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  • 1.
    Elfstrand Corlin, Tinna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    The impact of personality on person-centred care: a study of care staff in Swedish nursing homes2017Ingår i: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id e12132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objective: In this study, we explore how personal and situational factors relate to the provision of person-centred care (PCC) in nursing homes. Specifically, we focus on the relationship between the care staff's personality traits and provision of PCC and to what extent perceptions of the working environment influences this relationship.

    Background: The ultimate goal of elderly care is to meet the older person's needs and individual preferences (PCC). Interpersonal aspects of care and the quality of relationship between the care staff and the older person are therefore central in PCC.

    Design and methods: A cross-sectional Swedish sample of elderly care staff (= 322) completed an electronic survey including measures of personality (Mini-IPIP) and person-centred care (Individualized Care Inventory, ICI). A principal component analysis was conducted on the ICI-data to separate the user orientation (process quality) of PCC from the preconditions (structure quality) of PCC.

    Results: Among the five factors of personality, neuroticism was the strongest predictor of ICI user orientation. ICI preconditions significantly mediated this relationship, indicating the importance of a supportive working environment. In addition, stress was introduced as a potential explanation and was shown to mediate the impact of neuroticism on ICI preconditions.

    Conclusions: Personality traits have a significant impact on user orientation, and the perception of a supportive and stress free working environment is an important prerequisite for achieving high-quality person-centred elderly care.

    Implications for practice: Understanding how personality is linked to the way care staff interacts with the older person adds a new perspective on provision of person-centred elderly care.

  • 2.
    Garcia, Danilo
    et al.
    Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Al Nima, Ali
    Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rapp-Ricciardia, Max
    Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen2018Ingår i: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, nr 3, artikel-id e00569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Personality traits and personal values: A replication with a Swedish sample2015Ingår i: International Journal of Personality Psychology, ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 8-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain rigor and transparency in the science of personality psychology, we conducted a replication of the often cited “The Big Five Personality Factors and Personal Values” by Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, and Knafo (2002). More than a decade ago, based on a study of Israeli students, they presented results on how personality traits and personal values relate. In the current replication study with Swedish students, we related the Big Five personality traits to Schwartz´s personal values. Our results replicated most of the earlier findings. Whereas the earlier study tested the predictive validity of traits and values on religious beliefs, presumed to be under a relatively high degree of cognitive control, our study tested the willingness-to-pay for Fairtrade alternatives. Our findings confirmed the earlier findings that personal values explain substantially more variance than personality traits in this. We discuss that traits and values are different constructs and that their relationship is consistent across the two geographic locations and student cohorts.

  • 4.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    The Relationship between Mind-Body Dualism and Personal Values2016Ingår i: International Journal of Psychological Studies, ISSN 1918-7211, E-ISSN 1918-722X, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 126-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dualists view the mind and the body as two fundamental different “things”, equally real and independent of each other. Cartesian thought, or substance dualism, maintains that the mind and body are two different substances, the non-physical and the physical, and a causal relationship is assumed to exist between them. Physicalism, on the other hand, is the idea that everything that exists is either physical or totally dependent of and determined by physical items. Hence, all mental states are fundamentally physical states. In the current study we investigated to what degree Swedish university students’ beliefs in mind-body dualism is explained by the importance they attach to personal values. A self-report inventory was used to measure their beliefs and values. Students who held stronger dualistic beliefs attach less importance to the power value (i.e., the effort to achieve social status, prestige, and control or dominance over people and resources). This finding shows that the strength in laypeople’s beliefs in dualism is partially explained by the importance they attach to personal values

  • 5.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West / University of Gothenburg.
    Five Factor Model-Based Personality Disorders across Sex and Age-groups (N=320,128)2017Ingår i: Personality and Personality Disorders: Foundations of Pathology, Pathways to Health, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Five Factor Model (FFM) with its 30 facet traits is proposed as a universal basis for PD (Personality Disorders). For instance, based on the FFM-count method (Miller et al., 2005), the disposition for Paranoid PD can be calculated by a validated set of FFM sub-traits: N2 + E1_R + E2_R + O4_R + O6_R + A1_R + A2_R + A3_R + A4_R + A6_R. Using a comprehensive open-source representation of FFM (IPIP-NEO-120; Johnson, 2014), we explored age and sex differences in the 10 DSM-IV PD categories with the presumably largest US sample to date (N = 320,128). The results showed differences of up to ½ SD in all PD categories across age-groups, as well as clear gaps between sexes. For example, the largest decline with age, as well as differences in sex, was seen in Antisocial PD. Also, interaction effects between age and sex could be seen in Schizoid and Schizotypal PDs. The present study presents tentative support for personality trait theory as a basis for psychopathology, and updated benchmarks on the scope and size of sex and age differences in PD dispositions in the community.

