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  • 1.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, Cornwall, United kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Cloud Service Control Approach for Distributed and Adaptive Equipment Control in Cloud Environments2016In: Research and Innovation in Manufacturing: Key Enabling Technologies for the Factories of the Future - Proceedings of the 48th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Roberto Teti, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 41, p. 644-649Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A developing trend within the manufacturing shop-floor domain is the move of manufacturing activities into cloud environments, as scalable, on-demand and pay-per-usage cloud services. This will radically change traditional manufacturing, as borderless, distributed and collaborative manufacturing missions between volatile, best suited groups of partners will impose a multitude of advantages. The evolving Cloud Manufacturing (CM) paradigm will enable this new manufacturing concept, and on-going research has described many of its anticipated core virtues and enabling technologies. However, a major key enabling technology within CM which has not yet been fully addressed is the dynamic and distributed planning, control and execution of scattered and cooperating shop-floor equipment, completing joint manufacturing tasks.

    In this paper, the technological perspective for a cloud service-based control approach is described, and how it could be implemented. Existing manufacturing resources, such as soft, hard and capability resources, can be packaged as cloud services, and combined to create different levels of equipment or manufacturing control, ranging from low-level control of single machines or devices (e.g. Robot Control-as-a-Service), up to the execution of high level multi-process manufacturing tasks (e.g. Manufacturing-as-a-Service). A multi-layer control approach, featuring adaptive decision-making for both global and local environmental conditions, is proposed. This is realized through the use of a network of intelligent and distributable decision modules such as event-driven Function Blocks, enabling run-time manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions. The control system’s integration to the CM cloud service management functionality is also described.

  • 2.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Cornwall, UK.
    Adaptive Robot Control as a Service in Cloud Manufacturing2015In: ASME 2015 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference: Volume 2: Materials; Biomanufacturing; Properties, Applications and Systems; Sustainable Manufacturing, ASME Press, 2015, Vol. 2, p. Paper No. MSEC2015-9479-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for implementing the concept of Manufacturing-as-a-Service is increasing as concepts for letting the manufacturing shop-floor domain take advantage of the cloud appears. Combining technologies such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Semantic Web, virtualisation and service-oriented technologies with advanced manufacturing models, information and communication technologies, Cloud Manufacturing (CM) is emerging as a new manufacturing paradigm. The ideas of on-demand, scalable and pay-for-usage resource-sharing in this concept will move manufacturing towards distributed and collaborative missions in volatile partnerships. This will require a control approach for distributed planning and execution of cooperating manufacturing activities. Without control based on both global and local environmental conditions, the advantages of CM will not be fulfilled.

    By utilising smart and distributable decision modules such as event-driven FBs, run-time manufacturing operations in a distributed environment may be adjusted to prevailing manufacturing conditions. Packaged in a cloud service for manufacturing equipment control, it will satisfy the control needs in CM. By combining different resource types, such as hard, soft and capability resources, the cloud service Robot Control-as-a-Service can be realised.

    This paper describes the functional perspective and enabling technologies for a control approach for robotic assembly tasks in CM, and describes a scenario for its implementation.

  • 3.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm (KTH).
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, UK.
    Adaptive Robotic Control in Cloud Environments2014In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing / [ed] F. Frank Chen, The University of Texas at San Antonio, U.S.A., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA: DEStech Publications, Inc , 2014, p. 37-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalization is a trend which forces manufacturing industry of today to focus on more cost-effective manufacturing systems and collaboration within global supply chains and manufacturing networks. Cloud Manufacturing (CM) is evolving as a new manufacturing paradigm to match this trend, enabling the mutually advantageous sharing of resources, knowledge and information between distributed companies and manufacturing units. Providing a framework for collaboration within complex and critical tasks, such as manufacturing and design, it increases the companies’ ability to successfully compete on a global marketplace. One of the major, crucial objectives for CM is the coordinated planning, control and execution of discrete manufacturing operations in a collaborative and networked environment. This paper describes the overall concept of adaptive Function Block control of manufacturing equipment in Cloud environments, with the specific focus on robotic assembly operations, and presents Cloud Robotics as “Robot Control-as-a-Service” within CM.

  • 4.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Cloud Manufacturing: A Critical Review of Recent Development and Future Trends2017In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 30, no 4-5, p. 347-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an on-going paradigm shift in manufacturing, in which modern manufacturing industry is changing towards global manufacturing networks and supply chains. This will lead to the flexible usage of different globally distributed, scalable and sustainable, service-oriented manufacturing systems and resources. Combining recently emerged technologies, such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Semantic Web, service-oriented technologies, virtualisation and advanced high-performance computing technologies, with advanced manufacturing models and information technologies, Cloud Manufacturing is a new manufacturing paradigm built on resource sharing, supporting and driving this change.

    It is envisioned that companies in all sectors of manufacturing will be able to package their resources and know-hows in the Cloud, making them conveniently available for others through pay-as-you-go, which is also timely and economically attractive. Resources, e.g. manufacturing software tools, applications, knowledge and fabrication capabilities and equipment, will then be made accessible to presumptive consumers on a worldwide basis.

    Cloud Manufacturing has been in focus for a great deal of research interest and suggested applications during recent years, by both industrial and academic communities. After surveying a vast array of available publications, this paper presents an up-to-date literature review together with identified outstanding research issues, and future trends and directions within Cloud Manufacturing.

  • 5.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Feature-Based Adaptive Manufacturing Equipment Control for Cloud Environments2016In: Proceedings of the ASME 11th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, 2016, vol 2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2016, article id UNSP V002T04A019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ideas of on-demand, scalable and pay-for-usage resource-sharing in Cloud Manufacturing are steadily attracting more interest. For implementing the concept of Manufacturing as-a-Service in a cloud environment, description models and implementation language for resources and their capabilities are required. A standardized approach for systemived virtualization, servisilisation, retrieval, selection and composition into higher levels of functionality is necessary. For the collaborative sharing and use of networked manufacturing resources there is also a need for a control approach for distributed manufacturing equipment. In this paper, the technological perspective for an adaptive cloud service-based control approach is described, and a supporting information model for its implementation. The control is realized through the use of a network of intelligent and distributable Function Block decision modules, enabling run-time manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions. The control system's integration to the cloud service management functionality is described, as well as a feature-level capability model and the use of ontologies and the Semantic Web.

