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  • 1.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, Cornwall, United kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Cloud Service Control Approach for Distributed and Adaptive Equipment Control in Cloud Environments2016In: Research and Innovation in Manufacturing: Key Enabling Technologies for the Factories of the Future - Proceedings of the 48th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Roberto Teti, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 41, 644-649 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A developing trend within the manufacturing shop-floor domain is the move of manufacturing activities into cloud environments, as scalable, on-demand and pay-per-usage cloud services. This will radically change traditional manufacturing, as borderless, distributed and collaborative manufacturing missions between volatile, best suited groups of partners will impose a multitude of advantages. The evolving Cloud Manufacturing (CM) paradigm will enable this new manufacturing concept, and on-going research has described many of its anticipated core virtues and enabling technologies. However, a major key enabling technology within CM which has not yet been fully addressed is the dynamic and distributed planning, control and execution of scattered and cooperating shop-floor equipment, completing joint manufacturing tasks.

    In this paper, the technological perspective for a cloud service-based control approach is described, and how it could be implemented. Existing manufacturing resources, such as soft, hard and capability resources, can be packaged as cloud services, and combined to create different levels of equipment or manufacturing control, ranging from low-level control of single machines or devices (e.g. Robot Control-as-a-Service), up to the execution of high level multi-process manufacturing tasks (e.g. Manufacturing-as-a-Service). A multi-layer control approach, featuring adaptive decision-making for both global and local environmental conditions, is proposed. This is realized through the use of a network of intelligent and distributable decision modules such as event-driven Function Blocks, enabling run-time manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions. The control system’s integration to the CM cloud service management functionality is also described.

  • 2.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Moore, Philip
    University College Falmouth, United Kingdom.
    Adaptive Assembly Feature Based Function Block Control of Robotic Assembly Operations2012In: The 13th Mechatronics Forum International Conference Proceedings: Vol. 1/3 / [ed] Rudolf Scheidl & Bernhard Jakoby, Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2012, 8-13 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing systems are exposed to a variety of unforeseen changes, negatively restricting their performances. External variations depending on market demand (e.g. changes in design, quantity and product mix) and internal variations in production capability and flexibility (e.g. equipment breakdowns, missing/worn/broken tools, delays and express orders) all contribute to an environment of uncertainty. In these dynamically changing environments, adaptability is a key feature for manufacturing systems to be able to perform at a maximum level, while keeping unscheduled downtime to a minimum. Targeting manufacturing equipment adaptability, this paper reports an assembly feature (AF) based approach for robotic assembly, using IEC 61499 compliant Function Blocks (FBs). Through the use of a network of event-driven FBs, an adaptive controller system for an industrial gantry robot’s assembly operations has been designed, implemented and tested. Basic assembly operations have been mapped as AFs into Assembly Feature Function Blocks (AF-FBs). Through their combination in FB networks, they can be aggregated to perform higher level assembly tasks. The AF-FBs dynamic execution and behavior can be adaptively controlled through embedded eventdriven algorithms, enabling the ability of adaptive decisions to handle unforeseen changes in the runtime environment.

  • 3.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering Royal Institute of Technology 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    The state of the art of cloud manufacturing and future trends2013In: Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference MSEC2013 June 10-14, 2013, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, ASME - The American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2013, Vol. 2, Article number MSEC2013-1123- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud manufacturing has emerged as a new manufacturing paradigm, which combines technologies (such as Internet of Things, Cloud computing, semantic Web, virtualisation and service-oriented technologies) with advanced manufacturing models, information and communication technologies. It aims to be networked, intelligent, service-oriented, knowledge-based and energy efficient, and promises a variety of benefits and advantages by providing fast, reliable and secure on-demand services for users. It is envisioned that companies in all sectors of manufacturing will be able to package their resources and know-hows in the Cloud, making them conveniently available for others through pay-as-you-go, which is also timely and economically attractive. Resources, e.g. manufacturing software tools, applications, knowledge and fabrication capabilities, will then be made accessible to presumptive consumers on a worldwide basis. After surveying a vast array of available publications, this paper presents an up-to-date literature review together with future trends and research directions in Cloud manufacturing.

  • 4.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Cornwall, UK.
    Adaptive Robot Control as a Service in Cloud Manufacturing2015In: ASME 2015 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference: Volume 2: Materials; Biomanufacturing; Properties, Applications and Systems; Sustainable Manufacturing, ASME Press, 2015, Vol. 2, Paper No. MSEC2015-9479- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for implementing the concept of Manufacturing-as-a-Service is increasing as concepts for letting the manufacturing shop-floor domain take advantage of the cloud appears. Combining technologies such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Semantic Web, virtualisation and service-oriented technologies with advanced manufacturing models, information and communication technologies, Cloud Manufacturing (CM) is emerging as a new manufacturing paradigm. The ideas of on-demand, scalable and pay-for-usage resource-sharing in this concept will move manufacturing towards distributed and collaborative missions in volatile partnerships. This will require a control approach for distributed planning and execution of cooperating manufacturing activities. Without control based on both global and local environmental conditions, the advantages of CM will not be fulfilled.

    By utilising smart and distributable decision modules such as event-driven FBs, run-time manufacturing operations in a distributed environment may be adjusted to prevailing manufacturing conditions. Packaged in a cloud service for manufacturing equipment control, it will satisfy the control needs in CM. By combining different resource types, such as hard, soft and capability resources, the cloud service Robot Control-as-a-Service can be realised.

    This paper describes the functional perspective and enabling technologies for a control approach for robotic assembly tasks in CM, and describes a scenario for its implementation.

  • 5.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm (KTH).
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, UK.
    Adaptive Robotic Control in Cloud Environments2014In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing / [ed] F. Frank Chen, The University of Texas at San Antonio, U.S.A., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA: DEStech Publications, Inc , 2014, 37-44 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalization is a trend which forces manufacturing industry of today to focus on more cost-effective manufacturing systems and collaboration within global supply chains and manufacturing networks. Cloud Manufacturing (CM) is evolving as a new manufacturing paradigm to match this trend, enabling the mutually advantageous sharing of resources, knowledge and information between distributed companies and manufacturing units. Providing a framework for collaboration within complex and critical tasks, such as manufacturing and design, it increases the companies’ ability to successfully compete on a global marketplace. One of the major, crucial objectives for CM is the coordinated planning, control and execution of discrete manufacturing operations in a collaborative and networked environment. This paper describes the overall concept of adaptive Function Block control of manufacturing equipment in Cloud environments, with the specific focus on robotic assembly operations, and presents Cloud Robotics as “Robot Control-as-a-Service” within CM.

