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  • 1.
    Abril, Daniel
    et al.
    IIIA, Institut d'Investigació en Intelligència Artificial – CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Bellaterra, Spain / UAB, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo
    DEIC, Dep. Enginyeria de la Informació i de les Comunicacions, UAB, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. IIIA, Institut d'Investigació en Intelligència Artificial – CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Spherical Microaggregation: Anonymizing Sparse Vector Spaces2015In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 49, p. 28-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unstructured texts are a very popular data type and still widely unexplored in the privacy preserving data mining field. We consider the problem of providing public information about a set of confidential documents. To that end we have developed a method to protect a Vector Space Model (VSM), to make it public even if the documents it represents are private. This method is inspired by microaggregation, a popular protection method from statistical disclosure control, and adapted to work with sparse and high dimensional data sets.

  • 2.
    Abril, Daniel
    et al.
    IIIA, Institut d'Investigació en Intel·ligència Artificial, CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain / UAB, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. IIIA, Institut d'Investigació en Intel·ligència Artificial, CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo
    DEIC, Dep. Enginyeria de la Informació i de les Comunicacions, UAB, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Supervised Learning Using a Symmetric Bilinear Form for Record Linkage2015In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 26, p. 144-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Record Linkage is used to link records of two different files corresponding to the same individuals. These algorithms are used for database integration. In data privacy, these algorithms are used to evaluate the disclosure risk of a protected data set by linking records that belong to the same individual. The degree of success when linking the original (unprotected data) with the protected data gives an estimation of the disclosure risk.

    In this paper we propose a new parameterized aggregation operator and a supervised learning method for disclosure risk assessment. The parameterized operator is a symmetric bilinear form and the supervised learning method is formalized as an optimization problem. The target of the optimization problem is to find the values of the aggregation parameters that maximize the number of re-identification (or correct links). We evaluate and compare our proposal with other non-parametrized variations of record linkage, such as those using the Mahalanobis distance and the Euclidean distance (one of the most used approaches for this purpose). Additionally, we also compare it with other previously presented parameterized aggregation operators for record linkage such as the weighted mean and the Choquet integral. From these comparisons we show how the proposed aggregation operator is able to overcome or at least achieve similar results than the other parameterized operators. We also study which are the necessary optimization problem conditions to consider the described aggregation functions as metric functions.

  • 3.
    Abu Khousa, Eman
    et al.
    UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Atif, Yacine
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Social network analysis to influence career development2018In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 601-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social network analysis techniques have shown a potential for influencing gradu-ates to meet industry needs. In this paper, we propose a social-web driven solutions to bridge formal education and industry needs. The proposed career development frame-work utilizes social network analytics, influence diffusion algorithms and persuasive technology models along three phases: (1) career readiness to measure and visualize the general cognitive dispositions required for a successful career in the 21st Century, (2) career prediction to persuade future graduates into a desired career path by clustering learners whose career prospects are deemed similar, into a community of practice; and (3) career development to drive growth within a social network structure where social network analytics and persuasive techniques are applied to incite the adoption of desired career behaviors. The process starts by discovering behavioral features to create a cognitive profile and diagnose individual deficiencies. Then, we develop a fuzzy clustering algorithm that predicts similar patterns with controlled constraint-violations to construct a social structure for collaborative cognitive attainment. This social framework facilitates the deployment of novel influence diffusion approaches, whereby we propose a reciprocal-weighted similarity function and a triadic clo-sure approach. In doing so, we investigate contemporary social network analytics to maximize influence diffusion across a synthesized social network. The outcome of this social computing approach leads to a persuasive model that supports behavioral changes and developments. The performance results obtained from both analytical and experi-mental evaluations validate our data-driven strategy for persuasive behavioral change.

  • 4.
    Aggestam, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    IT-supported Knowledge Repositories for Sharing Best Practices: Getting Dressed for Success2007In: International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED 2007), International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Aggestam, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    IT-supported knowledge repositories: Increasing their Usefulness by Supporting Knowledge Capture2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations use various resources to achieve business objectives, and for financial gain. In modern business, knowledge is a critical resource, and organizations cannot afford not to manage it. Knowledge Management (KM) aims to support learning and to create value for the organization. Based on three levels of inquiry (why, what, how), work presented in this thesis includes a synthesized view of the existing body of knowledge concerning KM and hence a holistic characterization of KM. This characterization reveals a strong dependency between KM and Learning Organization (LO). Neither of them can be successful without the other. We show that a KM project resulting in an IT-supported knowledge repository is a suitable way to start when the intention is to initiate KM work. Thus, our research focuses on ITsupported knowledge repositories.Large numbers of KM projects fail, and organizations lack support for their KM undertakings. These are the main problems that our research addresses. In order for an IT-supported knowledge repository to be successful, it must be used. Thus, the content of the repository is critical for success. Our work reveals that the process of capturing new knowledge is critical if the knowledge repository is to include relevant and updated knowledge. With the purpose of supporting the capture process, this thesis provides a detailed characterization of the capture process as well as guidance aiming to facilitate the implementation of the capture process in such a way that knowledge is continuously captured, also after the KM implementation project is completed. We argue that the continuous capture of new knowledge which can potentially be stored in the knowledge repository will, in the long term perspective, have a positive influence on the usefulness of the repository. This will most likely increase the number of users of the repository and accordingly increase the number of successful KM projects.All the work presented in this thesis is the result of a qualitative research process comprising a literature review and an empirical study that were carried out in parallel. The empirical study is a case study inspired by action research, which involved participation in the project Efficient Knowledge Management and Learning in Knowledge Intensive Organizations (EKLär).