  • 6.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm (KTH).
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, UK.
    Function Block Approach for Adaptive Robotic Control in Virtual and Real Environments2014In: Proceedings of the 14th Mechatronics Forum International Conference / [ed] Leo J. De Vin and Jorge Solis, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014, p. 473-479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing companies are facing an increasing amount of changes and uncertainty, caused by both internal and external factors. Frequently changing customer and market demands lead to variations in manufacturing quantities, product design and shorter product life-cycles, and variations in manufacturing capability and functionality contribute to a high level of uncertainty. The result is unpredictable manufacturing system performance, with an increased number of unforeseen events occurring in these systems. Such events are difficult for traditional planning and control systems to satisfactorily manage. For scenarios like these, with a dynamically changing manufacturing environment, adaptive decision making is crucial for successfully performing manufacturing operations. Relying on real-time information of manufacturing processes and operations, and their enabling resources, adaptive decision making can be realized with a control approach combining IEC 61499 event-driven Function Blocks (FBs) with manufacturing features. These FBs are small decision-making modules with embedded algorithms designed to generate the desired equipment control code. When dynamically triggered by event inputs, parameter values in their data inputs are forwarded to the appropriate algorithms, which generate new events and data output as control instructions. The data inputs also include monitored real-time information which allows the dynamic creation of equipment control code adapted to the actual run-time conditions on the shop-floor. Manufacturing features build on the concept that a manufacturing task can be broken down into a sequence of minor basic operations, in this research assembly features (AFs). These features define atomic assembly operations, and by combining and implementing these in the event-driven FB embedded algorithms, automatic code generation is possible. A test case with a virtual robot assembly cell is presented, demonstrating the functionality of the proposed control approach.

  • 7.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Feature-based control and information framework for adaptive and distributed manufacturing in cyber physical systems2017In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 43, p. 305-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern distributed manufacturing within Industry 4.0, supported by Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs), offers many promising capabilities regarding effective and flexible manufacturing, but there remain many challenges which may hinder its exploitation fully. One major issue is how to automatically control manufacturing equipment, e.g. industrial robots and CNC-machines, in an adaptive and effective manner. For collaborative sharing and use of distributed and networked manufacturing resources, a coherent, standardised approach for systemised planning and control at different manufacturing system levels and locations is a paramount prerequisite.

    In this paper, the concept of feature-based manufacturing for adaptive equipment control and resource-task matching in distributed and collaborative CPS manufacturing environments is presented. The concept has a product perspective and builds on the combination of product manufacturing features and event-driven Function Blocks (FB) of the IEC 61499 standard. Distributed control is realised through the use of networked and smart FB decision modules, enabling the performance of collaborative run-time manufacturing activities according to actual manufacturing conditions. A feature-based information framework supporting the matching of manufacturing resources and tasks, as well as the feature-FB control concept, and a demonstration with a cyber-physical robot application, are presented.

  • 8.
    Adawi, Rahim
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Preventing fatal effects of overworking: Product design solution2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Overworking to death” is a phenomenon that has been noticeable in developing countries. The cause of death is mainly through ischemic strokes. While the victims’ occupations differed, they all shared a common characteristic, being positioned in a sedentary work, ranging from IT workers to doctors. This project’s aim was to develop a product that prevented or decreased the strokes that derived from sedentary overwork. This was mainly tackled by preventing one of the three causes of developing blood props, slowed blood flow. In order to gather rich data of the phenomenon, a qualitative study was conducted in China, during two months. By doing an extensive structured sampling, information rich data could be gathered during a short period of time. Data were derived from observations, questionnaires and an interview, which then was interpreted to customer needs and the final product specification. The final product became a trouser with an in built dynamic compression mechanic, that can compress the veins mostly during sitting activities, in order to prevent blood stasis. The compression mechanic works like the Chinese finger trap; compressing the calves while sitting and stretching the legs forward. It is made only out of polysaccharides fibres; cotton and corn.

  • 9.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Kyngäs, Johanni
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Simuleringsmodell för kontroll av färdigvarulagers storlek2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Alfredsson, K. Svante
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    On the determination of constitutive properties of adhesive layers loaded in shear - an inverse solution2003In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 123, no 1-2, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to determine constitutive properties of thin adhesive layers loaded in shear is presented. The test specimen consists of two adherends joined by the adhesive layer. By loading the specimen antisymmetrically with respect to the adhesive layer a state of pure shear is ensured. To avoid instability the test specimen is designed to give a non-uniform stress distribution in the adhesive layer. This is achieved by using a long specimen loaded at one side. The method is based on an exact inverse solution which is derived utilizing the balance of the energetic forces of the applied loads and of the adhesive at the start of the adhesive layer. The method is intended for determination of both hardening and softening behaviour of adhesives but is confined to monotonic loading

  • 11.
    Alfredsson, K. Svante
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Biel, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Salimi, Saeed
    University of Skövde.
    Shear testing of thick adhesive layers using the ENF-specimen2015In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 62, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Allert, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Business Support Agencies introducing Lean Production in SMEs - Does it make any difference?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many SMEs are implementing lean production in collaboration with a business support agency in order to improve their competitiveness. This research investigated whether improvement initiatives had the intended effect in some companies. A questionnaire was answered by employees in 26 SMEs. The result indicated experienced effect concerning leadership, communication and employee commitment, areas considered important for success in improvement initiatives,   and also progress in areas that characterise development towards lean. The result also indicated differences in experienced effect between managerial and non-managerial functions and between companies. 

  • 13.
    Amenabar, Leire
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Carreras, Leire
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Augmented Reality Framework for Supporting and Monitoring Operators during Maintenance Operations in Industrial Environments2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an ever-changing and demanding world where short assembly and innovation times are indispensable, it is of paramount importance to ensure that the machinery used throughout the whole process of a product are in their best possible condition. This guarantees that the performance of each machine will be optimal, and hence, the process times will be the shortest possible, while the best quality products are obtained. Moreover, having a machine in an impeccable status permits making the necessary changes to it, in order to fulfil the requirements that a more advanced or complex product may have. Maintenance operations and their corresponding trainings have historically been time-consuming, and a vast amount of information has been transmitted from an expert to a newer operator. This means that there has been the need of working with experienced operators to secure that a good service is provided. However, different technologies like augmented reality (AR) have been shown to have a positive impact in the support and monitoring of operators in industrial maintenance operations.The present project gathers information in regard to the framework of AR, with the aim of supporting and monitoring operators in industrial environments. The proposed method consists on the development of an artefact, which would lead to a possible improvement of the already existing solutions. It is believed that the development of an AR application could grant the necessary aid to any operator in maintenance operations. The result of this suggestion is an AR application which superimposes visual information on the physical equipment.