  • 6.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Cloud Manufacturing: A Critical Review of Recent Development and Future Trends2017In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 30, no 4-5, 347-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an on-going paradigm shift in manufacturing, in which modern manufacturing industry is changing towards global manufacturing networks and supply chains. This will lead to the flexible usage of different globally distributed, scalable and sustainable, service-oriented manufacturing systems and resources. Combining recently emerged technologies, such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Semantic Web, service-oriented technologies, virtualisation and advanced high-performance computing technologies, with advanced manufacturing models and information technologies, Cloud Manufacturing is a new manufacturing paradigm built on resource sharing, supporting and driving this change.

    It is envisioned that companies in all sectors of manufacturing will be able to package their resources and know-hows in the Cloud, making them conveniently available for others through pay-as-you-go, which is also timely and economically attractive. Resources, e.g. manufacturing software tools, applications, knowledge and fabrication capabilities and equipment, will then be made accessible to presumptive consumers on a worldwide basis.

    Cloud Manufacturing has been in focus for a great deal of research interest and suggested applications during recent years, by both industrial and academic communities. After surveying a vast array of available publications, this paper presents an up-to-date literature review together with identified outstanding research issues, and future trends and directions within Cloud Manufacturing.

  • 7.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Feature-Based Adaptive Manufacturing Equipment Control for Cloud Environments2016In: Proceedings of the ASME 11th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, 2016, vol 2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2016, UNSP V002T04A019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ideas of on-demand, scalable and pay-for-usage resource-sharing in Cloud Manufacturing are steadily attracting more interest. For implementing the concept of Manufacturing as-a-Service in a cloud environment, description models and implementation language for resources and their capabilities are required. A standardized approach for systemived virtualization, servisilisation, retrieval, selection and composition into higher levels of functionality is necessary. For the collaborative sharing and use of networked manufacturing resources there is also a need for a control approach for distributed manufacturing equipment. In this paper, the technological perspective for an adaptive cloud service-based control approach is described, and a supporting information model for its implementation. The control is realized through the use of a network of intelligent and distributable Function Block decision modules, enabling run-time manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions. The control system's integration to the cloud service management functionality is described, as well as a feature-level capability model and the use of ontologies and the Semantic Web.

  • 8.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm (KTH).
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, UK.
    Function Block Approach for Adaptive Robotic Control in Virtual and Real Environments2014In: Proceedings of the 14th Mechatronics Forum International Conference / [ed] Leo J. De Vin and Jorge Solis, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014, 473-479 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing companies are facing an increasing amount of changes and uncertainty, caused by both internal and external factors. Frequently changing customer and market demands lead to variations in manufacturing quantities, product design and shorter product life-cycles, and variations in manufacturing capability and functionality contribute to a high level of uncertainty. The result is unpredictable manufacturing system performance, with an increased number of unforeseen events occurring in these systems. Such events are difficult for traditional planning and control systems to satisfactorily manage. For scenarios like these, with a dynamically changing manufacturing environment, adaptive decision making is crucial for successfully performing manufacturing operations. Relying on real-time information of manufacturing processes and operations, and their enabling resources, adaptive decision making can be realized with a control approach combining IEC 61499 event-driven Function Blocks (FBs) with manufacturing features. These FBs are small decision-making modules with embedded algorithms designed to generate the desired equipment control code. When dynamically triggered by event inputs, parameter values in their data inputs are forwarded to the appropriate algorithms, which generate new events and data output as control instructions. The data inputs also include monitored real-time information which allows the dynamic creation of equipment control code adapted to the actual run-time conditions on the shop-floor. Manufacturing features build on the concept that a manufacturing task can be broken down into a sequence of minor basic operations, in this research assembly features (AFs). These features define atomic assembly operations, and by combining and implementing these in the event-driven FB embedded algorithms, automatic code generation is possible. A test case with a virtual robot assembly cell is presented, demonstrating the functionality of the proposed control approach.

  • 9.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Feature-based control and information framework for adaptive and distributed manufacturing in cyber physical systems2017In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 43, 305-315 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern distributed manufacturing within Industry 4.0, supported by Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs), offers many promising capabilities regarding effective and flexible manufacturing, but there remain many challenges which may hinder its exploitation fully. One major issue is how to automatically control manufacturing equipment, e.g. industrial robots and CNC-machines, in an adaptive and effective manner. For collaborative sharing and use of distributed and networked manufacturing resources, a coherent, standardised approach for systemised planning and control at different manufacturing system levels and locations is a paramount prerequisite.

    In this paper, the concept of feature-based manufacturing for adaptive equipment control and resource-task matching in distributed and collaborative CPS manufacturing environments is presented. The concept has a product perspective and builds on the combination of product manufacturing features and event-driven Function Blocks (FB) of the IEC 61499 standard. Distributed control is realised through the use of networked and smart FB decision modules, enabling the performance of collaborative run-time manufacturing activities according to actual manufacturing conditions. A feature-based information framework supporting the matching of manufacturing resources and tasks, as well as the feature-FB control concept, and a demonstration with a cyber-physical robot application, are presented.