  • 6.
    Aggestam, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Knowledge Losses in the Capturing Process2007In: Managing Worldwide Operations and Communications with Information Technology: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Information Resources Management Association (IRMA) Conference / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, Idea Group Inc., 2007, p. 53-56Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Strategic Knowledge Management Issues when Designing Knowledge Repositories2007In: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2007, Association for Information Systems, 2007, p. 528-539Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge forms an important asset in modern organisations. In order to gain and sustain competitive advantage knowledge has to be managed. One aspect of doing this is to build knowledge repositories. In this paper we extend the strategic knowledge management framework to betters suit the process of constructing knowledge repositories. The extended framework highlights, for example, the impact of organizational culture and the importance of distinguishing between the individual and organizational knowledge processes and relating them to each other. The application of the extended framework to analyze a case in the public health care sector revealed a number of important aspects in the preparation and implementation of a knowledge management project. In particular we highlight the importance of having a strategic vision and making the dual relationship between usage and design explicit when implementing a knowledge repository.

  • 8.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Supporting Knowledge Evaluation to Increase Quality in Electronic Knowledge Repositories2010In: International Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1548-0666, E-ISSN 1548-0658, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge forms an important asset in modern organizations. In order to gain and sustain competitive advantage knowledge has to be managed. One aspect of this is to use Electronic Knowledge Repositories (EKR) to enhance knowledge sharing, reuse and learning. The success of an EKR is dependent on the quality of its content. For knowledge to be stored in an EKR, it has to be captured. One crucial part of the capture process is to evaluate whether the identified knowledge should be incorporated in the EKR or not. Therefore, to increase quality in an EKR, the evaluation stage of the capture process must be successfully carried out. Based on an interpretive field study and an extensive literature review, this paper identifies and characterizes Critical Success Factors (CSF) in the evaluation stage and presents guidance aiming to support implementation of the evaluation stage with the purpose to increase the quality of an EKR. In particular, the guidance supports the decision whether identified knowledge should be stored or not and it highlights the importance of performing evaluation addressing correctness, relevance, protection and redundancy. The characterization of the capture process contributes mainly to KM theory, and the guidance to KM practice.

  • 9.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Critical Success Factors in Capturing Knowledge for Retention in IT-Supported Repositories2014In: Information, ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 558-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate the suitability of IT-supported knowledge repositories for knowledge retention. Successful knowledge retention is dependent on whatis stored in a repository and, hence, possible to share. Accordingly, the ability to capture theright (relevant) knowledge is a key aspect. Therefore, to increase the quality in an IT-supported knowledge repository, the identification activity, which starts the capture process, must besuccessfully performed. While critical success factors (CSFs) for knowledge retention andknowledge management are frequently discussed in the literature, there is a knowledge gapconcerning CSFs for this specific knowledge capture activity. From a knowledge retention perspective, this paper proposes a model that characterizes CSFs for the identification activity and highlights the CSFs’ contribution to knowledge retention.

  • 10.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Increasing the Quality in IT-supported Knowledge Repositories: Critical Success Factors for Identifying Knowledge2010In: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 5-8 January 2010, Koloa, Kauai, Hawaii: Abstracts and CD-ROM of Full Papers / [ed] Ralph H. Sprague, Jr., IEEE Computer Society, 2010, p. 3329-3337Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT-supported knowledge repositories are an important part in Knowledge Management (KM) work. The success of an IT-supported knowledge repository is dependent on what is stored in the repository and hence the ability to capture the right knowledge is a key aspect. Therefore, to increase the quality in an ITsupported Knowledge Repository, the identify activity, which starts the capture process, must be successfully performed. While Critical Success Factors (CSF) for KM and KMS are frequently discussed in the literature, there is a knowledge gap concerning CSF for this specific knowledge capture activity. Based on an interpretive field study and a literature review, this paper proposes and characterizes CSF for the identify activity. For example, we highlight the importance of having organizational knowledge about what knowledge to capture and where to find it, i.e. having knowledge about potential sources of knowledge.

  • 11.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluation criteria to increase information quality in electronic knowledge repositories2008In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Association for Information Systems, 2008, p. 1814-1825Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge forms an important asset in modern organisations. In order to gain and sustain competitive advantage knowledge has to be managed. One aspect of this is to use Electronic Knowledge Repositories (EKRs) in order to enhance knowledge sharing, reuse and learning. The success of an EKR is dependent on the quality of its content. For knowledge to be stored in an EKR, it has to be captured. One crucial part of the capture process is to evaluate whether the identified knowledge should be incorporated in the EKR or not. Therefore, to increase information quality in an EKR, the evaluation stage of the capture process must be successfully performed. This paper characterizes Critical Success Factors (CSF) for knowledge evaluation and presents six evaluation criteria to guide the evaluation stage in order to increase information quality in EKR:s. In particular we highlight the importance of performing evaluation addressing correctness, relevance, protection and redundancy.