  • 14.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Metamodel Based Multi-Objective Optimization with Finite-Element Applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the increase in accessibility of computational resources and the increase of computer power during the last two decades, designers are able to create computer models to simulate the behavior of complex products. To address global competitiveness, companies are forced to optimize the design of their products and production processes. Optimizing the design and production very often need several runs of computationally expensive simulation models. Therefore, integrating metamodels, as an efficient and sufficiently accurate approximate of the simulation model, with optimization algorithms is necessary. Furthermore, in most of engineering problems, more than one objective function has to be optimized, leading to multi-objective optimization(MOO). However, the urge to employ metamodels in MOO, i.e., metamodel based MOO (MB-MOO), is more substantial.Radial basis functions (RBF) is one of the most popular metamodeling methods. In this thesis, a new approach to constructing RBF with the bias to beset a priori by using the normal equation is proposed. The performance of the suggested approach is compared to the classic RBF and four other well-known metamodeling methods, in terms of accuracy, efficiency and, most importantly, suitability for integration with MOO evolutionary algorithms. It has been found that the proposed approach is accurate in most of the test functions, and it was the fastest compared to other methods. Additionally, the new approach is the most suitable method for MB-MOO, when integrated with evolutionary algorithms. The proposed approach is integrated with the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) and applied to two real-world engineering problems: MB-MOO of the disk brake system of a heavy truck, and the metal cutting process in a turning operation. Thereafter, the Pareto-optimal fronts are obtained and the results are presented. The MB-MOO in both case studies has been found to be an efficient and effective method. To validate the results of the latter MB-MOO case study, a framework for automated finite element (FE) simulation based MOO (SB-MOO) of machining processes is developed and presented by applying it to the same metal cutting process in a turning operation. It has been proved that the framework is effective in achieving the MOO of machining processes based on actual FE simulations.

  • 15.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Andersson, Tobias J.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A framework for simulation based multi-objective optimization and knowledge discovery of machining process2018In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Andersson, Tobias J.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Metamodel based multi-objective optimization of a turning process by using finite element simulationIn: Simulation Modelling Practice and TheoryArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Radial basis functions with a priori bias as surrogate models: A comparative study2018In: Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, ISSN 0952-1976, E-ISSN 1873-6769, Vol. 71, p. 28-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radial basis functions are augmented with a posteriori bias in order to perform robustly when used as metamodels. Recently, it has been proposed that the bias can simply be set a priori by using the normal equation, i.e., the bias becomes the corresponding regression model. In this study, we demonstrate the performance of the suggested approach (RBFpri) with four other well-known metamodeling methods; Kriging, support vector regression, neural network and multivariate adaptive regression. The performance of the five methods is investigated by a comparative study, using 19 mathematical test functions, with five different degrees of dimensionality and sampling size for each function. The performance is evaluated by root mean squared error representing the accuracy, rank error representing the suitability of metamodels when coupled with evolutionary optimization algorithms, training time representing the efficiency and variation of root mean squared error representing the robustness. Furthermore, a rigorous statistical analysis of performance metrics is performed. The results show that the proposed radial basis function with a priori bias achieved the best performance in most of the experiments in terms of all three metrics. When considering the statistical analysis results, the proposed approach again behaved the best, while Kriging was relatively as accurate and support vector regression was almost as fast as RBFpri. The proposed RBF is proven to be the most suitable method in predicting the ranking among pairs of solutions utilized in evolutionary algorithms. Finally, the comparison study is carried out on a real-world engineering optimization problem. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 18.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Product Development Department, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Niclas
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Radial basis functions as surrogate models with a priori bias in comparison with a posteriori bias2017In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 1453-1469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to obtain a robust performance, the established approach when using radial basis function networks (RBF) as metamodels is to add a posteriori bias which is defined by extra orthogonality constraints. We mean that this is not needed, instead the bias can simply be set a priori by using the normal equation, i.e. the bias becomes the corresponding regression model. In this paper we demonstrate that the performance of our suggested approach with a priori bias is in general as good as, or even for many test examples better than, the performance of RBF with a posteriori bias. Using our approach, it is clear that the global response is modelled with the bias and that the details are captured with radial basis functions. The accuracy of the two approaches are investigated by using multiple test functions with different degrees of dimensionality. Furthermore, several modeling criteria, such as the type of radial basis functions used in the RBFs, dimension of the test functions, sampling techniques and size of samples, are considered to study their affect on the performance of the approaches. The power of RBF with a priori bias for surrogate based design optimization is also demonstrated by solving an established engineering benchmark of a welded beam and another benchmark for different sampling sets generated by successive screening, random, Latin hypercube and Hammersley sampling, respectively. The results obtained by evaluation of the performance metrics, the modeling criteria and the presented optimal solutions, demonstrate promising potentials of our RBF with a priori bias, in addition to the simplicity and straight-forward use of the approach.

  • 19.
    Ander, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av laddhandske för laddbara fordon2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the autumn term of 2017, Jenny Ander and Matilda Johansson have performed a project in collaboration with Sea Ice AB in the course Degree Project in Integrated Product Development at the University of Skövde. Sea Ice AB is working on developing charging infrastructure systems for rechargeable vehicles with focus on end-user benefits, high quality and increasing sustainability for the environment.The company is aiming to grow larger in the market and, in the future, be able to deliver attractive products and services, which in this project has involved the development of a new vehicle connector for rechargeable vehicles.

    During the project, vehicle connectors and CEE-plugs have been compared with each other, focusing on its internal components. The pre-study is based on literature studies where standards have been studied, ergonomics and user studies, questionnaires, electrical measurements, but mainly disassembly and analysis of vehicle connectors and CEE-plugs.

    After the pre-study, the concept development of the vehicle connector began with design methods, FEA-analyzes, CAD and clay modeling, concept screening and detail design. The concept development resulted in a complete final concept for both internal components, but also an external shell with ergonomic grip surfaces and angles.