  • 10.
    Alfredsson, K. Svante
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Biel, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Salimi, Saeed
    University of Skövde.
    Shear testing of thick adhesive layers using the ENF-specimen2015In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 62, 130-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Alfredsson, K. Svante
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gawandi, A. A.
    University of Delaware.
    Gillespie Jr., J. W.
    University of Delaware.
    Carlsson, L. A.
    Florida Atlantic University.
    Bogetti, T. A.
    Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground.
    Flexural analysis of discontinuous tile core sandwich structure2012In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, Vol. 94, no 5, 1524-1532 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-point flexure loading of sandwich beams with a core consisting of discrete ceramic tiles (DTSS) is considered. The tile gaps may be bonded or unbonded (open gaps). The analysis utilizes a layer-wise beam theory approach. The general formulation for the displacements and stresses in the face sheets, face/core adhesive layer, and core is derived. Solutions for stresses and displacements of the beam constituents are obtained from finite element formulation based on analytical solution of the face sheet/tile unit cell. The approach is verified by comparison to stress results obtained from ordinary finite element analysis where each layer is modeled discretely. Effects of load introduction and support conditions on the effective flexural stiffness are examined. It is demonstrated that the face sheets experience substantial stress concentrations at the tile joint locations, especially if the gaps are unfilled. Analysis of beam compliance reveals sensitivity to details of load introduction and support conditions, especially when the span length becomes comparable to the tile length.

  • 12.
    Alfredsson, K. Svante
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stability of beam-like fracture mechanics specimens2012In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 89, 98-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Test specimens used to determine the interlaminar strength of composites as well as the strength of adhesive layers are known to occasionally suffer from instability. Thus, even though the experiments are performed under controlled load-point displacement, the experiments are terminated prematurely by unstable crack propagation. Often there exists a critical crack length which must be exceeded in order to obtain stable crack propagation. In this paper, a general method to assess the stability of beam-like fracture mechanics specimens is developed. Both systems subjected to a single load and the more general situation with several independent loads are treated. A simple formula is derived for the critical crack length for one-parameter loading. The only parameter necessary as input is the compliance of the un-cracked specimen. For the case of non-proportional loading, stability is determined by studying the eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix. Other findings quantified in the paper are the effect of orthotropy, the influence of a flexible interphase layer and the influence of the compliance of the loading device.

  • 13.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Krasniqi, Hanife
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Acceptance of Entertainment Systems in Stroke Rehabilitation2009In: Proceedings of IADIS Game and Entertainment Technologies 2009 (GET 2009), IADIS Press , 2009, 75-83 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based tools for rehabilitation of different types of physical and cognitive impairments are becoming more and more popular. By introducing an element of fun, these systems aim at increasing patients' motivation to train and, from a further perspective, improve recovery rates. There is, however, a question whether such tools will be fully accepted by the intended target group. Earlier work on user acceptance has mainly focused on utility systems, i.e. systems used mainly in the work place. However, people use systems for different reasons and that makes it difficult to apply the same principles on systems with the main purpose to entertain. Serious games have characteristics from both utility and entertainment systems, which makes it interesting to study the acceptance of these kinds of systems. In this study, we have developed a home-based entertainment system for stroke rehabilitation, with focus on rehabilitation of motor impairments. By analysing the gaming behaviour and interview responses of five stroke patients, we investigate factors influencing user acceptance of this specific type of system. The results show that current models of acceptance are not sufficient to fully explain acceptance of serious games in general and serious games for rehabilitation in particular. Besides well-known factors, such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use and perceived enjoyment, other, more specific, factors also play a vital role in the acceptance of the system.

  • 14.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    The Birth of Elinor: A Collaborative Development of a Game Based System for Stroke Rehabilitation2009In: 2009 Second International Conference in Visualisation / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Muhammad Sarfraz, Farzad Khosrowshahi, John Counsell, Richard Laing, Chris Moore, Andrew J. Cowell, Ming Hou, Gui Yun Tian, Mohammad Dastbaz, Mark Bannatyne, Jian J. Zhang, Vittorio Scarano, Rosario De Chiara, Ugo Erra, Anna Ursyn and Haim Levkowitz, IEEE, Springer , 2009, 52-60 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Elinor is a game based tool for rehabilitation of stroke patients to be used in their home environment. The application is the result of a creative and exploratory development project in which researchers in the serious games area and experts in stroke rehabilitation collaborated in order to develop a motivating, easy to use and relatively inexpensive tool for relearning functions lost due to a stroke. Elinor can be viewed as an integrated system for stroke rehabilitation in that it is both a system, controlled by movements, for training of its primary user group and a system for monitoring the training by medical expertise. In this paper, we will describe the Elinor application itself, the development process and the initial evaluation of it in order to identify implications for serious games.

     

  • 15.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Per, Backlund
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Henrik, Engström
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Mikael, Johannesson
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Mikael, Lebram
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gamers against All Odds2009In: Learning by playing : game-based education system design and development : 4th International Conference on E-Learning and Games, Edutainment 2009, Banff, Canada, August 9-11, 2009 : proceedings / [ed] Maiga Chang, Rita Kuo, Kinshuk, Gwo-Dong Chen, Michitaka Hirose, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2009, 1-12 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the project presented in this paper is to enable motor rehabilitation to stroke patients in their home environment and to utilise game enjoyment to achieve frequent training. Stroke patients have an average age above 70 years, which implies that they typically do not belong to a gaming generation. In addition, these patients suffer from motor, and many times cognitive impairments, which make traditional games extremely difficult to use. Nearly all work in this area has been conducted in a clinic environment where it is possible to overcome some of these difficulties by letting professionals assist and guide patients.

    In this paper, we present the challenges faced, the system itself and the result from a study where five patients were equipped with a game console in their homes for five weeks. The focus of this paper is on analysing the gaming behaviour of patients, which includes the amount of time they spent, the type of games they selected and their comments on the gaming experience. The conclusion from this analysis is that their behaviour resembles that of gamers. They spent significant voluntary time, and it has been possible for patients, with no prior experience of computer games, to enjoy gaming in their homes where they had no professional assistance.

  • 16.
    Allert, Anna-Lena
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ProduktionsKompetensCentrum - En studie av effekter av projektstöd till tillverkande företag i Skaraborg2013Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Allert, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Business Support Agencies introducing Lean Production in SMEs - Does it make any difference?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many SMEs are implementing lean production in collaboration with a business support agency in order to improve their competitiveness. This research investigated whether improvement initiatives had the intended effect in some companies. A questionnaire was answered by employees in 26 SMEs. The result indicated experienced effect concerning leadership, communication and employee commitment, areas considered important for success in improvement initiatives,   and also progress in areas that characterise development towards lean. The result also indicated differences in experienced effect between managerial and non-managerial functions and between companies. 