     

  • 12.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Seven Types of Knowledge Loss in the Knowledge Capture Process2010In: Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2010), Association for Information Systems, 2010, p. Paper 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Society is based on knowledge and the availability thereof. Access to knowledge empowers people, and organizations must reuse knowledge to be competitive. The right knowledge to the right person at the right time is important for success, and IT plays an important role in order to achieve this goal, for example in the form of Electronic Knowlege Repositories (EKR). The success of an EKR depends on what is stored therein, and the ability to capture the right knowledge is hence a key aspect. This, however, is a complex issue. The goal of this paper is to identify and describe different types of knowledge loss, seven of which have been identified and characterized. As an example, one knowledge loss shows that not all knowledge can be stored, and critical knowledge elements may therefore be lost when attempting to store it. Some knowledge loss may be desirable, since an organization should not want to store everything. The results contribute to capturing the right knowledge, and hence to successful EKR. The results thus contribute to elevating the competitive power of an organization.

  • 13.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Region Västra Götaland, 40544, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    How to Successfully Apply Critical Success Factors in Healthcare Information Systems Development?: A Story from the Field2012In: Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems, Barcelona, Spain 2012, Association for Information Systems, 2012, p. Paper 220-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have focused on retrospectively identifying critical success factors (CSFs) for healthcare information system (HIS) development projects. In this paper the central question is how in advance selected CSFs can be applied in the best way. An action research study has been carried out in a large Swedish healthcare organization during 2010 and 2011 where the application of four CSFs has been planned, documented and reflected upon. Challenges are identified that may arise when tailoring general CSFs to situational circumstances. For example, the self-evident CSF of ?having a clear and accepted objective? becomes tricky and complex in practice when facing 15 autonomous boards that all need to support the project. Similar insights are gained for other CSFs. More research is needed to illuminate the complexities of how to apply CSFs. Another important observation is that different CSFs strengthen one another, which implies that they should be applied and analysed in concert rather than isolated. Finally, healthcare practitioners need to be aware that CSFs are very helpful, but that tailoring general CSFs to the unique situation of the HIS development project requires much effort and continuous reflection from a holistic perspective embedded in systems thinking.

  • 14.
    Aktius, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nordahl, Mats
    Department of Applied Information Technology, Göteborg University and Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Behavior-Based Model of the Hydra, Phylum Cnidaria2007In: 9th European Conference, ECAL 2007: Advances in Artificial Life, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, p. 1024-1033Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavior-based artificial systems, e.g. mobile robots, are frequently designed using (various degrees and levels of) biology as inspiration, but rarely modeled based on actual quantitative empirical data. This paper presents a data-driven behavior-based model of a simple biological organism, the hydra. Four constituent behaviors were implemented in a simulated animal, and the overall behavior organization was accomplished using a colony-style architecture (CSA). The results indicate that the CSA, using a priority-based behavioral hierarchy suggested in the literature, can be used to model behavioral properties like latency, activation threshold, habituation, and duration of the individual behaviors of the hydra. Limitations of this behavior-based approach are also discussed.

  • 15.
    Aktius, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kognitiv robotik2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen, Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 551-560Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Al Mamun, Abdullah
    et al.
    Division of Software Engineering Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Division of Software Engineering Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Explicating, Understanding and Managing Technical Debt from Self-Driving Miniature Car Projects2014In: Proceedings 2014 6th IEEE International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt: MTD 2014, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 11-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical debt refers to various weaknesses in the design or implementation of a system resulting from trade-offs during software development usually for a quick release. Accumulating such debt over time without reducing it can seriously hamper the reusability and maintainability of the software. The aim of this study is to understand the state of the technical debt in the development of self-driving miniature cars so that proper actions can be planned to reduce the debt to have more reusable and maintainable software. A case study on a selected feature from two self-driving miniature car development projects is performed to assess the technical debt. Additionally, an interview study is conducted involving the developers to relate the findings of the case study with the possible root causes. The result of the study indicates that "the lack of knowledge" is not the primary reason for the accumulation of technical debt from the selected code smells. The root causes are rather in factors like time pressure followed by issues related to software/hardware integration and incomplete refactoring as well as reuse of legacy, third party, or open source code.

  • 17.
    Alcantud, Jose Carlos R.
    et al.
    BORDA Research Unit and Multidisciplinary Institute of Enterprise (IME), University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Decomposition theorems and extension principles for hesitant fuzzy sets2018In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 41, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We prove a decomposition theorem for hesitant fuzzy sets, which states that every typical hesitant fuzzy set on a set can be represented by a well-structured family of fuzzy sets on that set. This decomposition is expressed by the novel concept of hesitant fuzzy set associated with a family of hesitant fuzzy sets, in terms of newly defined families of their cuts. Our result supposes the first representation theorem of hesitant fuzzy sets in the literature. Other related representation results are proven. We also define two novel extension principles that extend crisp functions to functions that map hesitant fuzzy sets into hesitant fuzzy sets.