    The final concept has been compared to the requirement specification and achieved the requirements set for the project, with some reservation for continued development. The vehicle connector has a unique and appealing appearance and meets the demands that both users and Sea Ice AB whished for.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Optimization and re-design of a wheel hub to reduce unsprung mass of a rallycross car2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Wheel Hub of a rallycross car is analysed to reduce the unsprung mass of the car. The problem statement is to mainly focus on the unsprung mass related to the suspension, and more specifically on the Wheel Hub. One of the objectives of the suspension system of a car is to damping the movement of the car. This is an important area when designing a vehicle, and especially a race car due to the extreme conditions that may result in reduced traction and loose of confidence for the driver. A theoretical model is performed to demonstrate the importance of a low unsprung mass and to illustrate how it affects the vehicle-handling. A process to evaluate the current Wheel Hub and decision to re-design the Wheel Hub is performed, and the parts are analysed using the Finite Element Method to verify the design and material selection. Vehicle dynamics of the car is analysed to calculate the acting forces. Optimization of the design is performed by using Computer Aided Engineering. The re-designed Wheel Hub presented as the result of this project with a Brake Disk Adapter integrated in Hub. This design reduces the number of parts, and the unsprung mass up to 25% without any effects on suspension geometry or other parts of the car.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Erica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Fritz, Sophia
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Möjligheter med kollaborativa robotar i slutmonteringen på Volvo GTO: Urvalsprinciper för en coaktiv implementation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robots are a new technology that offers flexibility and precision for manual tasks that previously have been difficult to automate. Volvo Group Trucks Operations engine plant in Skövde is a pilot plant where new technical solutions are tested before it is implemented in the rest of the company. The company sees that collaborative robots can provide benefits for the operator’s ergonomics and improved process and product quality in the final assembly of 13L truck engines. The purpose of the project is to investigate the possibilities of collaborative robots in the final assembly as well as to give a deeper understanding of the robot's field of application. The project has been defined to Universal Robots, preparation, preassembly and final assembly for 13L truck engines. The objectives are to develop distinctive features for a coactive implementation, to develop a basic analysis and to co-locate possible tasks into a coactive station and if co-location is not possible provide recommendations on minimal features that should be included in the collaborative robot.

    To achieve the goals, a systematic method has been prepared to ensure that the project addresses to the problem and the objectives. Knowledge has been gathered through literature studies and reference frameworks to form the basis for the practical work. All operations in areas 1-4 on the production line have been identified and analyzed to find coactive features, which has been the basis for developing a basic analysis. Several of the features that have been identified from the production line are consistent with what a Universal Robot can perform. That these features match, shows that a collaborative robot is possible to implement in the final assembly. The basic analysis has then been used to co-locate two coactive stations in the production line.

    The basic analysis could be used as a basis for the company in the implementation of collaborative robots. As technology of collaborative robots develops, the features and basic analysis needs to be updated.

  • 22.
    Andersson Lassila, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Folcke, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Numerical and experimental analysis of adhesively bonded T-joints: Using a bi-material interface and cohesive zone modelling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing climate change the automotive industry is facing increasing demands regarding emissions and environmental impact. To lower emissions and environmental impact the automotive industry strives to increase the efficiency of vehicles by for example reducing the weight. This can be achieved by the implementation of lightweight products made of composite materials where different materials must be joined. A key technology when producing lightweight products is adhesive joining.

    In an effort to expand the implementations of structural adhesives Volvo Buses wants to increase their knowledge about adhesive joining techniques. This thesis is done in collaboration with Volvo Buses and aims to increase the knowledge about numerical simulations of adhesively bonded joints. A numerical model of an adhesively bonded T-joint is presented where the adhesive layer is modelled using the Cohesive Zone Model. The experimental extraction of cohesive laws for adhesives is discussed and implemented as bi-linear traction-separation laws. Experiments of the T-joint for two different load cases are performed and compared to the results of the numerical simulations. The experimental results shows a similar force-displacement response as for the results of the numerical simulations. Although there were deviations in the maximum applied load and for one load case there were deviations in the behavior after the main load drop. The deviations between numerical and experimental results are believed to be due to inaccurate material properties for the adhesive, the use of insufficient bi-linear cohesive laws, the occurrence of a combination of adhesive and cohesive fractures during the experiments and dissimilar effective bonding surface areas in the numerical model and the physical specimens.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Erlandsson, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av ett lyftverktyg för skivformade produkter2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the second semester of 2013, product design engineering students Stefan Erlandsson and Louise Andersson have been involved in a project in cooperation with entrepreneur Lars Willebrand. The main objective of this project has been to develop a lifting tool for sheet materials. The lifting tool is one of four different products developed by Lars Willebrand. The line of products also includes an overhead crane, a slewing crane and a storage drawer for metal sheets, which are already fully developed and ready for production. The purpose of this lifting tool is to be used along with the storage drawer which means that is has to be optimised for lifting sheet materials from different heights. This means that the lifting tool has to be designed with regards to the users working postures. Human factors such as ergonomics have to be taken into account as well.

    The initial part of the project is a pre-study with focus on ergonomics and human factors. This pre-study included a study in relevant literature, contact with a manufacturing company and an analysis of the possible competitor’s lifting tools. The results from the pre-study have further been used to define the specification of requirements, which is the foundation for the concept development. The concept development has undergone a number of different phases. All of the lifting tool’s main functions were broken down and developed individually. The functions were as follows; adjustment of the suction cups, lifting from different heights and handling. The most suitable solution for each main function were chosen and assembled into one final concept.