  • 18.
    Ambring, Erik
    et al.
    Immersive Learning Gothia Science Park, Kaplansgatan 18, 54134 Skövde, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Carl-Johan
    Immersive Learning Gothia Science Park, Kaplansgatan 18, 54134 Skövde, Sweden.
    Sjöstrand, Erik
    Immersive Learning Gothia Science Park, Kaplansgatan 18, 54134 Skövde, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Tidaholms församling, Church of Sweden, Box 93, Norra kungsv. 6, 52222 Tidaholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Developing the Game Testament: Multiple Perspectives in Serious Game Development2010In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on Game and Entertainment Technologies: Freiburg, Germany 26-30 July 2010 / [ed] Katherine Blashki, IADIS Press, 2010, 35-44 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the process of creating the game Testament; an action role-playing game for PC which uses the Old Testament as its setting. The game is primarily designed for confirmation education in the Church of Sweden, with the purpose to create interest in the Old Testament. In this paper we describe our experiences with the process of creating a game  where  the  work  has  been  guided  by  three,  in  some  cases,  contradictory  goals:  the  educational  value,  the  source authenticity and the gaming entertainment.  Our  conclusion  is  that  clear  requirements  for  the  entertainment  must  be  created  as  a  counterweight  to  the  practical aspects' requirements, e.g. education and authenticity. To create requirements  for game experience, it can be useful to identify a game genre and find a game that can serve as a template. One consequence of the fact that a specific goal for entertainment and a very clear requirement on content existed was that a number of fundamental contradictions could be identified  (e.g.  narrative,  game  mechanics,  adaptation).  When  these  inconsistencies  were  encountered,  a  suitable approach could be chosen in order to reach a compromise. If an existing game used as a reference wasn't available, it is likely that the entertainment would have suffered for the benefit of the educational aspects and biblical authenticity.

  • 19.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Product Development Department, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Niclas
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Radial basis functions as surrogate models with a priori bias in comparison with a posteriori bias2017In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 55, no 4, 1453-1469 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to obtain a robust performance, the established approach when using radial basis function networks (RBF) as metamodels is to add a posteriori bias which is defined by extra orthogonality constraints. We mean that this is not needed, instead the bias can simply be set a priori by using the normal equation, i.e. the bias becomes the corresponding regression model. In this paper we demonstrate that the performance of our suggested approach with a priori bias is in general as good as, or even for many test examples better than, the performance of RBF with a posteriori bias. Using our approach, it is clear that the global response is modelled with the bias and that the details are captured with radial basis functions. The accuracy of the two approaches are investigated by using multiple test functions with different degrees of dimensionality. Furthermore, several modeling criteria, such as the type of radial basis functions used in the RBFs, dimension of the test functions, sampling techniques and size of samples, are considered to study their affect on the performance of the approaches. The power of RBF with a priori bias for surrogate based design optimization is also demonstrated by solving an established engineering benchmark of a welded beam and another benchmark for different sampling sets generated by successive screening, random, Latin hypercube and Hammersley sampling, respectively. The results obtained by evaluation of the performance metrics, the modeling criteria and the presented optimal solutions, demonstrate promising potentials of our RBF with a priori bias, in addition to the simplicity and straight-forward use of the approach.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Grimm, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Simulation Optimization for Industrial Scheduling Using Hybrid Genetic Representation2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] S. J. Mason, R. R. Hill, L. Mönch, O. Rose, T. Jefferson, J. W. Fowler, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, 2004-2011 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation modeling has the capability to represent complex real-world systems in details and therefore it is suitable to develop simulation models for generating detailed operation plans to control the shop floor. In the literature, there are two major approaches for tackling the simulation-based scheduling problems, namely dispatching rules and using meta-heuristic search algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that there are advantages when these two approaches are combined. More precisely, this paper introduces a novel hybrid genetic representation as a combination of both a partially completed schedule (direct) and the optimal dispatching rules (indirect), for setting the schedules for some critical stages (e.g. bottlenecks) and other non-critical stages respectively. When applied to an industrial case study, this hybrid method has been found to outperform the two common approaches, in terms of finding reasonably good solutions within a shorter time period for most of the complex scheduling scenarios.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards Optimal Algorithmic Parameters for Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization2016In: 2016 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), New York: IEEE, 2016, 5162-5169 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of optimization to solve a simulation-based multi-objective problem produces a set of solutions that provide information about the trade-offs that have to be considered by the decision maker. An incomplete or sub-optimal set of solutions will negatively affect the quality of any subsequent decisions. The parameters that control the search behavior of an optimization algorithm can be used to minimize this risk. However, choosing good parameter settings for a given optimization algorithm and problem combination is difficult. The aim of this paper is to take a step towards optimal parameter settings for optimization of simulation-based problems. Two parameter tuning methods, Latin Hypercube Sampling and Genetic Algorithms, are used to maximize the performance of NSGA-II applied to a simulation-based problem with discrete variables. The strengths and weaknesses of both methods are analyzed. The effect of the number of decision variables and the function budget on the optimal parameter settings is also studied.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Tuning of Multiple Parameter Sets in Evolutionary Algorithms2016In: GECCO'16: Proceedings of the 2016 genetic and evolutionary computation conference, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, 533-540 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary optimization algorithms typically use one or more parameters that control their behavior. These parameters, which are often kept constant, can be tuned to improve the performance of the algorithm on specific problems. However, past studies have indicated that the performance can be further improved by adapting the parameters during runtime. A limitation of these studies is that they only control, at most, a few parameters, thereby missing potentially beneficial interactions between them. Instead of finding a direct control mechanism, the novel approach in this paper is to use different parameter sets in different stages of an optimization. These multiple parameter sets, which remain static within each stage, are tuned through extensive bi-level optimization experiments that approximate the optimal adaptation of the parameters. The algorithmic performance obtained with tuned multiple parameter sets is compared against that obtained with a single parameter set. For the experiments in this paper, the parameters of NSGA-II are tuned when applied to the ZDT, DTLZ and WFG test problems. The results show that using multiple parameter sets can significantly increase the performance over a single parameter set.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Parameter tuned CMA-ES on the CEC'15 expensive problems2015In: Evolutionary Computation, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, 1950-1957 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary optimization algorithms have parameters that are used to adapt the search strategy to suit different optimization problems. Selecting the optimal parameter values for a given problem is difficult without a-priori knowledge. Experimental studies can provide this knowledge by finding the best parameter values for a specific set of problems. This knowledge can also be constructed into heuristics (rule-of-thumbs) that can adapt the parameters for the problem. The aim of this paper is to assess the heuristics of the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) optimization algorithm. This is accomplished by tuning CMA-ES parameters so as to maximize its performance on the CEC'15 problems, using a bilevel optimization approach that searches for the optimal parameter values. The optimized parameter values are compared against the parameter values suggested by the heuristics. The difference between specialized and generalized parameter values are also investigated.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Parameter Tuning of MOEAs Using a Bilevel Optimization Approach2015In: Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015. Proceedings, Part I / [ed] António Gaspar-Cunha, Carlos Henggeler Antunes & Carlos Coello Coello, Springer, 2015, 233-247 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) can be greatly influenced by its parameters. The optimal parameter settings are also not necessarily the same across different problems. Finding the optimal set of parameters is therefore a difficult and often time-consuming task. This paper presents results of parameter tuning experiments on the NSGA-II and NSGA-III algorithms using the ZDT test problems. The aim is to gain new insights on the characteristics of the optimal parameter settings and to study if the parameters impose the same effect on both NSGA-II and NSGA-III. The experiments also aim at testing if the rule of thumb that the mutation probability should be set to one divided by the number of decision variables is a good heuristic on the ZDT problems. A comparison of the performance of NSGA-II and NSGA-III on the ZDT problems is also made.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    Posten AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Evolutionary Simulation Optimization of Personnel Scheduling2014In: Industrial Simulation Conference, Skövde, June 11-13, 2014, Eurosis , 2014, 61-65 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simulation-optimization system for personnel scheduling. The system is developed for the Swedish postal services and aims at finding personnel schedules that minimizes both total man hours and the administrative burden of the person responsible for handling schedules. For the optimization, the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm NSGA-II is implemented. The simulation-optimization system is evaluated on a real-world test case and results from the evaluation shows that the algorithm is successful in optimizing the problem.