  • 6.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Förunderlighet och radikalitet: En samhällspsykologisk analys2011 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Sweden.
    Low Honesty-Humility gives high self-reported IQ2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary.—The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 8.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The effect of information overload on charity donations2014Ingår i: International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 2163-1948, E-ISSN 2163-1956, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 41-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of information overload, due to information about people in increasing extent and number of needs, on altruism, such as charity giving. Information overload has previously been conceived in terms of quality as well as quantity of information. The former is conceptualised as extent of need and the latter as number of needs in the present research design. Two studies were conducted to test the prediction that information overload and charity donation size are inversely related. Study 1 was designed according to a 2 x 2 factorial design: Number of needs (high vs. low) x Extent of needs (long term and large scope vs. short term and small scope). Study 2 used a modified similar approach manipulating only number of needs. A sample of 60 and 44 undergraduate students filled out a charity donation form in the two studies. The results show a significant relationship between the factors of extent of need and number of needs with amount of money pledged for charity. People gave less the greater the extent of the need and the greater the number of needs. Both studies suggest information increase about extent and number of needs has inhibiting effects on charity giving. This effect, attributed to information overload, is labelled moral exhaustion.

  • 9.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Work- and Organizational Psychology, Department of Psychology, University College West, Sweden.
    The Impact of Personality Traits on the View of Uniqueness of Consciousness2015Ingår i: Toward a Science of Consciousness 2015, University of Helsinki , 2015, s. 315-316Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits, including the well-known Big Five traits, the subclinical Dark Triad traits, as well as cognitive (IQ) and emotional abilities (EQ), are known to predict a number of attitudes, such as views of politics, importance of other people, or interest in self. This present study set out to research the impact of personality traits on the view of consciousness, the main question being whether consciousness sets mankind apart from the animal kingdom. A Swedish sample was tested on six different personality-related tests measuring traits, values, and abilities. The results showed that high scorers in emotional intelligence, openness and extraversion had a view of consciousness being unique for human beings only. Furthermore, people high on self-enhancing values and the tendency to manipulate others (Machiavellianism) also held a view of consciousness being unique for human beings, and which sets us apart from animals. Only self-transcending values, such as universalism, showed a negative association with the uniqueness of consciousness. The discussion extends to how the view on consciousness affects other outlooks on life, such as the view on one’s personal future or mankind’s environmental predicament. Motivational agendas stemming from personality traits, in terms of stable, genetical influences, might explain views on ontological questions to a greater degree than previously thought.

  • 10.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    An Inquiry into Satisfaction and Variations in User-Oriented Elderly Care2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The foundation for this thesis is an ongoing discussion about quality in Swedish elderly care: Which are the most important factors that contribute to elderly care in terms of satisfaction among older persons, and what are the primary reasons for their differences?

    Aims. The principal aim was to examine what determines satisfaction with elderly care in home care and nursing homes, using the perspective of older persons (Studies I and II). The secondary aim was to analyze why these determinants differ, using the perspective of care workers, managers, and observers (Studies III and IV).

    Methods. Study I analyzed aggregated statistical data from the level of municipalities and districts (N = 324) based on the Swedish elderly care quality reports “Open Comparisons”, while Study II analyzed individual data based on the original ratings in the annual, nationwide elderly surveys (N = 95,000). Study III describes field observations and interviews with care workers and managers in two municipalities, one with a high rating for user satisfaction and one with an average rating. Study IV describes investigations in these two municipalities concerning their organizing principles and departmental‑level management climate.

    Results. The results relating to the principal aim showed that process factors (such as respect, information, and influence) are related considerably more closely than structural factors (such as budget, staffing levels, and training levels) to satisfaction with care. Other process factors (such as treatment, safeness, staff and time availability) were also able to alleviate person factors (such as health, anxiety, and loneliness). Moreover, the results relating to the secondary aim showed that differences in user-oriented elderly care are mainly due to interpersonal factors between the caregiver and the older person. Care workers, however, reported that other factors (such as organizing principles and leadership support) influence the quality of the care process. Overall, older persons who receive home care generally report higher satisfaction with care than those in nursing homes, and feeling less safe. It may be that differences in the process of aging explain this.

    Value. This thesis shows that satisfaction with elderly care can be largely explained by psychological quality at the individual level. The sizes of structural resources and organizing principles at the municipal level have minimal effect (< 5%). The thesis also presents a theoretical multiple-level Quality Agents Model to explain the sources of differences in satisfaction with care, and it presents recommendations for elderly care practices. A renewed focus on the psychology of satisfaction may contribute to the development of quality in elderly care.  

  • 11.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    Cross-cultural personality differences between East Asia and Northern Europe in IPIP-NEO2017Ingår i: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Psychology, University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations2014Ingår i: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 115, nr 1, s. 311-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary.—The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 13.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility predicting self-estimated academic performance2016Ingår i: International Journal of Personality Psychology, ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 1-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established relationships between the Big Five personality factors, cognitive ability, and academic performance. A more recent personality trait, Honesty-Humility with its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) is suggested to have predictive value especially in self-promoting behaviors. The aim of the present study was to find out whether lower Honesty-Humility would predict higher self-reported academic performance, and account for additional variance, after controlling for the Big Five and cognitive ability. The participants were Swedish 17-19 year-old students (N = 154) in late secondary high school. The results revealed a significant negative correlation between Honesty-Humility and self-estimated academic performance, mainly through low scores in the facets Sincerity and Modesty, as well as an additional 7% accounted for variance. The discussion concludes that the new trait Honesty-Humility may be a welcomed addition to the understanding of how students use self-promoting strategies in contemporary school.