    The final concept has been analysed and further developed in order to please the employer and the users of the lifting tool. Some details in the design have been changed in order to ease the manufacturing of the lifting tool. To ensure that the final concept matches the specification of requirements, strength calculations and FEM analysis have been made and anthropometrical measurements have been taken into account. The final chapters include a discussion and recommendations for further development of the lifting tool.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards Optimal Algorithmic Parameters for Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization2016In: 2016 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), New York: IEEE, 2016, p. 5162-5169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of optimization to solve a simulation-based multi-objective problem produces a set of solutions that provide information about the trade-offs that have to be considered by the decision maker. An incomplete or sub-optimal set of solutions will negatively affect the quality of any subsequent decisions. The parameters that control the search behavior of an optimization algorithm can be used to minimize this risk. However, choosing good parameter settings for a given optimization algorithm and problem combination is difficult. The aim of this paper is to take a step towards optimal parameter settings for optimization of simulation-based problems. Two parameter tuning methods, Latin Hypercube Sampling and Genetic Algorithms, are used to maximize the performance of NSGA-II applied to a simulation-based problem with discrete variables. The strengths and weaknesses of both methods are analyzed. The effect of the number of decision variables and the function budget on the optimal parameter settings is also studied.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Tuning of Multiple Parameter Sets in Evolutionary Algorithms2016In: GECCO'16: Proceedings of the 2016 genetic and evolutionary computation conference, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 533-540Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary optimization algorithms typically use one or more parameters that control their behavior. These parameters, which are often kept constant, can be tuned to improve the performance of the algorithm on specific problems. However, past studies have indicated that the performance can be further improved by adapting the parameters during runtime. A limitation of these studies is that they only control, at most, a few parameters, thereby missing potentially beneficial interactions between them. Instead of finding a direct control mechanism, the novel approach in this paper is to use different parameter sets in different stages of an optimization. These multiple parameter sets, which remain static within each stage, are tuned through extensive bi-level optimization experiments that approximate the optimal adaptation of the parameters. The algorithmic performance obtained with tuned multiple parameter sets is compared against that obtained with a single parameter set. For the experiments in this paper, the parameters of NSGA-II are tuned when applied to the ZDT, DTLZ and WFG test problems. The results show that using multiple parameter sets can significantly increase the performance over a single parameter set.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Parameter tuned CMA-ES on the CEC'15 expensive problems2015In: Evolutionary Computation, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 1950-1957Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary optimization algorithms have parameters that are used to adapt the search strategy to suit different optimization problems. Selecting the optimal parameter values for a given problem is difficult without a-priori knowledge. Experimental studies can provide this knowledge by finding the best parameter values for a specific set of problems. This knowledge can also be constructed into heuristics (rule-of-thumbs) that can adapt the parameters for the problem. The aim of this paper is to assess the heuristics of the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) optimization algorithm. This is accomplished by tuning CMA-ES parameters so as to maximize its performance on the CEC'15 problems, using a bilevel optimization approach that searches for the optimal parameter values. The optimized parameter values are compared against the parameter values suggested by the heuristics. The difference between specialized and generalized parameter values are also investigated.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Parameter Tuning of MOEAs Using a Bilevel Optimization Approach2015In: Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015. Proceedings, Part I / [ed] António Gaspar-Cunha, Carlos Henggeler Antunes & Carlos Coello Coello, Springer, 2015, p. 233-247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) can be greatly influenced by its parameters. The optimal parameter settings are also not necessarily the same across different problems. Finding the optimal set of parameters is therefore a difficult and often time-consuming task. This paper presents results of parameter tuning experiments on the NSGA-II and NSGA-III algorithms using the ZDT test problems. The aim is to gain new insights on the characteristics of the optimal parameter settings and to study if the parameters impose the same effect on both NSGA-II and NSGA-III. The experiments also aim at testing if the rule of thumb that the mutation probability should be set to one divided by the number of decision variables is a good heuristic on the ZDT problems. A comparison of the performance of NSGA-II and NSGA-III on the ZDT problems is also made.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    Posten AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Evolutionary Simulation Optimization of Personnel Scheduling2014In: Industrial Simulation Conference, Skövde, June 11-13, 2014, Eurosis , 2014, p. 61-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simulation-optimization system for personnel scheduling. The system is developed for the Swedish postal services and aims at finding personnel schedules that minimizes both total man hours and the administrative burden of the person responsible for handling schedules. For the optimization, the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm NSGA-II is implemented. The simulation-optimization system is evaluated on a real-world test case and results from the evaluation shows that the algorithm is successful in optimizing the problem.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Rasmus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Hellgren, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    ÖKAD PRODUKTIVITET GENOM STÄLLTIDSREDUCERING: En fallstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Kongsberg Automotive (KA) is a company operating in the highly competitive automotive industry. At one of its plants located in Mullsjö, assembling of gear transmission systems is taking place. KA sees a need to increase capacity in the section by increasing productivity. A large potential for improvement are identified during the changeover between different product variants in the assembly section. The setup time reduction is expected to increase the productivity in the assembly section, which also contributes to increased flexibility in order to competitively meet customer’s flexible needs. In order to determine the starting position at the improvement work, a situation analysis and suggestions for improvement to reduce setup time can be worked out. Implementation of improvement suggestions can then be adopted. In order to document the current situation and to demonstrate improvements in the setup time reduction a simulation model was establishes. The simulation model will demonstrate an example of when to use production simulation tool.

    To implement the setup time reduction SMED (Single -Minute Exchange of Die) is used, originally developed to reduce the setup time for the press machines. The method aims at reducing setup time to under 10 minutes, the "single- minute'. Through video documentation, participant observation, and further data collection methods the present situation could be determined. This created a good picture of the operations carried out and the time consumption it corresponded to. To verify the data of the current situation timing of work elements according to snapback method was conducted. The simulation model is constructed after Banks twelve-step method with the data gathered during the project. The model is then verified against the situation analysis. When improvement proposals were formulated the values were added ​​into the model, which corresponded to the calculated time improvement proposals. The improvement proposals for the setup time are partly produced by the project, but also through a workshop with staff at KA and focusing on the five previously identified problem areas. The improvement proposals were evaluated on the workshop through a pick chart.