  • 26.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Distributed Cognition in Manufacturing: Collaborative Assembly Work2016In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXX / [ed] Yee Mey Goh, Keith Case, IOS Press, 2016, 243-248 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive science is becoming increasingly central within humanfactors and ergonomics (HF&E) and there has long been a call for a more systemicperspective in the area with a somewhat broader unit of analysis. This paperpresents a case study applying the theoretical framework of distributed cognition(DCog), which shows how DCog would offer a more complete understanding ofmanufacturing within its greater context, including the social, cultural, andmaterial surroundings. This paper aims to characterize and analyse dock assemblyof forest machines as a complex socio-technical system from a DCog perspective;focusing on the creation of enacted landscapes in this particular setting. The paperalso exemplifies benefits of using the DCog framework in the manufacturingdomain as a way of grasping the assembly workers’ tacit competence and skills.

  • 27.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens2017In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 1, 85-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

  • 28.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information and Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Tool use and collaborative work of dock assembly in practice2017In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, 164-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deepen the understanding of the intrinsic interactions andinterplay between humans, tools, and environment from a systemsperspective, research in the wild (RITW) approaches have gainedtraction during recent decades as they provide a higher ecologicalvalidity of findings. This paper presents a RITW study, investigatinghow assembly, in this case dock assembly of forwarders, was donein practice. As our theoretical foundation, we used the framework ofdistributed cognition, which is one of the main pillars of RITW. Thefindings are presented in narrative form, describing and highlightingthat the workers achieve an efficient production outcome by beingintegral parts of the whole production process and doing so throughcoordination of activities benefitting the shared goal of the distributedsocio-technical system.

  • 29.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards an increased degree of usability work in organizations2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, 5739-5746 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that there is a substantial gap between usability research and practice where UCD approaches are rarelyapplied in practice due to arguments regarding the intricate nature of its methods and techniques. This paper presents an actionresearch study designed to investigate and analyze the potentials for an increased degree of UCD activities in the earlydevelopment phases of advanced information systems technology. The results demonstrate that there is a large interest inusability but that organizational priority and competence is often lacking. Instead one relies heavily on questionable conceptssuch as „trained professionals‟ to excuse the low effort towards usability. Based on the results, six recommendations forimproved usability work in R&D organizations are presented, focusing on the importance of prioritization of, and education inusability work.

  • 30.
    Arrieta, Aitor
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    FB-Environment in Wise-Shop Floor: Algorithm parser and code generation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is the authority that publishes different standards in the  fields  of  electrical  and  electronics  engineering,  to  be  used  internationally.  In  the  area  of manufacturing, it has demanded a new standard to fulfil better solutions of dynamic requirements. The  IEC  61499  redacted  by  IEC  offers  interoperability,  portability,  configurability  and  distributed control applications for manufacturing processes. However, this standard is not a replacement of IEC 61131-3,  one  of  the  most  used  standards  in  industry;  instead,  it  is  a  complement  of  it.  The  basic software units of IEC 61499 are named Function Blocks (FBs), which can be described as blocks that encapsulate functionality. By combining FBs together, it is possible to solve complex problems.   The  objective  of  this  project  (in  close  cooperation  with  another  project)  is  to  develop  a  software environment in Java language. It follows the requirements of IEC 61499, and implement a Function Block  designer  and  a  runtime  execution  environment,  as  a  part  of  an  existing  Wise-ShopFloor framework. The scope of this project covers:     FB  algorithm  editor:  Each  FB  has  one  or  more  algorithms,  which  can  be  defined  in  the algorithm editor using IEC 61131-3 or Java.     FB serialization: Opening and saving the configuration of FBs in Java Class file is one of the tasks  of  this  project.  As  soon  as  the  configuration  is  saved,  the  Java  code  of  FB  can  be generated. Java code is generated because compiled Java allows execution of FB. Saving in Java  Class  file  permits  portability,  i.e.  the  saved  configuration  can  be  opened  in  any  JVM system, and vice versa.      Case study: A simulation of an assembly station using an ABB IRB 140 robot is studied and implemented using the runtime simulator of the Java platform, in which some basic FBs have been also created in a library. This project also includes: (1) implementation of user interface and (2) FB serialization in XML. It  is  anticipated  that  the  developed  environment  will  be  able  to  save  and  open  FBs  configurations either in XML or in Java Class, following the specification of IEC 61499. It will allow portability and reusability.  Because  of  the  portability,  the  so-designed  FBs  can  be  validated  using  another  FB environment such as FBDK (Function Block Development Kit).