  • 14.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan Väst, Trollhättan.
    Kritiskt tänkande och högskolans kritiska uppdrag2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    De högre lärosätena har av Sveriges riksdag och regering fått i uppgift att skola självständiga och kritiskt tänkande studenter för samhällets bästa. Det kritiska tänkandet är förutom en värdering i vår kultur också en förtjänstfull metodik som har visat sig gynna djupinlärandet hos studenter. Studien tar sin teoretiska utgångspunkt i Kolbs (1984) inlärningsmodell för att beskriva hur det kritiska tänkandet med hjälp av ett arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL)-perspektiv kan utvecklas. Kritiken som riktas i detta arbete är att reflektionens väg och mål idag på förhand ofta är givet studenterna. Detta skulle kunna resultera i antitesen till högskoleverkets målsättningar och att studenterna i själva verket blir osjälvständiga och okritiskt tänkande. Studien pekar på att arbetssätt och metakognition kring kritiskt tänkande inom det högre lärandet bör medvetandegöras mer och den argumenterar för att AIL-perspektivet kan förbättra det kritiska tänkandet på Sveriges högre utbildningar.

  • 15.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Test-dependent activations of Neuroticism and Dark Triad predicting self-estimated intelligence2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between self-estimated and observed intelligence has sparked an interest among researchers in recent years. However, studies on the relationship between how personality traits predict self-estimations of intelligence in different test-settings are still not explored. This study set up a two-way experimental within-subjects design (N = 84) to test how prior personality traits predict self-estimated intelligence, immidiately after having performed an intelligence-test. At a first occasion, an explicitly easy intelligence-test (Kajonius, 2014) under relaxed pretenses was given to a number of work psychology students, and at a second occasion two months later a difficult intelligence test (Condon & Revelle, 2014, ICAR16) with time pressure was given to the same students. No test-scores or personality traits’ results were revealed until after the study. An expected relationship between self-estimated and observed intelligence of similar strength was found in both conditions (r ~ .55). Also, the students’ prior personality tests (Big Five Inventory-44) showed that neuroticism had a negative relationship with self-estimated intelligence (r ~ -.30), similarly in both conditions. However, the self-enhancing traits of Machiavellianism and narcissism (Short Dark Triad-3) showed a significant positive relationship with self-estimated intelligence only in the easy condition (r = .30) and not in the difficult condition (r = .10). The discussion suggests that neither student exits nor adjustment effects can explain the differences in the impact of dark triad traits between the conditions. The conclusion is that the study implies that test situations can activate personality traits differently, while the accuracy of self-perceived intelligence is more constant.

  • 16.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders2019Ingår i: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Springer, 2019, 1, s. 269-281Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Person-centered care sciences are experiencing rapid progress. Personalization in care services is becoming the norm, and implementation from scientific knowledge is increasingly acknowledged and mandated. Advances in personality and brain disorder research are crucial in assisting the future development of personalized care.  

    Aim: We will attempt to present glimpses into the future of personalized care with support from frontline science, measurement, and practice, updating with input from personality genetics and measurement theory.

    Outline: We present three broad developments: 1) Scientific advancements in understanding how personality and genetics are central in predicting mental health and disorders, with the potential to increase predictive diagnosis and treatment validity 2) Measurement advancements with help of trait dimensions and latent structures, with the potential to increase reliability in assessing personalized care needs and functioning 3) Practical advancements in implementing a personalized approach in care services, with the potential to increase effectiveness and satisfaction with patients. We review this glimpse into the future by referencing key findings in personality and assessment meta-analyses, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), and trait measurements in psychiatric disorders.

    Conclusion: Personalizing care services will benefit practitioners and patients. We suggest and recommend that personalized care diagnosis and treatment is the way forward, and that the future will be potentially revolutionized by incorporating the presented advancements in personality research and brain sciences.