  • 18.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Envisioning a future decision support system for requirements engineering: A holistic and human-centred perspective2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User Experience of Conveying Emotions by Touch2017In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2017, p. 1240-1247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, 64 users were asked to convey eight distinct emotion to a humanoid Nao robot via touch, and were then asked to evaluate their experiences of performing that task. Large differences between emotions were revealed. Users perceived conveying of positive/pro-social emotions as significantly easier than negative emotions, with love and disgust as the two extremes. When asked whether they would act differently towards a human, compared to the robot, the users’ replies varied. A content analysis of interviews revealed a generally positive user experience (UX) while interacting with the robot, but users also found the task challenging in several ways. Three major themes with impact on the UX emerged; responsiveness, robustness, and trickiness. The results are discussed in relation to a study of human-human affective tactile interaction, with implications for human-robot interaction (HRI) and design of social and affective robotics in particular. 

  • 20.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User Experience of Socially Interactive Robots: Its Role and Relevance2015In: Handbook of Research on Synthesizing Human Emotion in Intelligent Systems and Robotics / [ed] Jordi Vallverdú, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global, 2015, p. 352-364Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in everyday life for a growing number of people, but negative user experience (UX) can entail reluctance to use robots. Positive user experience underpins proliferation of socially interactive robots. Therefore, it is essential for robot developers to put serious efforts to attain social robots that the users experience as positive. In current human-robot interaction (HRI) research, user experience is reckoned to be important and is used as an argument for stating that something is positive. However, the notion of user experience is noticeably often taken for granted and is neither described nor problematized. By recognizing the complexity of user experience the intended contributions can be even more valuable. Another trend in HRI research is to focus on user experience evaluation and examination of user experience. The current research paths of user experience of socially interactive robots are not enough. This chapter suggests that additional research directions are needed in order accomplish long-term, wide-spread success of socially interactive robots.

  • 21.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Computer & Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction2017In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), ISSN 1941-6237, E-ISSN 1941-6245, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in human society. For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importance to stressthe need for positive user experience (UX) of such robots. The human-centered view emphasizes various aspects that emerge in the interaction between humans and robots. However, a positive UX does not appear by itself but has to be designed for and evaluated systematically. In this paper, the focus is on the role and relevance of UX in human-robot interaction (HRI) and four trends concerning the role and relevance of UX related to socially interactive robots are identified, and three challenges related to its evaluation are also presented. It is argued that current research efforts and directions are not sufficient in HRI research, and that future research needs to further address interdisciplinary research in order to achieve long-term success of socially interactive robots.

  • 22.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Designing Simulation-Based Training for Prehospital Emergency Care: Participation from a Participants Perspective2015In: Human-Computer Interaction: Designing and Evaluation: 17th International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, Vol. 9169, p. 297-306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based training for prehospital emergency care is characterized by high degrees of complexity. Thorough knowledge of both the work and the setting is crucial and it is therefore important to involve both end-users and other stakeholders during the whole design process. This paper investigates a design process by focusing on how project participants experience the work process and participation of a multi-disciplinary, research-practitioner design team. This case study focuses on the work within a development project of a new prehospital emergency training facility. Open-ended interviews were conducted with the project participants halfway through the project. Strikingly, the results show that while there are problems and tensions that potentially could overturn the project, all participants express strong satisfaction with their participation in the project. This implies that the accumulated positive experiences are so strong that they overshadow tensions and problems that under other circumstances could have caused a project breakdown.

  • 23.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Beslutstödssystem2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen, Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 595-602Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Människa-dator-interaktion2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen, Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 573-581Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    DESCRY: A Method for Evaluating Decision-Supporting Capabilities of Requirements Engineering2008In: Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality: 14th International Working Conference, REFSQ 2008, Montpellier, France, June 16-17, 2008, Proceedings / [ed] Barbara Paech, Colette Rolland, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 52-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex decision-making is a prominent aspect of requirements engineering (RE) and the need for improved decision support for RE decision-makers has been identified by a number of authors in the research literature. Decision-supporting features and qualities can be integrated in RE tools. Thus, there is a need to evaluate the decision-supporting capabilities of RE tools. In this paper, we introduce a summative, criteria-based evaluation method termed DESCRY, which purpose is to investigate to what extent RE tools have decision-supporting capabilities. The criteria and their related questions are empirically as well as theoretically grounded.

  • 26.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Portraying the practice of decision-making in requirements engineering: a case of large scale bespoke development2008In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 257-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Complex decision-making is a prominent aspect of requirements engineering (RE) and the need for improved decision support for RE decision-makers has been identified by a number of authors in the research literature. A first step toward better decision support in requirements engineering is to understand multifaceted decision situations of decision-makers. In this paper, the focus is on RE decision-making in large scale bespoke development. The decision situation of RE decision-makers on a subsystem level has been studied at a systems engineering company and is depicted in this paper. These situations are described in terms of, e.g., RE decision matters, RE decision-making activities, and RE decision processes. Factors that affect RE decision-makers are also identified.