  • 31.
    Aryasetiawan, F.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Division of Mathematical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Krister
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Miyake, T.
    CD-FMat, AIST, Tsukuba, Japan / ESICMM, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Green's function theory of orbital magnetic moment of interacting electrons in solids2016In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 93, no 16, 161104(R)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Analysis of manufacturing supply chains using system dynamics and multi-objective optimization2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chains are in general complex networks composed of autonomous entities whereby multiple performance measures in different levels, which in most cases are in conflict with each other, have to be taken into account. Hence, due to the multiple performance measures, supply chain decision making is much more complex than treating it as a single objective optimization problem. Thus, the aim of the doctoral thesis is to address the supply chain optimization problem within a truly Pareto-based multi-objective context and utilize knowledge extraction techniques to extract valuable and useful information from the Pareto optimal solutions. By knowledge extraction, it means to detect hidden interrelationships between the Pareto solutions, identify common properties and characteristics of the Pareto solutions as well as discover concealed structures in the Pareto optimal data set in order to support managers in their decision making. This aim is addressed through the SBO-framework where the simulation methodology is based on system dynamics (SD) and the optimization utilizes multi-objective optimization (MOO). In order to connect the SD and MOO software, this doctoral thesis introduced a novel SD and MOO interface application which allow the modeling and optimization applications to interact. Additionally, this thesis work also presents a novel SD-MOO methodology that addresses the issue of curse off dimensionality in MOO for higher dimensional problems and with the aim to execute supply chain SD-MOO in a computationally cost efficient way, in terms of convergence, solution intensification and accuracy of obtaining the Pareto-optimal front for complex supply chain problems. In order to detect evident and hidden structures, characteristics and properties of the Pareto-optimal solutions, this work utilizes Parallel Coordinates, Clustering and Innovization, which are three different types of tools for post-optimal analysis and facilitators of discovering and retrieving knowledge from the Pareto-optimal set. The developed SD-MOO interface and methodology are then verified and validated through two academic case studies and a real-world industrial application case study. While not all the insights generated in these application studies can be generalized for other supply-chain systems, the analysis results provide strong indications that the methodology and techniques introduced in this thesis are capable to generate knowledge to support academic SCM research and real-world SCM decision making, which to our knowledge cannot be performed by other methods.

  • 33.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hedenstierna, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Multi-objective Optimisation in Manufacturing Supply Chain Systems Design: A Comprehensive Survey and New Directions2011In: Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimisation for Product Design and Manufacturing / [ed] Lihui Wang, Amos H. C. Ng, Kalyanmoy Deb, Springer London, 2011, 35-70 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research regarding supply chain optimisation has been performed for a long time. However, it is only in the last decade that the research community has started to investigate multi-objective optimisation for supply chains. Supply chains are in general complex networks composed of autonomous entities whereby multiple performance measures in different levels, which in most cases are in conflict with each other, have to be taken into account. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive literature review of existing multi-objective optimisation applications, both analytical-based and simulation-based, in supply chain management publications. Later on in the chapter, we identify the needs of an integration of multi-objective optimisation and system dynamics models, and present a case study on how such kind of integration can be applied for the investigation of bullwhip effects in a supply chain.

  • 34.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Agent-based Simulation and Simulation-based Optimisation for Supply Chain Management2010In: Enterprise Networks and Logistics for Agile Manufacturing / [ed] Lihui Wang & S. C. Lenny Koh, Springer London, 2010, 227-247 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Agent-based simulation (ABS) represents a paradigm in the modelling and simulation of complex and dynamic systems distributed in time and space. Since manufacturing and logistics operations are characterised by distributed activities as well as decision making - in both time and in space - and can be regarded as complex, the ABS approach is highly appropriate for these types of systems. The aim of this chapter is to present a new framework of applying ABS and simulation-based optimisation techniques to supply chain management, which considers the entities (supplier, manufacturer, distributor and retailer) in the supply chain as intelligent agents in a simulation. This chapter also gives an outline on how these agents pursue their local objectives/goals as well as how they react and interact with each other to achieve a more holistic objective(s)/goal(s).

  • 35.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Agent Based Simulation and Optimization for Supply Chain Management2008In: Proceedings of the 2nd Swedish Production Symposium, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Combining system dynamics and multi-objective optimization with design space reduction2016In: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 116, no 2, 291-321 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    The purpose of this study is to introduce an effective methodology for obtaining Pareto-optimal solutions, when combining System Dynamics (SD) and Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) for supply chain problems.

    Design/methodology/approach 

    This paper proposes a new approach that combines SD and MOO within a simulation-based optimization framework to generate the efficient frontier that supports decision- making in SupplyChain Management (SCM). It also addresses the issue of the curse of dimensionality, commonly found in practical optimization problems, through design space reduction.

    Findings 

    The integrated MOO and SD approach has been shown to be very useful in revealing how the decision variables in the Beer Game affect the optimality of the three common SCM objectives, namely, the minimization of inventory, backlog, and the bullwhip effect. The results of the in-depth Beer Game study clearly show that these three optimization objectives are in conflict with each other, in the sense that a supply chain manager cannot minimize the bullwhip effect without increasing the total inventory and total backlog levels.

    Practical implications

    Having a methodology that enables the effective generation of optimal trade-off solutions, in terms of computational cost, time, as well as solution diversity and intensification, not only assists decision makers to make decisions on time, but also presents a diverse and intense solution set to choose from.