  • 17.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    The Impact of Care Process on Satisfaction with Elderly Care2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is based on the growing interest in Swedish elderly care. The aim of this thesis is to investigate what generates satisfaction with elderly care among older persons. The dominant ideology in both privately and publically run elderly care is individualized care, also called person-centered care, which holds the older person’s satisfaction as one of the main quality indicators. The proportion of older people is increasing and to maintain high levels of satisfaction with elderly care will require more knowledge. Data from the National Board of Health and Welfare’s (2012) nationwide survey on seniors’ experiences with elderly care was collected. Statistical analyses of this sample formed the basis for the results of the thesis and were reported in two papers. Study I used Donabedian’s (1988) model of quality of care in terms of structure, process, and outcome, and all municipal units in Sweden were included (N = 324). The results showed that structural variables (i.e. budget, staff, and training level) have minimal or no relationships with older persons’ satisfaction with care, while process variables (i.e. experiences of respect, information, and influence) have strong relationships with satisfaction with care. Study II made use of the long-standing person versus situation- model in social psychology, and was analyzed on an individual level (N = 95,000). The results showed that care process factors (i.e. experiences of treatment, safeness, staff- and time-availability) had a stronger relationship, than individual factors (i.e. health, anxiety, and loneliness) with satisfaction with care. The results also showed that older persons with home care generally felt better treated than older persons in nursing homes, but also felt less safe. Mediational analyses, based on this comprehensive elderly data, suggest that the individual aging condition of loneliness can be countered by providing safeness and treatment, resulting in high satisfaction with care. In conclusion, satisfaction with elderly care in Sweden today can largely be explained from a psychological perspective by the older persons’ perception of the care process, not by the amount of structural resources or the conditions of the aging persons. These findings could help facilitate the future quality development in municipalities and care organizations.

  • 18.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Short Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and its Conjoined structure with the Common Five-Factor Model2017Ingår i: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 372-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg / Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Björkman, Therese
    Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress2018Ingår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of thepresent study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism(MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a communitysample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, whilegrandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on thatnarcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to theexperience of stress in everyday life.

  • 20.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Carlander, Anders
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Centre for Finance, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Who gets ahead in life?: Personality traits and childhood background in economic success2017Ingår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 59, s. 164-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many societies around the world, the ideal is that anyone can achieve a successful lifeindependent of family background. An indication of such social mobility could be that personalitycharacteristics have stronger impact than childhood background on economic success.The present study investigated how much of life outcomes (i.e., educationalattainment, annual income, and life outcome satisfaction) were accounted for by adult personalitytraits (the Big Five), when controlled for childhood socio-economic status (SES).The results from a large, representative Swedish sample (N = 5280) showed that personalitytraits (especially neuroticism) were associated as much as or more than childhood SESto annual income and life outcome satisfaction, whereas childhood SES related more toeducational attainment. These results may help facilitate our understanding of the mechanismsbehind individual economic success.

  • 21.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dåderman, A. M.
    University West, Sweden.
    Conceptualizing the structure of FFM personality disorders with empathy2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The new section III in DSM-5 suggests pathological personality traits and impairments in personality functioning such as empathy to be used for identifying personality disorders (PDs). Previous research has also theoretically and empirically advocated that psychopathology is related to the general Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hierarchical structure of the 10 DSM PD categories using the FFM count technique (Miller et al., 2008), and to conceptualize PDs with empathy dimensions. We measured PDs and 4 dimensions of empathy (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and distress) in a medium-sized community sample. The results showed that higher order factors such as externalizing and internalizing could be applied to PDs based on FFM scores. PD could furthermore be conceptualized using two of the empathy dimensions, low emphatic concern and high distress, and specific PD categories could be conceptualized by using distinct dimensions of empathy (e.g., histrionic PD with high fantasy, or dependent PD with high distress). The discussion concludes that PDs based on self-reported FFM show conceptual validity, and that the presence of symptoms of PDs potentially may be screened in the community population by using empathy measures.   

  • 22.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-count and Empathy Traits2017Ingår i: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 141-157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive interpersonal functioning, such as lack of empathy, are used for identifying psychopathology and particularly personality disorders (PD). The objective of the present study was to measure dispositions for DSM categories based on normal personality continuums, and to conceptualize these with empathy traits. We used a validated FFM-count method based on the five personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), and related these to 4 empathy traits (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and personal distress). The results showed that FFM-based PD scores overall could be conceptualized using only two of the empathy traits, low emphatic concern and high personal distress. Further, specific dispositions for personality disorders were characterized with distinct empathy traits (e.g., histrionic with high fantasy, and paranoid with low perspective-taking). These findings may have both theoretical and practical implications in capturing potential for personality disorders with ease and efficiency.

  • 23.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Exploring the Relationship Between Honesty-Humility, the Big Five, and Liberal Values in Swedish Students2014Ingår i: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 104-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the Five-Factor model (Big Five) reports a relationship between personality traits and liberal values, and the trait Agreeableness has demonstrated the strongest relationship. The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Five-factor model with an additional sixth trait of Honesty-Humility. Previous research on the Honesty-Humility trait has reported mixed results with liberal values, and this study set out to resolve this. The work presented here explored the relationship between the Honesty-Humility trait on facet-level (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) and liberal values (equality for women, minorities, and socio-economical groups). Data from Swedish students (N = 202), known for their individualistic and liberal mindset, were sampled. There was an overall positive correlation between Honesty-Humility and the strength of liberal values (r = .36), and Honesty-Humility predicted liberal values beyond Agreeableness. We discuss these results in terms of the significance of traits and values in a culture that promotes both individualism and equality.