     

  • 27.
    Aliahmadipour, Laia
    et al.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eslami, Esfandiar
    Department of Pure Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    Eftekhari, Mahdi
    Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    A definition for hesitant fuzzy partitions2016In: International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems, ISSN 1875-6891, E-ISSN 1875-6883, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 497-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we define hesitant fuzzy partitions (H-fuzzy partitions) to consider the results of standard fuzzy clustering family (e.g. fuzzy c-means and intuitionistic fuzzy c-means). We define a method to construct H-fuzzy partitions from a set of fuzzy clusters obtained from several executions of fuzzy clustering algorithms with various initialization of their parameters. Our purpose is to consider some local optimal solutions to find a global optimal solution also letting the user to consider various reliable membership values and cluster centers to evaluate her/his problem using different cluster validity indices.

  • 28.
    Aliahmadipour, Laya
    et al.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Department of Mathematics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eslami, Esfandiar
    Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Department of Mathematics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    On Hesitant Fuzzy Clustering and Clustering of Hesitant Fuzzy Data2017In: Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering: Part I / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Anders Dahlbom & Yasuo Narukawa, Springer, 2017, p. 157-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the notion of hesitant fuzzy set was introduced, some clustering algorithms have been proposed to cluster hesitant fuzzy data. Beside of hesitation in data, there is some hesitation in the clustering (classification) of a crisp data set. This hesitation may be arise in the selection process of a suitable clustering (classification) algorithm and initial parametrization of a clustering (classification) algorithm. Hesitant fuzzy set theory is a suitable tool to deal with this kind of problems. In this study, we introduce two different points of view to apply hesitant fuzzy sets in the data mining tasks, specially in the clustering algorithms.

  • 29.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Coaching by Gaming: An Instructor Perspective of Game-based Vocational Training2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organisations have a long history of using games for training. Over the years, they have developed training practices involving role-play, simulations, puckstering and gaming. Most researchers in serious games, i.e. games used for non-entertainment purposes, focus their studies on the learners. This licentiate thesis, instead, takes a closer look on the roles of instructors in game-based training situations, specifically at the Swedish Land Warfare Centre. Through a mix of theoretical and empirical studies, training practices were scrutinised, resulting in a framework for game-based vocational training. A key element of this framework is the coaching by gaming perspective in which instructors give un-intrusive, formative feedback through role-play and gameplay. Another important aspect of the framework involves dynamic debriefing. These insights points to specific needs for system support for instructors involved in game-based training. They also emphasise the fact that serious gaming is a highly contextualised activity made up of more than the game and the players.

  • 30.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Facilitating coaching during game-based vocational training2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Facilitation matters: A framework for instructor-led serious gaming2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the use of serious games from an instructor perspective. More specifically, it aims to study the roles of instructors and how they can be facilitated within an instructor-led game-based training environment. Research within the field of serious games has mostly focused on the learners' perspective, but little attention has been paid to what the instructors do and what challenges that entails. In this thesis, I argue that serious games, as artefacts used for learning and training, cannot fully replace the instructors' tasks, but must rather be designed to facilitate the various activities of the instructors. Thus, instructors form an important target audience in serious game development – not just as subject matter experts, but also as users and players of the game – with a different set of needs than the learners. Moreover, serious gaming (the actualisation of a serious game) involves more than in-game activities, it also involves actions and events that occur off-game. These activities must also be considered when designing and utilising games for learning and training.

    Using a qualitative approach, instructor-led serious gaming has been explored from a range of contexts, from rehabilitation to incident commander training and military training. Several different instructor roles have been identified and characterised, including in-game facilitator, puckster, debriefer, technical support and subject matter expert. Based on empirical and theoretical material, a framework for instructor-led serious gaming has been developed. It involves best practices in different phases of game-based training, such as scenario authoring, coaching-by-gaming, assessing in-game and off-game performance, giving feedback, and conducting a debriefing or after-action review. Furthermore, specific needs and challenges for instructors have been identified and reformulated into guidelines for instructor-led serious gaming. The guidelines highlight the importance of usability and visualisation, as well as the need for carefully designed support tools for instructors' situation awareness, assessment and debriefing. Lastly, a number of success factors pertaining to both the development and actualisation of serious games are presented. Since serious games aim to be both productive and engaging, it is advantageous to work with interdisciplinary teams when developing serious games. This includes subject matter experts well versed in serious gaming practices. Furthermore, a successful serious game should adhere to sound pedagogical theories, be easy to use and maintain, and include system support for instructors' tasks. Successful serious gaming practices also involve having an organisational culture that fosters knowledge sharing among practitioners.

  • 32.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The active instructor: Benefits and barriers to instructor-led serious gaming2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 8-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is a wealth of studies on the subject of serious games, the same cannot be said on the issue of teaching with games, especially in game-based learning settings with adult learners. Over the years, most research in this area has been focused on the ‘active substance(s)’ of games for learning, focusing mainly on characteristics of games, but often failing to take the whole context of game-based learning into consideration, such as the role(s) of the teacher. However, the past two or three years has seen a shift in focus from merely the game as an isolated artefact, to also include more discussions on how games can successfully be integrated into an educational setting, as well as challenges as pitfalls of which instructors need to be aware. This paper aims to outline the contemporary research on instructor-led serious gaming and its implications for the design of serious gaming environments.