    Originality/value 

    This paper presents a novel supply chain MOO methodology that helps to find Pareto-optimal solutions in a more effective manner. In order to do so, the methodology tackles the so-called curse of dimensionality, by reducing the design space and focusing the search of the optimization to regions of interest. Together with design space reduction, it is believed that the integrated SD and MOOapproach can provide an innovative and efficient method for the design and analysis of manufacturing supply chain systems in general.

  • 37.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Multi Objective Optimization for Supply Chain Management based on an Agent Based Framework2010In: 20th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing 2010 (FAIM 2010): Volume 1 of 2, Curran Associates, Inc., 2010, 431-438 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Multi-Objective Optimization for Supply Chain Management: A Literature Review and New Development2010In: SCMIS 2010 - Proceedings of 2010 8th International Conference on Supply Chain Management and Information Systems: Logistics Systems and Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University , 2010, Article number 5681724- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research  regarding  supply  chain   optimization   has been  performed  for  a  long  time.  However,  it’s  only  in  the  last decade  that  the  research  community  has  started  to  investigate multi-objective optimization for supply chains. Supply chains are in  general  complex  networks  composed  of  autonomous  entities whereby   multiple   performance   measures   in   different   levels, which  in  most  cases  are  in  conflict  with  each  other,  have  to  be taken into account. In this paper, we present a literature review of    existing    multi-objective    optimization    applications,    both analytical-based    and    simulation-based,    in    supply    chain management  publications.  Based  on  the  literature  review,  the need    for    research    in    a    multi-objective    and    multi-level optimization   framework   for   supply   chain   management   is proposed. Such a framework considers not only the optimization of  the  overall  supply  chain,  but  also  for  each  entity  within  the supply chain, in a multi-objective optimization context.

  • 39.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Multi-objective Optimization and Analysis of the Inventory Management Model2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 Summer Simulation Multiconference, Society for Computer Simulation International , 2014, 14-1 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Integrating system dynamics and multi-objective optimisation for manufacturing supply chain analysis2014In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0605, Vol. 9, no 1, 27-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to address the dilemma of supply chain management (SCM) within a truly Pareto-based multi-objective context. This is done by introducing an integration of system dynamics and multi-objective optimisation. An extended version of the well-known pedagogical SCMproblem, the Beer Game, originally developed at MIT since the 1960s, has been used as the illustrative example. As will be discussed in the paper, the integrated multi-objective optimisation and system dynamics model has been shown to be very useful for revealing how the parameters in the Beer Game affect the optimality of the three common SCM objectives, namely, the minimisation of inventory cost, backlog cost, and the bullwhip effect.

  • 41.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Integrating System Dynamics and Multi-Objective Optimization for Manufacturing Supply Chain Analysis2012In: Proceedings of the 5th Swedish Production symposium (SPS'12), 2012, 433-441 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to address the dilemma of Supply Chain Management (SCM) within a truly Pareto-based multi-objective context. This is done by introducing an integration of System Dynamics and Multi-Objective Optimization. Specifically, the paper contrasts local optimization with global optimization for SCM in which optimal trade-off solutions in the entity level, i.e. optimizing the supply chain from the perspectives of individual (local) entities. e.g., supplier, factory, distributor and retailer, are collected and compared to those obtained from an overall supply chain level (global) optimization. An extended version of the well-known pedagogical SCM problem, the Beer Game, originally developed at MIT since the 1960s, has been used as the illustrative example. As will be discussed in the paper, the integrated multi-objective optimization and system dynamics model has been shown to be very useful for revealing that how the parameters in the Beer Game affect the optimality of the three common SCM objectives, namely, the minimization of inventory, backlog, and the bullwhip effect.

  • 42.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H.C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Strategy evaluation using system dynamics and multi-objective optimization for an internal supply chain2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal and M. D. Rossetti, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 2015, 2033-2044 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    System dynamics, which is an approach built on information feedbacks and delays in the model in order to understand the dynamical behavior of a system, has successfully been implemented for supply chain management problems for many years. However, research within in multi-objective optimization of supply chain problems modelled through system dynamics has been scares. Supply chain decision making is much more complex than treating it as a single objective optimization problem due to the fact that supply chains are subjected to the multiple performance measures when optimizing its process. This paper presents an industrial application study utilizing the simulation based optimization framework by combining system dynamics simulation and multi-objective optimization. The industrial study depicts a conceptual system dynamics model for internal logistics system with the aim to evaluate the effects of different material flow control strategies by minimizing total system work-on-process as wells as total delivery delay.

  • 43.
    Asplund, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    E-procurement beyond the buyer cost perspective2010In: Proceedings of the 22nd NOFOMA Conference: Logistics and Supply Chain Management in a Globalised Economy / [ed] Jan Stentoft Arlbjørn, University of Southern Denmark , 2010, 483-498 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to provide and argue for a comprehensive view of e-procurement that involves both the buyer and suppliers and that goes beyond looking at mere cost reductions on the buyer side. More specifically, the paper describes benefits and barriers of implementing e-procurement solutions for both buyers and suppliers.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on a literature review combined with a case study. The case is a public organization in Sweden, which prepares to implement an e-procurement solution. Interviews were also conducted with a selection of suppliers to the case organization.

    Findings: In e-procurement literature, drivers and barriers are often viewed only from the perspective of a buying organization. Benefits are mainly cost-related for the buying organization, while barriers often include suppliers. It is proposed that benefits and barriers should include both buyers and suppliers. The literature review and the case study findings form the basis for further investigation into this problem area.

    Research limitations/implications: This study focuses on a public organization in Sweden. Yet, it could have implications for many public or private organizations considering implementing e-procurement systems.

    Practical implications: This research suggest that organizations to a greater extent should take the supplier´s side into account when implementing e-procurement solutions.

    Originality/Value: The study highlights a full cycle view on e-procurement taking both buyer and supplier into account.