  • 24.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Advancing the Big Five of User-Oriented Elderly Care and Accounting for its Variations2016Ingår i: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, ISSN 0952-6862, E-ISSN 1758-6542, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 162-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Care process quality (i.e., how care is enacted by a care worker toward a client at the interpersonal level) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of health care services. The present research aims at describing the basic elements of care process quality as user-oriented care. Specifically, the questions of how and why quality in user-oriented care varies were investigated in the context of elderly care.

    Design – Two municipalities were selected for in-depth field studies. First, in each municipality, we interviewed and observed care workers’ interactions with the older persons in both home care and nursing homes during two weeks (Study 1). Second, in an attempt to gain a deeper understanding of why process quality in terms of user-oriented care varies, we conducted interviews with care workers and care unit managers (Study 2).

    Findings – A new taxonomy for categorising process quality variation, the Big Five of user-oriented care (Task-focus, Person-focus, Affect, Cooperation, and Time-use), is proposed. In addition, the perceived reasons for process quality variation are reported in our own developed Quality Agents Model, suggesting that variations in care process evaluations may be explained from different perspectives at multiple levels (i.e., older person, care worker-, unit-, department-, and municipality-level).

    Value – The proposed taxonomy and model are useful for describing user-oriented care quality and the reasons for its variations. These findings are of relevance for future quality developments of elderly care services, but also may be adapted to applications in any other enterprise employing a user-oriented approach.

    Keywords elderly care, quality, satisfaction, person-centered care, individualised care, user-oriented care

  • 25.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Older Persons’ Subjective Evaluations of Care Quality: Three studies Analyzing the National Survey of Swedish Elderly Care2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the proportion of older people in coming years is increasing, and as the organizations of home care and nursing homes grow to manage the expectations from the population, the debate on the quality of elderly care has gained a new momentum. Today, most decision-makers within elderly care in Sweden base their actions on the nation-wide annual quality report on elderly care from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Open Comparisons. This research presents findings from this national survey conducted in 2012, including a wide variety of indicators for elderly care services in all Swedish municipalities (N = 324) based on the responses from over 95,000 older persons. Study I presents that structural variables (i.e., budget resources and personnel training) overall did not correlate with older persons’ perceived quality of care, while processual variables (i.e., influence, respect, and access to information) showed moderate to strong correlations. Study II presents that overall satisfaction with care was strongly correlated with evaluation of relationship with care personnel and feelings of safeness. Study III presents an overall municipality quality-index with which comparisons between municipalities can be made, showing that the highest and the lowest ranked municipalities did not differ strongly on indicators of quality (d < 0.6). The conclusion is that there currently exists no reliable and valid measure which manages to tap quality of municipal elderly care, and that developing a new client-care centered climate scale should prove to be fruitful. Seeing how a person-centered theoretical approach is receiving support from this large national sample, implications for extending the theoretical frame of person-centeredness into psychological climate research in organizations is proposed. 

  • 26.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Rankning av Sveriges kommuners äldreomsorg i Öppna jämförelser2014Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, nr 4, s. 323-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med den ökande andelen äldre personer i Sverige har diskussionen om kvalitet i äldreomsorgen tagit ny fart. Idag är äldreomsorgsbeslut baserat på den omfattande årsrapporten, Öppna jämförelser, som rankar alla Sveriges kommuner utifrån ett antal kvalitetsindikatorer. Relevant för området sociala studier och hälsa, visar sekundäranalyser av dessa data att Öppna jämförelser gör en missvisande rankning som inte tar hänsyn till hur de äldre har svarat, och inte heller påtalar hur små skillnaderna mellan högst och lägst rankade kommuner är. Genom att använda effektstorleksmått presenteras i artikeln ett nytt och mer korrekt sätt att ranka kommuner. Vidare föreslås i denna artikel att Öppna jämförelser i sina framtida mätningar inkluderar reliabla och valida mått på brukarorienterad omsorg då detta har visat sig ha positiva effekter på äldres upplevelse av omsorgskvalitet.

  • 27.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Safeness and Treatment Mitigate the Effect of Loneliness on Satisfaction with Elderly Care2016Ingår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 928-936Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximizing satisfaction among the older persons is the goal of modern individualized elderly care and how to best achieve this is of relevance for anyone planning and providing for elderly care services. Purpose of the study: What predicts satisfaction with care among older persons can be conceived as a function of process (how care is performed), and the older person. Inspired by the long-standing person versus situation debate, the present research investigated the interplay between person- and process aspects in predicting satisfaction with elderly care. Design and method: A representative nationwide sample was analyzed, based on a questionnaire sent out to 95,000 individuals using elderly care services. Results: The results showed that person-related factors (i.e., anxiety, health, and loneliness) were significant predictors of satisfaction with care, although less strongly than process-related factors (i.e., treatment, safeness, and perceived staff- and time availability). Among the person-related factors, loneliness was the strongest predictor of satisfaction among older persons in nursing homes. Interestingly, a path analysis revealed that safeness and treatment function as mediators in linking loneliness to satisfaction. Implications: The results based on a large national sample demonstrate that the individual aging condition to a significant degree can be countered by a well-functioning care process, resulting in higher satisfaction with care among older persons. 