  • 33.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Letting the students create and the teacher play: Expanding the roles in serious gaming2011In: MindTrek '11: Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, ACM Press, 2011, p. 63-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe four player roles in game-based learning and training, namely student player, student author, teacher player and teacher author. By this, we want to emphasise the creative and collaborative nature of gameplay, such as in-game feedback, scenario creation and “puckstering“, that put students and teachers, not on opposite sides of a spectrum, but as members of a community of practice with varying degrees of expertise. Using these four player roles as a basis for analysis, we have observed training sessions for vocational education within military and rescue contexts. The result is multifaceted insights into both the strengths and draw-backs of incorporating these roles into a serious game.

  • 34.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Making the implicit explicit: Game-based training practices from an instructor perspective2012In: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL'12), Reading: Academic Publishing International, 2012, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Coaching Cycle: A Coaching-by-Gaming Approach in Serious Games2012In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 648-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organizations have a long history of using simulations, role-play, and games for training. This also encompasses good practices concerning how instructors utilize games and gaming behavior. Unfortunately, the work of instructors is rarely described explicitly in research relating to serious gaming. Decision makers also tend to have overconfidence in the pedagogical power of games and simulations, particularly where the instructor is taken out of the gaming loop. The authors propose a framework, the coaching cycle, that focuses on the roles of instructors. The roles include instructors acting as game players. The fact that the instructors take a more active part in all training activities will further improve learning. The coaching cycle integrates theories of experiential learning (where action precedes theory) and deliberate practice (where the trainee's skill is constantly challenged by a coach). Incorporating a coaching-by-gaming perspective complicates, but also strengthens, the player-centered design approach to game development in that we need to take into account two different types of players: trainees and instructor. Furthermore, the authors argue that the coaching cycle allows for a shift of focus to a more thorough debriefing, because it implies that learning of theoretical material before simulation/game playing is kept to a minimum. This shift will increase the transfer of knowledge.

  • 36.
    Almér, Alexander
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad informationsteknologi.
    Lowe, RobertUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Göteborgs universitet.Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 2016 Swecog conference2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Alvarez Díaz, María Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svensson, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Mystery of Elin: Incorporating a City Cultural Program on History and Heritage into a Pervasive Game2014In: IE2014 Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Interactive Entertainment / [ed] Karen Blackmore, Keith Nesbitt, Shamus P. Smith, ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the use of mobile terminals in historical spaces to play an adventure game, using a location-based platform to awaken the fantasy and curiosity of children about cultural heritage; the design of a mystery game as the medium to convey content along with features shared by pervasive games, such as mobile exploration, team work, and the combination of virtual and real worlds. It includes the process of adapting history to storytelling and the results of using a method to evaluate the experience.

  • 38.
    Alvarez Díaz, María Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Your Answer Will Make an Impression: Using Quiz Game Mechanics for the Collection of Visitor Data in a Museum2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Skövde: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the initial results from a project that aimed to collect visitor data at a traveling exhibition starting at the Regional Museum in Kristianstad, Sweden during 2014-2016. The project was intended also to contribute to the creation of an atmosphere “About time”, which was the subject of the exhibit. We built a system that was integrated as an interactable part of the exhibition by using elements of quiz game mechanics in combination with elements of data based tracking applications and elements of visual art installations. The data provides statistics which are used to visualize the current status of the visitors’ attitude toward specific questions about time, imprinting the visitors themselves an integral part of the exhibition. Visitors build a visual Game Ego when answering questions and at the same time provided statistical data that can be monitored and extracted from the system. The results show that we succeeded to some degree but more can be done towards incorporating game design elements to engage the user, such as feedback and challenge.

  • 39.
    Amorim, Joni A.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    Coventry University Technology Park, Coventry, UK.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Llinas, James
    State University of New York at Buffalo, USA.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Brodin, Martin
    Actea Consulting, Sweden.
    Cyber Security Training Perspectives2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building comprehensive cyber security strategies to protect people, infrastructure and assets demands research on methods and practices to reduce risks. Once the methods and practices are identified, there is a need to develop training for the manystakeholders involved, from security experts to the end user. In thispaper, we discuss new approaches for training, which includes the development of serious games for training on cyber security. The identification of the theoretical framework to be used for situation and threat assessment receives special consideration.

  • 40.
    Amorim, Joni A.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Yano, Edgar T.
    Department of Computer Science, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, São José dos Campos, Brazil.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Combitech, SAAB Group, Skövde.
    Awareness and training: Identification of relevant security skills and competencies2014In: Engineering Education in a Technology-Dependent World: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Claudio da Rocha Brito, Melany M. Ciampi, Guimarães: INTERTECH , 2014, , p. 57p. 37-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to identify needed skills and competencies for privacy and security, we propose a systematic process that maps privacy and security threats to related controls that are required to prevent, detect or remove such threats. This work suggests how to apply the process, while discussing how games and simulations can be used both to develop the desired behavior and to monitor the current competency level.