  • 44.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    University of Skövde.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Sjörs, Emmy
    University of Skövde.
    SIDH: A Game-Based Architecture for a Training Simulator2009In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, 472672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based simulators, sometimes referred to as "lightweight" simulators, have benefits such as flexible technology and economic feasibility. In this article, we extend the notion of a game-based simulator by introducing multiple screen view and physical interaction. These features are expected to enhance immersion and fidelity. By utilizing these concepts we have constructed a training simulator for breathing apparatus entry. Game hardware and software have been used to produce the application. More important, the application itself is deliberately designed to be a game. Indeed, one important design goal is to create an entertaining and motivating experience combined with learning goals in order to create a serious game. The system has been evaluated in cooperation with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency to see which architectural features contribute to perceived fidelity. The modes of visualization and interaction as well as level design contribute to the usefulness of the system.

  • 45.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Games for traffic education: An experimental study of a game-based driving simulator2010In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 41, no 2, 145-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors report on the construction and evaluation of a game-based driving simulator using a real car as a joystick. The simulator is constructed from off-the-shelf hardware and the simulation runs on open-source software. The feasibility of the simulator as a learning tool has been experimentally evaluated. Results are reported from an experimental study of games and traffic safety performed in an advanced gaming environment. During car simulator sessions, the authors collected data about different traffic safety variables, such as speed, headway distance, and lane change behavior, from 70 participants. The data were analyzed to investigate possible individual learning effects and differences between groupings of participants. The experiment shows clear, positive, individual learning effects for all traffic safety variables analyzed. The authors also made a qualitative analysis of the participants’ perception of the simulator as a learning tool. From the results, it is concluded that a game-based simulation can be used to enhance learning in driving education.

  • 46.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Andersson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Metamodel-based prediction of performance metrics for bilevel parameter tuning in MOEAs2016In: 2016 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), New York: IEEE, 2016, 1909-1916 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a bilevel parameter tuning problem where the goal is to maximize the performance of a given multi-objective evolutionary optimizer on a given problem. The search for optimal algorithmic parameters requires the assessment of several sets of parameters, through multiple optimization runs, in order to mitigate the effect of noise that is inherent to evolutionary algorithms. This task is computationally expensive and therefore, in this paper, we propose to use sampling and metamodeling to approximate the performance of the optimizer as a function of its parameters. While such an approach is not unheard of, the choice of the metamodel to be used still remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to empirically compare 11 different metamodeling techniques with respect to their accuracy and training times in predicting two popular multi-objective performance metrics, namely, the hypervolume and the inverted generational distance. For the experiments in this pilot study, NSGA-II is used as the multi-objective optimizer for solving ZDT problems, 1 through 4.

  • 47.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Generalized higher-level automated innovization with application to inventory management2015In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 243, no 2, 480-496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper generalizes the automated innovization framework using genetic programming in the context of higher-level innovization. Automated innovization is an unsupervised machine learning technique that can automatically extract significant mathematical relationships from Pareto-optimal solution sets. These resulting relationships describe the conditions for Pareto-optimality for the multi-objective problem under consideration and can be used by scientists and practitioners as thumb rules to understand the problem better and to innovate new problem solving techniques; hence the name innovization (innovation through optimization). Higher-level innovization involves performing automated innovization on multiple Pareto-optimal solution sets obtained by varying one or more problem parameters. The automated innovization framework was recently updated using genetic programming. We extend this generalization to perform higher-level automated innovization and demonstrate the methodology on a standard two-bar bi-objective truss design problem. The procedure is then applied to a classic case of inventory management with multi-objective optimization performed at both system and process levels. The applicability of automated innovization to this area should motivate its use in other avenues of operational research.

  • 48.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Metaheuristic Techniques2016In: Decision Sciences: Theory and Practice / [ed] Raghu Nandan Sengupta, Aparna Gupta, Joydeep Dutta, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2016, 693-750 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Michigan State University, USA.
    Temporal Innovization: Evolution of Design Principles Using Multi-objective Optimization2015In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization (EMO 2015), Springer, 2015, Vol. 9018, 79-93 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective optimization yields multiple solutions each of which is no better or worse than the others when the objectives are conflicting. These solutions lie on the Pareto-optimal front which is a lower-dimensional slice of the objective space. Together, the solutions may possess special properties that make them optimal over other feasible solutions. Innovization is the process of extracting such special properties (or design principles) from a trade-off dataset in the form of mathematical relationships between the variables and objective functions. In this paper, we deal with a closely related concept called temporal innovization. While innovization concerns the design principles obtained from the trade-off front, temporal innovization refers to the evolution of these design principles during the optimization process. Our study indicates that not only do different design principles evolve at different rates, but that they start evolving at different times. We illustrate temporal innovization using several examples.

  • 50.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gaur, Abhinav
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Khare, Vineet
    Amazon Development Centre (India) Pvt. Ltd., Bengaluru, India.
    Chougule, Rahul
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, India.
    Bandyopadhyay, Pulak
    General Motors R&D Center, Warren, USA.
    Development, analysis and applications of a quantitative methodology for assessing customer satisfaction using evolutionary optimization2015In: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 30, 265-278 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer-oriented companies are getting increasingly more sensitive about customer's perception of their products, not only to get a feedback on their popularity, but also to improve the quality and service through a better understanding of design issues for further development. However, a consumer's perception is often qualitative and is achieved through third party surveys or the company's recording of after-sale feedback through explicit surveys or warranty based commitments. In this paper, we consider an automobile company's warranty records for different vehicle models and suggest a data mining procedure to assign a customer satisfaction index (CSI) to each vehicle model based on the perceived notion of the level of satisfaction of customers. Based on the developed CSI function, customers are then divided into satisfied and dissatisfied customer groups. The warranty data are then clustered separately for each group and analyzed to find possible causes (field failures) and their relative effects on customer's satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) for a vehicle model. Finally, speculative introspection has been made to identify the amount of improvement in CSI that can be achieved by the reduction of some critical field failures through better design practices. Thus, this paper shows how warranty data from customers can be utilized to have a better perception of ranking of a product compared to its competitors in the market and also to identify possible causes for making some customers dissatisfied and eventually to help percolate these issues at the design level. This closes the design cycle loop in which after a design is converted into a product, its perceived level of satisfaction by customers can also provide valuable information to help make the design better in an iterative manner. The proposed methodology is generic and novel, and can be applied to other consumer products as well.

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