  • 28.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Structure and Process Quality as Predictors of Satisfaction with Elderly Care2016Ingår i: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 699-707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure versus process approach to quality of care presented by Donabedian is one of the most cited ever. However, there has been a paucity of research into the empirical validity of this framework, specifically concerning the relative effects of structure and process on satisfaction with elderly care as perceived by the older persons themselves. The current research presents findings from a national survey, including a wide range of quality indicators for elderly care services, conducted in 2012 at the request of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in which responses from 95,000 elderly people living in 324 municipalities and districts were obtained. The results revealed that the only structural variable which significantly predicted quality of care was staffing, measured in terms of the number of caregivers per older resident. More interestingly, process variables (e.g. respect and access to information) explained 40% and 48% of the variance in satisfaction with care, over and above the structural variables, in home care and nursing homes respectively. The findings from this large nationwide sample examining Donabedian's model suggest that quality in elderly care is primarily determined by factors pertaining to process, that is, how caregivers behave towards the older persons. This encourages a continued quality improvement in elderly care with a particular focus on process variables.

  • 29.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Dark Matter behind Values: The Dark Triad between the Big Five and Schwartz’ Value Types2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad offers measurement and predictive validity of egotistic and anti-social dispositions, including the factors Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Based on the well established link between personality traits and values, this study proposes that the Dark Triad can be used to understand individuals’ propensity towards including or excluding other people in their social relationships. A group of 80 human resource management students whose future comptence among other things will be to cooperate with others were measured on the Dark Triad, Schwartz’ ten Value Orientations, and two versions of the Big Five personality traits (FIPI, BFI44). The results showed consistent negative correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for generalized others, as well as positive correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for self. The study also concluded that the Dark Triad works as a moderator of the relationship between personality traits (Big Five) and values (Schwartz’), and substantially adds additional explained variance especially on values of exclusion. The etiology of social in-group and out-group processes in everyday life is suggested to be individuals’ dispositions for dark values, a path towards deviant and negative behaviors. 

  • 30.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jonason, Peter K.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Hedonism, Achievement, and Power: Universal Values that Characterize the Dark Triad2015Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 77, s. 173-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), we attempted to understand the Dark Triad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) in terms of the universal social values. The Dark Triad traits correlated significantly with all 10 value types, forming a sinusoid pattern corresponding to the value model circumplex. In regression analyses, Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the values Hedonism, and Power. In addition, the Dark Triad traits explained significant variance over the Big Five traits in accounting for individual differences in social values. Differences between the Swedish and the US sample in the social value Achievement was mediated by the Dark Triad traits, as well as age. Given the unique complex of values accounted for by the Dark Triad traits compared to the Big Five traits, we argue that the former account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values”, often hidden but constantly contributing in evaluations of others.

  • 31.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale2016Ingår i: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, artikel-id e1748Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. University West, Sweden.
    Roos, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    The American Dream in a Swedish Representative Sample: Personality Traits Predict Life Outcomes Better than Childhood Background2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The American Dream is that any individual, not regarding family background, can achieve what they desire, in terms of life, economic liberty, and happiness. An indication of the American dream would be if individual adult personality traits predicted life outcomes better than childhood background.

    A sample of the Swedish population, representative in age, sex, and occupation (N = 5,280) was 2012 measured on adult personality traits, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), and 3 life outcomes – education, income, and life outcome satisfaction.

    Childhood SES accounted for almost twice the disattenuated variance (22%) compared to personality (12%) in educational attainment, while personality accounted for almost twice the variance (12%) compared to childhood SES (7%) in annual income. Life outcome satisfaction was only predicted by personality (37%) and not by childhood SES (0%). Moreover, particularly the traits extraversion and neuroticism showed a full compensating catch-up effect on high childhood SES in annual income.

    Expressions of personality may be growing in predictive importance and constitute a societal trademark of the American dream being present. Sweden is a renowned progressive, individualistic, and egalitarian country, which could make the results of wide-reaching interest. 

  • 33.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, USA.
    Assessing the Structure of the Five Factor Model of Personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the Public Domain2019Ingår i: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 260-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of individual differences in personality traits is arguably one of the hallmarks of psychological research. Testing the structural validity of trait measurements is paramount in this endeavor. In the current study, we investigated 30 facet traits in one of the accessible and comprehensive public-domain Five Factor Model (FFM) personality inventories, IPIP-NEO-120 (Johnson, 2014), using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). We present structural loadings for all trait facets organized into respective FFM-trait domain (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Both hierarchical second-order and bi-factor models showed tolerable model fit indices, using confirmatory factor analysis in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Some facet traits were substantially more representative than others for their respective trait domain, which facilitate further discussions on FFM-construct content. We conclude that IPIP-NEO is sufficiently structurally robust for future use, for the benefit of research and practice in personality assessment.