    Five elaborate improvements that require little effort but gives a great effect was presented to KA. To verify theoretical calculations, a pilot with four of the five improvements temporarily implemented. The results showed a reduction of setup time from 38 minutes to 3.7 minutes, which corresponds to an improvement of 90.3%.  The analysis also shows that the improvement creates a reduction in the production rate in normal assembly. In total, the improvements in this project increase OEE value in assembly section with 4.2%. Even so, one of the stated objectives of the project will not be achieved since the setup time activities are too small part of the available time in the assembly section.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Rikard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Welin, Annika
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Analys av elasticitetsmodulsvariationer i vevaxel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A study is performed regarding an eventual variation of the Young's modulus in crankshafts from Volvo Cars, which are delivered from subcontractors. The purpose of the study is to enable future FE-analysis regarding the cutting processing that crankshafts are exposed for at Volvo Cars. Thus, an examination are is desired if these FE-analysis can be done with using a constant Young's modulus. Two 4-cylindrical crankshafts are obtained from Volvo Cars, which are partioned divided into four parts each, and each and used in two experiments. Where experiment one, was a pressure compression test in a tensile stress testing machine at the University of Skövde, and experiment two, where experiment one, are is mimicked in the software Abaqus CAE with boundary conditions and load. Also, three part experiments are performed, one where the parts of the crankshaft were allowed to spring back, two where an examination of stress concentrations in Abaqus CAE to examine if the parts of the crankshaft plasticizes and three, where one of the divided crankshaft parts are inverted in the tensile stress test machine to examine measurement uncertainty. The obtained results show that it is a small variation of the Young's modulus in the two crankshafts, with a variation of 3.45 %. This variation can be explained with a measurement uncertainty, because in part experiment three where the paortioneddivided crankshaft part were twisted aroundinverted in the tensile stress test machine show a measurement uncertainty of 3.16 %. The percentage difference between the two crankshafts are bigger, and this can not only originate from a measurement uncertainty.

    Completed analyses show that FE-analysis is an applicable method to calculate the deformation of crankshafts from engines with 4-cylinders, but it can be a need for Volvo Cars to carry out further investigations regarding a varying Young's modulus between different providers/batches of the raw material for crankshafts.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Rinat
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Johansson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Underlag för beslut av investering i ny utrustning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    The stress-elongation relation for an adhesive layer loaded in peel using equilibrium of energetic forces2004In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 413-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental method to determine the stress–elongation relation for a thin adhesive layer loaded in peel is presented. The method is based on equilibrium of the energetic forces acting on a DCB-specimen. These energetic forces are identified to be associated with the geometrical positions of the acting loads and the start of the adhesive layer. The first energetic force is shown to be given by the product of the force and the rotation of the loading point. The second energetic force is shown to be given by the area under the stress–elongation curve for the adhesive layer. Using equilibrium of these energetic forces, the shape of the stress–elongation curve is determined. A test set-up is developed to facilitate the experiments. Special consideration is given to the accuracy of the measurement of the elongation of the adhesive. Results from two sets of experiments with slightly varying geometry are presented. The main result is that the stress–elongation relation can be described by a curve divided into three parts; initially the stress increases proportionally to the elongation. This corresponds to a linear elastic behaviour of the layer. The next part is given by a constant limiting stress. The curve ends with a parabolically softening part. After this point, a crack has been initiated in the adhesive. The experimental results are first compared to an asymptotic analysis using linear elastic fracture mechanics. This shows that the new method to evaluate the fracture energy gives consistent results. The experiments are also simulated using the measured stress–elongation law. Good agreement with the experiments is achieved which further validates the method. The fracture energy and the maximum peel stress are found to agree well within each set of experiments. Some variation is found between the two sets. This is accredited to differences in fracture initiation

  • 33.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Larsson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Project ABSS: Adhesive bonding of stainless steels2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to increase the scientific knowledge about long-term prospects for the adhesive and adhesive joints for bonding of stainless steels. The effects of water, temperature and chemicals on the adhesive and adhesive joints are investigated. Stainless steel plates are pretreated with a primer and isopropanol, there after joined together with single lap modeling. The strength of the joint is tested with a tensile test and additionally a watertightness test is performed to determine if the joints are watertight.

    For this project three versions of stainless steels is used and two different technologies of two- part adhesives, silicone and silane-modified polymer and one technology of tape, a double coated acrylic foam tape are tested.

    The result shows that all the adhesives fails cohesively and that tape fails partly adhesively. Result shows that all tests are affected by water, temperature and chemicals on different levels but tape is affected the most with a minimum of 40% loss in shear strength. Watertightness test shows that aged tape joints are not watertight. The polymer shows no signs of decreasing in shear strength and is watertight, but does become more viscous by aging.

    The report shows that a possible combination of adhesive and pretreatment that can withstand the effects of water, temperature and chemicals is found. The polymer presents a possibility to bond stainless steel with a simple pretreatment. Tape didn’t pass the test in a suitable way but presents opportunities if a sufficient pretreatment can be found. 

  • 34.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Distributed Cognition in Manufacturing: Collaborative Assembly Work2016In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXX / [ed] Yee Mey Goh, Keith Case, IOS Press, 2016, p. 243-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive science is becoming increasingly central within humanfactors and ergonomics (HF&E) and there has long been a call for a more systemicperspective in the area with a somewhat broader unit of analysis. This paperpresents a case study applying the theoretical framework of distributed cognition(DCog), which shows how DCog would offer a more complete understanding ofmanufacturing within its greater context, including the social, cultural, andmaterial surroundings. This paper aims to characterize and analyse dock assemblyof forest machines as a complex socio-technical system from a DCog perspective;focusing on the creation of enacted landscapes in this particular setting. The paperalso exemplifies benefits of using the DCog framework in the manufacturingdomain as a way of grasping the assembly workers’ tacit competence and skills.

  • 35.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens2017In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 85-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

  • 36.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information and Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Tool use and collaborative work of dock assembly in practice2017In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 164-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deepen the understanding of the intrinsic interactions andinterplay between humans, tools, and environment from a systemsperspective, research in the wild (RITW) approaches have gainedtraction during recent decades as they provide a higher ecologicalvalidity of findings. This paper presents a RITW study, investigatinghow assembly, in this case dock assembly of forwarders, was donein practice. As our theoretical foundation, we used the framework ofdistributed cognition, which is one of the main pillars of RITW. Thefindings are presented in narrative form, describing and highlightingthat the workers achieve an efficient production outcome by beingintegral parts of the whole production process and doing so throughcoordination of activities benefitting the shared goal of the distributedsocio-technical system.

  • 37.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards an increased degree of usability work in organizations2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 5739-5746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that there is a substantial gap between usability research and practice where UCD approaches are rarelyapplied in practice due to arguments regarding the intricate nature of its methods and techniques. This paper presents an actionresearch study designed to investigate and analyze the potentials for an increased degree of UCD activities in the earlydevelopment phases of advanced information systems technology. The results demonstrate that there is a large interest inusability but that organizational priority and competence is often lacking. Instead one relies heavily on questionable conceptssuch as „trained professionals‟ to excuse the low effort towards usability. Based on the results, six recommendations forimproved usability work in R&D organizations are presented, focusing on the importance of prioritization of, and education inusability work.