  • 41.
    Amorim, Joni A.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Training Systems, Saab AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Saab Training Systems, Saab AB Skövde, Sweden.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Privacy and Security in Cyberspace: Training Perspectives on the Personal Data Ecosystem2013In: European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC), Proceedings CD / [ed] Joel Brynielsson and Fredrik Johansson, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 139-142, article id 6657140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing understanding that privacy is an essential component of security. In order to decrease the probability of having data breaches, the design of information systems,  processes  and  architectures  should  incorporate considerations  related  to  both  privacy  and  security.  This incorporation may benefit from the offering of appropriate training. In this way, this paper intends to discuss how to better offer training while considering new developments that involve both multimedia production and the “gamification” of training. The paper suggests the use in conjunction of two frameworks: the EduPMO Framework, useful for the management of large scale projects  that  may  involve  a  consortium  of  organizations developing multimedia for the offering of training, and the Game Development Framework, useful for the identification of the main components of the serious game for training on privacy by design to be developed as part of the training offering.

  • 42.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Swedish School of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden / Swedish Armed Forces Centre for Defence Medicine, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument2016In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2016, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Immersion is important for simulation-based education; however, questionnaire-based instruments to measure immersion have some limitations. The aim of the present work is to develop a new instrument to measure immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

    Methods

    The instrument was developed in four phases: trigger identification, content validity scores, inter-rater reliability analysis and comparison with an existing immersion measure instrument. A modified Delphi process was used to develop the instrument and to establish validity and reliability. The expert panel consisted of 10 researchers. All the researchers in the team had previous experience of simulation in the health and/or fire and rescue services as researchers and/or educators and simulation designers. To identify triggers, the panel members independently screened video recordings from simulation scenarios. Here, a trigger is an event in a simulation that is considered a sign of reduced or enhanced immersion among simulation participants.

    Results

    The result consists of the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI). It contains 10 triggers, of which seven indicate reduced and three enhanced immersion. When using ISRI, a rater identifies trigger occurrences and assigns them strength between 1 and 3. The content validity analysis shows that all the 10 triggers meet an acceptable content validity index for items (I-CVI) standard. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) among raters was assessed using a two-way mixed, consistency, average-measures intra-class correlation (ICC). The ICC for the difference between weighted positive and negative triggers was 0.92, which indicates that the raters are in agreement. Comparison with results from an immersion questionnaire mirrors the ISRI results.

    Conclusions

    In conclusion, we present a novel and non-intrusive instrument for identifying and rating the level of immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

  • 43.
    Andler, Sten F
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brohede, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustavsson, Sanny
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mathiason, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    DeeDS NG: Architecture, Design, and Sample Application Scenario2007In: Handbook of Real-Time and Embedded Systems, CRC Press, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Andler, Sten F.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Fredin, Mikael
    Saab Microwave Systems AB, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    George Mason Univ., USA.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    SMARTracIn: a concept for spoof resistant tracking of vessels and detection of adverse intentions2009In: Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense VIII / [ed] Edward M. Carapezza, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009, p. 73050G-1-73050G-9, article id 73050GConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of maritime surveillance systems is to detect threats earlyenough to take appropriate actions. We present the results ofa study on maritime domain awareness performed during the fallof 2008. We analyze an identified capability gap of worldwidesurveillance in the maritime domain, and report from a userworkshop addressing the identified gap. We describe a SMARTracIn conceptsystem that integrates information from surveillance systems with background knowledgeon normal conditions to help users detect and visualize anomaliesin vessel traffic. Land-based systems that cover the coastal watersas well as airborne, space-borne and ships covering open seaare considered. Sensor data are combined with intelligence information fromship reporting systems and databases. We describe how information fusion,anomaly detection and semantic technology can be used to helpusers achieve more detailed maritime domain awareness. Human operators area vital part of this system and should be activecomponents in the fusion process. We focus on the problemof detecting anomalous behavior in ocean-going traffic, and a roomand door segmentation concept to achieve this. This requires theability to identify vessels that enter into areas covered bysensors as well as the use of information management systemsthat allow us to quickly find all relevant information.