  • 34.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128)2018Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 129, s. 126-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reports on the scope and size of sex differences in 30 personality facet traits, using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). The study was one of the first to utilize the open access version of the Five-Factor Model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the large public. Overall, across age-groups 19–69 years old, women scored notably higher than men in Agreeableness (d = 0.58) and Neuroticism (d = 0.40). Specifically, women scored d > 0.50 in facet traits Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy, while men only scored slightly higher (d > 0.20) than women in facet traits Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect. Sex gaps in the five trait domains were fairly constant across all age-groups, with the exception for age-group 19–29 years old. The discussion centers on how to interpret effects sizes in sex differences in personality traits, and tentative consequences. 

  • 35.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Organizing Principles and Management Climate in High-Performing Municipal Elderly Care2016Ingår i: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 82-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Previous research has shown that user-oriented care predicts older persons’ satisfaction with care. What is yet to be researched is how senior management facilitates the implementation of user-oriented care. The present study set out to investigate the organizing principles and management climate characterizing successful elderly care organizations.

    Design – The care organization in one highly ranked municipality was selected and compared with a more average municipality. On-site semi-structured in-depth interviews with managers as well as participatory observations at managers’ meetings were conducted in both municipalities.

    Findings – The results revealed three key principles for successful elderly care: 1) organizing care from the viewpoint of the older service user, 2) recruiting and training competent and autonomous employees, 3) instilling a vision for the mission which guides operations at all levels in the organization. Furthermore, using climate theory to interpret the material, in the highly successful municipality the management climate was characterized by affective support and cognitive autonomy, in contrast to a more instrumental work climate primarily focusing on organizational structure and doing things right characterizing the more average municipality.

    Value – We suggest that guiding organizing principles are intertwined with management climate and that there are multiple perspectives that must be considered by the upper management, i.e., the views of the older persons, the co-workers, and the mission. The results can guide future care quality developments and increase the understanding of the importance of organizational climate at the senior management level.

  • 36.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 1-13, artikel-id e0179646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individualsfrom different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has establishedreliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends thisresearch by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey inEnglish with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive,open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulatedthat differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this aSimilarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities acrosscountries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second,within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patternsacross countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries wasless than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personalitytraits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanationfor the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

  • 37.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Variations in user-oriented elderly care: a multilevel approach2017Ingår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 138-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Cost and satisfaction trends in Swedish elderly home care2016Ingår i: Home Health Care Management & Practice, ISSN 1084-8223, E-ISSN 1552-6739, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 250-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Division of Gerontology, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    User-oriented elderly care: A validation study in two different settings using observational data2015Ingår i: Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, ISSN 1471-7794, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 140-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - User-oriented care, defined as individualized assisting behaviors, is the dominant approach within elderly care today. Yet, there is little known about its conceptual structure. This paper proposes that user-oriented care has a bi-partite structure which may be decomposed into the two dimensions of task and relation. Design/methodology/approach - Care workers were "shadowed" (i.e. observed) at their work (n=391 rated interactions). User-oriented care was assessed along ten process quality indicators targeting the acts of caregiving (i.e. task focus, relation focus, involvement, time-use, body language, autonomy, respect, warmth, encouragement, and information) in two elderly care settings, i.e. home care and nursing home. Observations added up to 45 hours. Findings - Principal component analyses confirmed the proposed two-factor structure of user-oriented care. Specifically, the user-oriented care indicators loaded on two distinct factors, i.e. task and relation. The underlying structure of user-oriented care revealed to be invariant across the two settings. However, the results revealed interesting structural differences in terms of explained variance and the magnitude of factor loadings in the home care and nursing home settings. Differences also emerged specifically pertaining to the indicators of autonomy and time-use. These findings suggest that user-oriented behavior may to some extent denote different acts of caregiving and what may be called task- and relation-orientation may be loaded with different meanings in these two care settings. Originality/value - This is the first study investigating user-oriented behavior in the context of elderly care using a quantitative observational approach. The authors propose that the observed differences between the two care settings are primarily not due to better elderly care work in home care, but due to some inherent differences between these two contexts of care (e.g. better health and living at home). © Ali Kazemi and Petri J. Kajonius. Published by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 40.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding2018Ingår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this researchby using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariateeffect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, haveunderestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strongcorrelation (r = .69) between a country’s sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additionalanalyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. Wespeculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 41.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing.This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and brightpersonality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample ofSwedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forminga sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated withthe self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing valuesHedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscendingvalues of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values.Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” andself-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can bepredicted by personality traits.

  • 42.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University West, Sweden.
    Dark values: The dark triad in Schwartz’ value types2016Ingår i: Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, s. 82-96Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Empathy and Universal Values Explicated by the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis2016Ingår i: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 156, nr 6, s. 610-619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research reports that empathy is on the decline in present-day society together with an increasing trend in self-enhancing values. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis we investigated whether these constructs are interlinked, by analyzing the relationships between emotional and cognitive empathy and 10 universal values. In the first study, using a middle-aged US sample, the results showed that empathy was strongly and positively related to altruistic values and negatively to self-enhancing values in a pattern which aligned with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In a second confirmation study, these findings were replicated and extended, while also controlling for the Big Five personality traits, to discount that empathy is only captured by basic personality. Only emotional empathy, not cognitive empathy, accounted for up to 18% additional variance in altruistic values, which further confirmed the emphasis on feelings, as postulated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis.