  • 38.
    Aragón Martín, Laura
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Alternative materials for the horseshoe2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a research-focused work on a study of alternative materials for horseshoes. Within this thesis the objectives and functions of a compliant horseshoe are identified, based on a literature study of the work of previous researches, and they are linked to the properties of material. After identifying these objectives, a number of methods are implemented with the aim of detecting the most suitable materials for horseshoes taking into account the properties linked with the objectives. In order to determine whether the selected material is suitable or not, a comparison with a traditional forged steel horseshoe is carried out. Whenever an appropriate material is found, a most exhaustive study is performed and finally, a decision is elected based on the further investigation. The last chapter of this thesis is comprised of a document destined for future researches where suggestions about how to get more reliable results in the field are explained.

  • 39.
    Arambarri Iglesias, Oihane
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Arauzo Sanchez, Ane
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Design of a medical mask for users with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within this degree project a conceptual design of a mask has been developed for people with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity due to the lack of this kind of product in the market. The users currently use different masks that are designed to be used in other activities.  A preliminary study has been performed where market, ergonomics, materials and use situations have been analysed to gather knowledge to define the specifications of the product. Even if  the aesthetics of the first version of the product’s design was related to a health care design style, after obtaining results, it was observed that the wishes of the users weren’t being fulfilled. After updating the specifications and the generation phase three possible concepts have been presented. The evaluation has been done within the design group and the target users from the Basque association “Bizi-Bide”. The final conceptual design has been developed regarding different aspects such as ergonomics, materials, components and graphic design. The project has resulted in a concept of an innovative mask, which has a mouldable part for the nose and cheeks, a Velcro fastener to adapt it to different head measurements and exchangeable filters. 

  • 40.
    Arehorn, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ekholm, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av lattbeslag för segelbåtar mellan 45 och 60 fot2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been carried out by the product design engineering students Magnus Arehorn and Niklas Ekholm during the spring of 2016, for the Bachelor Degree Project in Integrated Product Development at the University of Skövde. The project has been in cooperation with Selden Mast AB in Långedrag, Gothenburg, which develops rigging systems and deck hardware for sailboats.Seldén has batten receptacles for sailboats up to 45 feet, but wants to expand their range of products to the market for larger sailboats. The existing batten receptacle is not strong enough for that application which is why a new batten receptacle requires a stronger construction. The goal was to develop a batten receptacle for sailboats between 45 and 60 feet. The purpose of the batten receptacle is to increase the batten’s tension in the mainsail and form the sail more aerodynamic.Opportunities for development were explored by identifying sub functions of the batten receptacle. A pre-study was conducted to research the development opportunities in the areas by ensuring existing solutions through a competitive analysis and by identifying sailmakers’ and sailors’ needs through interviews. The batten receptacle was expected to be of low cost, robust, functional and unique. It was concluded that unique solutions had to be found at a low manufacturing cost.An idea generation was implemented to find concepts with innovative and proven solutions at low costs. Two potential concepts were developed and weighted with the goal to come to one final result. The result was considered to be rare on the market and estimated to have a relatively low manufacturing cost.

  • 41.
    Areitioaurtena Oiartzun, Maialen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Mixed material bonding: Effects of the properties of the adhesive on the thermal shape distortion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesive bond-line read-through is the terminology used in the automotive industry that describes a visible distortion of an adherent over the adhesive bond-line. Usually, this is a result of the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of the substrates and the adhesive. First of all, previous work is presented, as well as some information about the terms that are used throughout the project. A linear thermal simulation is carried out in order to analyse the bond-line read-through curvature defects produced by the adhesive properties in a typical bonding from the automotive industry. The analysed models belong to a carbon fibre and epoxy composite material plate bonded with a metal plate that can be made of steel, aluminium and magnesium. The use of carbon fibre composites is one of the main focuses in the automotive industry due to the decrease of environmental and therefore economic impact. The adhesives used for the analysis are liquid or paste adhesive and adhesive tapes from the 3M™ VHB™ series. Several equations are obtained from the results, which can be used to calculate the curvature produced by a specific adhesive for these combinations. The use of these equations is limited to certain material properties and thicknesses that are presented through the work. The outcome of this project provides an opportunity to make the adhesive selection easier, based on the maximum required substrate curvature.

  • 42.
    Arteaga Viafara, Edinson Elan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Linders, Linders
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av en postlåda för montage på säkerhetsdörrar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the process of creating a design proposal of a letterbox for mounting on security doors. The project was developed in cooperation with a manufacturer of security doors made of steel. The purpose of this work has been to develop a concept for a mailbox with several new functions and an innovative aesthetic design, at the request of the company. This new design has to be in line with existing security demands and should also include a wide group of users.

    According to French’s model, a method has been used where user studies, tests and focus groups provides essential information. The three design principles inclusive design, pleasure design and gamification has been the guiding star throughout the process.

    A function diagram was used on a regular letterbox to find functions with potential for improvements. The focus of the concept development was based on the findings from this diagram.

    The concept generation resulted in the letter box Droppen, containing innovative functions that have been developed from the existing ones. This letterbox is challenging by expanding old functionalities such as LED lamps as a mean of communication or using the magazine holder as a form of unloading zone. The distinguished and soft form of a drop is a design that appeals to many people and at the same time makes it easy to pick up the mail. The box is made from zinc alloyed steel, which makes it heavy but durable. The many options for individual design not only increase the customer value but also indirectly reduce the impact on the environment.

  • 43.
    Aryasetiawan, F.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Division of Mathematical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Krister
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Miyake, T.
    CD-FMat, AIST, Tsukuba, Japan / ESICMM, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Green's function theory of orbital magnetic moment of interacting electrons in solids2016In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 93, no 16, article id 161104(R)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Aryasetiawan, Ferdi
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Division of Mathematical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Krister
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Modern theory of orbital magnetic moment in solids2017In: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, ISSN 0022-3697, E-ISSN 1879-2553, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnetic moment in a solid is usually associated with the electron spins but there is an additional contribution due to the orbital motion of the electrons. For a finite system such as an atom or molecule the orbital moment can be readily calculated. However, for a periodic system the formula used for finite systems becomes ill-defined due to the presence of the position operator. In the last decade a modern theory of orbital magnetization that allows for a rigorous calculation of the magnetic moment of periodic crystals has been developed. This article provides a survey of the theoretical development of this new topic as well as recent, albeit a few, applications of the new formula to real materials. Although the original theory was worked out for non-interacting systems, there has been recent progress in the theory of orbital magnetic moment of interacting electrons in solids. To include the effects of electron-electron interactions two approaches have been proposed, one based on current spin density functional theory and another on the many-body Green's function method. The two approaches are very different but both methods provide convenient yet rigorous means of including the effects of exchange and correlations beyond the commonly used local density approximation of density functional theory.

