparison of water uptake as function of surface modification of empty fruit bunch oil palm fibres in PP biocomposites2013In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 2998-3016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empty fruit bunch oil palm (EFBOP) fibres were surface modified by four different methods, propionylation, vinyltrimethoxy silanization, PPgMA dissolution modification, and PPgMA blending, and integrated into a polypropylene (PP) matrix. The designed biocomposites were subjected to an absorption process at different temperatures. Their water uptake behaviour was compared with the unmodified fibre biocomposites. An increased fibre content and temperature resulted in increased water uptake for all of the biocomposites. The biocomposites containing modified fibres showed a reduction in water uptake, rate of diffusion, sorption, and permeation in comparison with unmodified fibre composites. Comparing the 20 wt% fibre composites at ambient temperature, the performance in water absorption followed the sequence silanization < propionylation < PPgMA dissolution modification < PPgMA blending < no modification. Furthermore, the lowest water absorption was obtained from the silanized fibre/PP composite with 40% fibre content at ambient temperature. Dissolution or blending of PPgMA gave similar water uptake results. The reduction of diffusion, sorption, and permeation confirmed that the modification of fibres was potentially effective at resisting water penetration into the composites.

  • 7.
    Moriana, Rosana
    et al.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ribes-Greus, Amparo
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Assessing the influence of cotton fibers on the degradation in soil of a thermoplastic starch-based biopolymer2010In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2102-2111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocomposites consisting of cotton fibers and a commercial starch-based thermoplastic were subjected to accelerated soil burial test. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry analysis was carried out to provide chemical-structural information of the polymeric matrix and its reinforced biocomposites. The effects that take place as a consequence of the degradation in soil of both materials were studied by FTIR-ATR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). When the polymeric matrix and the reinforced biocomposite are submitted to soil burial test, the infrared studies display a decrease in the C=O band associated to the ester group of the synthetic component as a consequence of its degradation. The crystalline index of both materials decreased as a function of the degradation process, where the crystalline structure of the reinforced biocomposite was the most affected. In accordance, the degraded reinforced biocomposite micrographs displayed a more damaged morphology and fracture surface than the degraded polymeric matrix micrographs. On the other hand, the same thermal decomposition regions were assessed for both materials, regardless of the degradation time. Kissinger, Criado, and Coats-Redfern methods were applied to analyze the thermogravimetric results. The kinetic triplet of each thermal decomposition process was determined for monitoring the degradation test. The thermal study confirms that starch was the most biodegradable polymeric matrix component in soil. However, the presence of cotton fiber modified the degradation rate of both matrix components; the degradability in soil of the synthetic component was slightly enhanced, whereas the biodegradation rate of the starch slowed down as a function of the soil exposure time. © 2010 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  • 8.
    Moriana, Rosana
    et al.
    University Polytechnic of Valencia (UPV), Spain.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ribes-Greus, Amparo
    Reinforced biocomposites with guaranteed degradability in soil2010In: Plastics Research OnlineArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of cotton fibers to a starch-based commercial material maintains its thermal stability and assures its biodegradation.

  • 9.
    Moriana, Rosana
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Materials Technology Institute (ITM), School of Design Engineering (ETSID), Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ribes, Amparo
    Materials Technology Institute (ITM), School of Design Engineering (ETSID), Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Degradation behaviour of natural fibre reinforced starch-based composites under different environmental conditions2014In: Journal of Renewable Materials, ISSN 2164-6325, E-ISSN 2164-6341, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of hydrothermal, biological and photo degradation on natural fibres reinforced biodegradable starch-based (Mater-BiKE) composites to characterize the structural changes occurring under exposure to different environments. The composites water-uptake rate was hindered by the interfacial interactions between matrix and fibres. Thermal, structural and morphological analysis provided useful information about the irreversible changes in the properties of the composites caused by degradation in soil and photodegradation, and their synergetic effects. The effects due to the photo-oxidation and degradation in soil on the composites depended on the different chemical composition of each fibre. The composite with more hemicellulose and lignin in its formulation was more affected by both types of degradation, but still the end result properties were better than the ones shown for the degraded Mater-BiKE. The photo-oxidation of all the studied materials achieved enhanced degradation rate in soil. The Mater-BiKE/ kenaf was shown to have the slowest water-uptake rate and better thermal properties once photo-oxidized, indicating better service life conditions. At the same time, the Mater-BiKE/kenaf was affected to a major extent by the synergetic effects of both photo-oxidation and soil burial test, showing a faster degradative rate and better disposal conditions. © 2014 Scrivener Publishing LLC.