  • 45.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User experience of affective touch in human-robot interaction2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 SWECOG conference, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2015, p. 5-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic technology is quickly advancing and robots are entering both professional and domestic settings. An increased application of robots in elderly care and in therapy shows a shift towards social robots acting in human environments, designed to socially interact with humans. Socially interactive robots need to act in relation to social and emotional aspects of human life, and be able to sense and react to social cues. Touch, as one of the most fundamental aspects of human social interaction (Montagu, 1986) has lately received great interest in human-robot interaction (HRI) research (e.g. Dahiya et al., 2010; Silvera-Tawil et al., 2015) and the interpretation of touch in robotics has been presented as an unresolved research area with a crucial role in further development of HRI (Silvera-Tawil et al., 2015). It has been argued that the communicative distance between people and robots would be shortened and that the interaction would be more meaningful and intuitive if robots were able to “feel”, “understand”, and respond to touch in accordance with expectations of the human (Silvera-Tawil et al., 2015). However, this reasoning takes the notion of user experience (UX) for granted. The concept of UX embraces both pragmatic and hedonic aspects of interaction with technology in a particular context (Hartson & Pyla, 2012). In the field of human-computer interaction, UX has been acknowledged as a key term in the design of interactive products, but UX has not been emphasized in HRI. Accordingly, this research argues that it is important to study not only the robotic technology aspect of tactile interaction but also the user’s experience of the interaction, i.e. taking on the human-centered HRI approach presented by Dautenhahn (2007). Research on human-human interaction has showed that humans are able to communicate emotions via touch, and that specific emotions are associated with specific touch behaviors (Hertenstein et al., 2009). As a starting point for narrowing the distance between UX and HRI, the present research suggests a study where subjects are instructed to convey specific emotions to a humanoid robot. The study aims at investigating the role of affective touch in HRI with a focus on touch behaviors (e.g. stroking, grasping) for specific emotions, touch locations on the robot, and user experience of interacting with the robot via touch. The intended contributions of this study are an increased understanding of the necessary properties of tactile sensors enabling affective touch in human-robot interaction, the relevant placements of the sensors on the robot, and how the robot’s “look and feel” affects the user’s experience of the interaction. The proposed research embarks on a new track of HRI research and will, contrary to prior research on tactile interaction in HRI, emphasize the user experience of affective touch, highlighting that a positive user experience has to be systematically and consciously designed in order for the social robots to achieve the intended benefits of being socially interactive. Accordingly, the proposed study is believed to give new insights about the understudied dimension of UX in HRI, with the potential to enrich interaction between humans and social robots.

  • 46.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Affective Touch in Human–Robot Interaction: Conveying Emotion to the Nao Robot2017In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective touch has a fundamental role in human development, social bonding, and for providing emotional support in interpersonal relationships. We present, what is to our knowledge, the first HRI study of tactile conveyance of both positive and negative emotions (affective touch) on the Nao robot, and based on an experimental set-up from a study of human–human tactile communication. In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to a small humanoid robot via touch. We found that female participants conveyed emotions for a longer time, using more varied interaction and touching more regions on the robot’s body, compared to male participants. Several differences between emotions were found such that emotions could be classified by the valence of the emotion conveyed, by combining touch amount and duration. Overall, these results show high agreement with those reported for human–human affective tactile communication and could also have impact on the design and placement of tactile sensors on humanoid robots.

  • 47.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Past and Future Challenges for Railway Research and the Role of a Systems Perspective2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VII: Ergonomics in Design, Design for All, Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design, Affective Design / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 1737-1746Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational train traffic is dependent on an efficient traffic plan monitored and executed by the traffic controllers, the proficient maneuvering of the trains by the train drivers, and on the interaction, communication, and coordination between these two work roles. The railway research community, and the branch of industry itself, has called for an integrated systems perspective for the whole train traffic system to achieve an efficient performance. As human-human and human-technology interactions are natural parts of the socio-technical system of train traffic, the aim of this paper is to provide illustrative examples for why a systems perspective is needed for the future of railway research. Furthermore, we present the theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) as a necessary addition to the theoretical and methodological toolbox of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF&E) discipline. To realize efficient and coordinated processes involved in organizing and executing operational train traffic, the paper proposes that the DCog framework should be implemented in the train traffic domain as a viable approach forward.

  • 48.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The coordination between train traffic controllers and train drivers: a distributed cognition perspective on railway2018In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has long been a call for a holistic systems perspective to better understand real work in the complex domain of railway traffic, prior research has not strongly emphasised the socio-technical perspective. In operational railway traffic, the successful planning and execution of the traffic are the product of the socio-technical system comprised by both train drivers and traffic controllers. This paper presents a study inspired by cognitive ethnography with the aim to characterise the coordinating activities that are conducted by train traffic controllers and train drivers in the work practices of the socio-technical system of Swedish railway. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) is used as a conceptual and analytical tool to make sense of the complex railway domain and the best practices as they are developed and performed “in the wild”. The analysis reveals a pattern of collaboration and coordination of actions among the workers and we introduce the concept of enacted actionable practices as a key concern for understanding how a successfully executed railway traffic emerges as a property of the socio-technical system. The implications for future railway research are briefly discussed.

  • 49.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Distributed Cognition in Manufacturing: Collaborative Assembly Work2016In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXX / [ed] Yee Mey Goh, Keith Case, IOS Press, 2016, p. 243-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive science is becoming increasingly central within humanfactors and ergonomics (HF&E) and there has long been a call for a more systemicperspective in the area with a somewhat broader unit of analysis. This paperpresents a case study applying the theoretical framework of distributed cognition(DCog), which shows how DCog would offer a more complete understanding ofmanufacturing within its greater context, including the social, cultural, andmaterial surroundings. This paper aims to characterize and analyse dock assemblyof forest machines as a complex socio-technical system from a DCog perspective;focusing on the creation of enacted landscapes in this particular setting. The paperalso exemplifies benefits of using the DCog framework in the manufacturingdomain as a way of grasping the assembly workers’ tacit competence and skills.

  • 50.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens2017In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 85-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

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