  • 45.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Combining system dynamics and multi-objective optimization with design space reduction2016In: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 291-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    The purpose of this study is to introduce an effective methodology for obtaining Pareto-optimal solutions, when combining System Dynamics (SD) and Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) for supply chain problems.

    Design/methodology/approach 

    This paper proposes a new approach that combines SD and MOO within a simulation-based optimization framework to generate the efficient frontier that supports decision- making in SupplyChain Management (SCM). It also addresses the issue of the curse of dimensionality, commonly found in practical optimization problems, through design space reduction.

    Findings 

    The integrated MOO and SD approach has been shown to be very useful in revealing how the decision variables in the Beer Game affect the optimality of the three common SCM objectives, namely, the minimization of inventory, backlog, and the bullwhip effect. The results of the in-depth Beer Game study clearly show that these three optimization objectives are in conflict with each other, in the sense that a supply chain manager cannot minimize the bullwhip effect without increasing the total inventory and total backlog levels.

    Practical implications

    Having a methodology that enables the effective generation of optimal trade-off solutions, in terms of computational cost, time, as well as solution diversity and intensification, not only assists decision makers to make decisions on time, but also presents a diverse and intense solution set to choose from.

    Originality/value 

    This paper presents a novel supply chain MOO methodology that helps to find Pareto-optimal solutions in a more effective manner. In order to do so, the methodology tackles the so-called curse of dimensionality, by reducing the design space and focusing the search of the optimization to regions of interest. Together with design space reduction, it is believed that the integrated SD and MOOapproach can provide an innovative and efficient method for the design and analysis of manufacturing supply chain systems in general.

  • 46.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Multi-objective Optimization and Analysis of the Inventory Management Model2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 Summer Simulation Multiconference, Society for Computer Simulation International , 2014, Vol. 46, p. 99-106Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Integrating system dynamics and multi-objective optimisation for manufacturing supply chain analysis2014In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0605, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 27-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to address the dilemma of supply chain management (SCM) within a truly Pareto-based multi-objective context. This is done by introducing an integration of system dynamics and multi-objective optimisation. An extended version of the well-known pedagogical SCMproblem, the Beer Game, originally developed at MIT since the 1960s, has been used as the illustrative example. As will be discussed in the paper, the integrated multi-objective optimisation and system dynamics model has been shown to be very useful for revealing how the parameters in the Beer Game affect the optimality of the three common SCM objectives, namely, the minimisation of inventory cost, backlog cost, and the bullwhip effect.

  • 48.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H.C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Strategy evaluation using system dynamics and multi-objective optimization for an internal supply chain2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal and M. D. Rossetti, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2033-2044Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    System dynamics, which is an approach built on information feedbacks and delays in the model in order to understand the dynamical behavior of a system, has successfully been implemented for supply chain management problems for many years. However, research within in multi-objective optimization of supply chain problems modelled through system dynamics has been scares. Supply chain decision making is much more complex than treating it as a single objective optimization problem due to the fact that supply chains are subjected to the multiple performance measures when optimizing its process. This paper presents an industrial application study utilizing the simulation based optimization framework by combining system dynamics simulation and multi-objective optimization. The industrial study depicts a conceptual system dynamics model for internal logistics system with the aim to evaluate the effects of different material flow control strategies by minimizing total system work-on-process as wells as total delivery delay.

  • 49.
    Assarsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Kommunikation av förbättringsarbeten: en studie i medelstora tillverkande företag2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this thesis is based on a research project at the University of Skövde, whose purpose is to study how management and measurement of continuous improvements can be improved in medium-sized manufacturing companies. The purpose of the thesis was to provide opportunities for companies to improve their communication of improvement work. The work included mapping all formal written communication of improvement work but not what is communicated orally in two companies. In Company A there were significantly more communication of information than in Company B. In Company A, who has worked a long time with Lean Production, communication modes such as goal management, daily management and various categories of improvement work was observed. In Company B only different categories of improvement work could be observed, this may be because they are in early stages of Lean. Production managers in Company A act in many of the communication modes, which gives them a big responsibility in the improvement work. The companies in the study but also other companies should take part of each other’s communication modes to achieve a more effective communication of improvement work. The companies should also bring the workers' thoughts on reducing waste and creating a system to follow up and measure the deviations.

  • 50.
    Auma, Faith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Lingehed, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Chair for pupils with cerebral palsy in Uganda2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An adjustable chair was developed for children with cerebral palsy in Uganda. The chairs these children use today are custom made which means that they cannot be used when a child outgrows a chair. Sometimes the chair is used by other children and does not give the support that the child needs.

    The project was executed in the capitol, Kampala, by the two design engineer students Faith Auma and Emma Lingehed in collaboration with Makerere University, Kampala school for the physically handicapped and Katalemwa Cheshire home. The goal of the project was to help pupils with cerebral palsy from a young age develop adequate sitting behaviour and become more physically independent. The chair should be able to be manufactured and assembled in Uganda and the material should be able to be found in the country.

    The project started by clarifying the problem, information was collected through literature studies, study visits and interviews. The gathered information was used to create a product specification focusing on safety, environment, manufacturing and ergonomics.

    All background information was used throughout the idea generation. A number of ideas were generated and evaluated until a final concept was found. The final concept, called Billy, was chosen through a concept scoring where it was evaluated against three other concepts. Billy was considered the easiest concept to manufacture in Uganda and had the simplest construction.

    Billy was developed further and became the final concept Entebbe. Entebbe is a chair that is adjustable and gives the support a child with cerebral palsy needs. A prototype was made at Katalemwa Cheshire home. 

    Entebbe can be manufactured in Uganda and since it is module-based it can easily be repaired and resized by simply changing the concerned parts. This also means that parts can be reused to build other chairs. Entebbe can be adjusted in five different ways and requires no tools to assemble.

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