  • 10.
    Moriana, Rosana
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology / Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology / Wallenberg Wood Science Centre (WWSC).
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ribes, Amparo
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Correlation of chemical, structural and thermal properties of natural fibres for their sustainable exploitation2014In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 112, p. 422-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of lignocellulosic natural fibres as renewable resources for thermal conversion and material reinforcement is largely dependent on the correlation between their chemical composition, crystalline structure and thermal decomposition properties. Significant differences were observed in the chemical composition of cotton, flax, hemp, kenaf and jute natural fibres in terms of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content, which influence their morphology, thermal properties and pyrolysis product distribution. A suitable methodology to study the kinetics of the thermal decomposition process of lignocellulosic fibres is proposed combining different models (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Criado and Coats-Redfern). Cellulose pyrolysis can be modelled with similar kinetic parameters for all the natural fibres whereas the kinetic parameters for hemicellulose pyrolysis show intrinsic differences that can be assigned to the heterogeneous hemicellulose sugar composition in each natural fibre. This study provides the ground to critically select the most promising fibres to be used either for biofuel or material applications.

  • 11.
    Moriana, Rosana
    et al.
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH – Royal Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH – Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ribes-Greus, Amparo
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Improved thermo-mechanical properties by the addition of natural fibres in starch-based sustainable biocomposites2011In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 30-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable biocomposites based on thermoplastic starch copolymers (Mater-Bi KE03B1) and biofibres (cotton, hemp and kenaf) were prepared and characterised in terms of their thermo-mechanical and morphological properties. Biocomposites exhibit improved thermal stability and mechanical properties in comparison with the Mater-Bi KE. Biofibres act as suitable thermal stabilizers for the Mater-Bi KE, by increasing the maximum decomposition temperature and the Ea associated to the thermal decomposition process. Biofibre addition into the Mater-Bi KE results in higher storage modulus and in a reduction of the free-volume-parameter associated to the Mater-Bi KE glass transition. The influence of different biofibres on the thermo-mechanical properties of the biocomposites has been discussed. Hemp and kenaf enhance the thermal stability and reduce the free volume-parameter of Mater-Bi KE more significantly than cotton fibres, although the latter exhibits the highest mechanical performance. These differences may be explained by the improved interaction of lignocellulosic fibres with the Mater-Bi KE, due to the presence of hemicellulose and lignin in their formulation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    et al.
    Division of Glycoscience, School of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Centre, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    Department of CollectionsThe Royal Armoury, Skokloster Castle, Hallwyl Museum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sommer, Dorte V. P.
    School of Conservation, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Analytical markers for silk degradation: comparing historic silk and silk artificially aged in different environments2015In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 407, no 5, p. 1433-1449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suitable analytical markers to assess the degree of degradation of historic silk textiles at molecular and macroscopic levels have been identified and compared with silk textiles aged artificially in different environments, namely (i) ultraviolet (UV) exposure, (ii) thermo-oxidation, (iii) controlled humidity and (iv) pH. The changes at the molecular level in the amino acid composition, the formation of oxidative moieties, crystallinity and molecular weight correlate well with the changes in the macroscopic properties such as brightness, pH and mechanical properties. These analytical markers are useful to understand the degradation mechanisms that silk textiles undergo under different degradation environments, involving oxidation processes, hydrolysis, chain scission and physical arrangements. Thermo-oxidation at high temperatures proves to be the accelerated ageing procedure producing silk samples that most resembled the degree of degradation of early seventeenth-century silk. These analytical markers will be valuable to support the textile conservation tasks currently being performed in museums to preserve our heritage.

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