  • 44.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad2019Ingår i: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 3-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings. In subsequent studies, two- and three-factor models fitted the data similarly, with the best fitting model being a bifactor model with items from Machiavellianism and psychopathy modelled as one specific factor, and narcissism as a second specific factor. On this basis, we suggest that the SD3 does not seem to capture the different mental processes theorized to underlie the similar behaviors generated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Additionally, we recommend the use of a single SD3 composite score, and not subscale scores, as subscales contain small amounts of reliable variance beyond the general factor.

  • 45.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    Garcia, Denilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory2017Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, s. 74-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

  • 46.
    Roos, John M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. University of Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden.
    The Personality Map of Sweden2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The majority of research in this field has focused on cross-national comparisons, while less attention has been given to variations in personality traits within countries (Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015).

    More recently, regional personality differences have been mapped in both United States and Great Britain (Rentfrow, Gosling, Jokela, Stillwell, Kosinki & Potter, 2013; Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015). The aim of the present study is to map regional personality differences in Sweden.

    Using a representative sample of Swedish residents (N = 6154), we mapped the geographical distribution of the Big Five Personality traits across eight national areas (e.g. Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, South Småland and the Islands, South Sweden, West Sweden, North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland and Upper Norrland).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of agreeableness [F (7, 6154) = 4.63, p < .01, partial ƞ² =.005]. Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant differences (p < .01) were found between South Sweden (M = 2.74) and the Upper Norrland (M = 2.93), and between South Sweden and North Middle Sweden (M = 2.88). Descriptive statistics illustrate a stepwise change toward higher degree of agreeableness, from the South of Sweden to the North of Sweden (Figure 1).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of conscientiousness (F (7, 6164) = 2,51, p < .05, partial ƞ² =.003). Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant (p < .05) differences were found only between Stockholm (M = 2.94) and the Upper Norrland (M = 3.06). 

    Insights about regional personality differences within a nation are useful, because such differences are associated with political, economic, social and health outcomes and thereby linked to a regions history, culture and ability to change.

  • 47.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Veryday, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. University College West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Non-verbal personality assessment with 10 cartoon-like portrayals2015Ingår i: ECPA 13th European Conference on Psychological Assessment, Zurich, July 22-25, 2015: Book of abstracts / [ed] Willibald Ruch, 2015, s. 78-79Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a non-verbal personality assessment that consists of 10 cartoon-like portrayals, one for each factor in the five-factor model of personality and their counterparts (i.e. open-minded, conscientious, extravert, agreeable, and neurotic; versus close-minded, impulsive, introvert, antagonistic, and emotionally stable). The assessment has been constructed in collaboration with graphic designers at an international top-ranking design and innovation agency, Veryday. Unlike existing personality assessments, this assessment is developed for interviews and combines the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self rather than only focusing on the ECPA13 Zurich 79 Paper Sessions respondent´s self-reported perceived self. The aim of the assessment is to provide insight into gaps that reside in incongruity between the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self and thereafter focusing the interview on how to bridge the gap(s). The portrayals have been validated through 156 undergraduate students at Stockholm University. The content validity was verified via tag clouds of top-of-mind words and the criterion validity was verified via the verbal assessment criterion, HP5i. The preliminary analyses are promising in terms of reshaping and adjusting established personality assessments into non-verbal tools for interview settings in therapy and user-studies. However, the assessment need to be further validated and discussed with experts in the field of psychological assessments.

  • 48.
    Roos, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Centre for Consumer Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Business Administration and Textile Management, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Expert validity on non-verbal personality characters2017Ingår i: 14th Conference on Psychological Assessment, July 5-8, 2017, Lisbon, Portugal: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Paula Ferreira, Aristides Ferreira, Inês Afonso, & Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Lisbon: Faculty of Psychology of the University of Lisbon , 2017, s. 81-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Brukarorientering och nöjdhet i svensk äldreomsorg2016Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 93, nr 2, s. 178-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln redogörs för de viktigaste faktorerna som påverkar brukarnöjdhet inom svensk äldreomsorg på basis av statistiska analyser av primärdata i Socialstyrelsens och SKL:s årliga undersökning Öppna jämförelser samt fältstudier. Resultaten visar på den stora betydelsen av goda relationer mellan medarbetare och brukare präglade av respekt, trygghet och inflytande.  I artikeln redogörs också för de fem viktigaste komponenterna i det som kallas brukarorientering nämligen uppgiftsfokus, individfokus, känsla, samarbete och tidsanvändning. Syftet med denna artikel är att uppmärksamma beslutsfattare och äldreomsorgsadministratörer på betydelsen av att sträva efter en hög relationskvalitet och att undvika ett överdrivet fokus på att nå goda rankningresultat, särskilt som dessa rankningar har visats överdriva skillnader i kommuners äldreomsorgskvalitet.

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