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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neuroplasticity induced by exercise2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As opposed to earlier beliefs, the brain is altering itself throughout an individual’s life. The process of functional or structural alterations is referred to as plasticity, and can be induced by several factors such as experience or physical exercise. In this thesis, the research area of experience-dependent plasticity, with focus on exercise-induced plasticity is examined critically. Evidence from a vast array of studies are reviewed and compared in order to find whether physical exercise can induce neural plasticity in the human brain, how it may be beneficial, and what some of the plausible mediators of exercise-induced plasticity are. The findings demonstrated in this thesis suggest that although there are knowledge gaps and limitations in the literature, physical exercise can indeed result in exhibited plasticity as well as being beneficial for the human brain in several ways.

  • 2.
    Acar, Kasim
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Schizophrenia and Hallucinogens2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenic symptoms and hallucinogenic effects have been thought of as similar for a long time. The aim of this paper is to review the current findings in the research of schizophrenia and hallucinogens; symptoms and effects, brain imaging studies and biochemical studies are compared. Systematic investigations show that the acute symptoms of schizophrenia are particularly similar to the effects of hallucinogens when using psychometric rating scales; APZ, EPI and AMPD, even though dissimilarities have been found. Converging evidence suggests that the acute effects of schizophrenia as well as the effects of hallucinogens act through a common receptor subtype, the 5-HT2A receptor. Brain imaging studies using PET and SPECT indicates that hallucinogenic drugs increase frontal cortical activity, studies have found it to be a result of 5-HT2A receptor stimulation. Interactions between the serotonergic system and other neurotransmitter systems might aid in the understanding of these phenomena.

  • 3.
    Al-Bayati, Omar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Baghdad university.
    Optimizing the Fluorescence In situ hybridization technique for a more rapid inspection of Sepsis causative pathogens by employing DNA probes2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Sepsis is a serious clinical condition that is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a known or suspected infection. The major clinical symptoms involve an abnormal WBC count, elevated body temperature, respiration and pulse rate. Reported cases with high mortality rate range between 13 - 20 million. In order to treat Sepsis, the detection of bacteria in blood culture is extremely crucial. Treating patients with broad spectrum antibiotics is usually related to adverse effects, drug resistance, increased mortality, and high cost. In the past decades, researches had detected that E. coli and S. aureus are the major role players that cause sepsis. These microbes are molecularly tested by methods like MALDI TOF, FISH and Microarrays.  

    In this analysis, DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment for the identification of S. aureus, one of the most frequent blood pathogens, was optimized in the labs of Högskolan i Skövde. As a result, the growth of S. aureus was observed very carefully, optimizing the FISH procedure for gram positive bacteria was done and the sensitivity, stability and specificity of the DNA probe were examined under variant conditions like the continuous decrease in the bacteria cells number and utilizing a mixture of different types of bacteria cells. 

  • 4.
    Almqvist, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Stockholm, Stockholm Sweden.
    Andersen, Michael
    Danish Fishermen’s Association, Fredericia, Denmark.
    Willestofte Berg, Casper
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Broadgate, Wendy
    The Fisheries Secretariat (FISH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bryan, Meaghan
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Southeast Fisheries Science Center, Miami, United States.
    Campana, Steven
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Canada.
    Cardinale, Max
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Dierking, Jan
    Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften, Kiel, Germany.
    von Dorrien, Christian
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Eero, Margit
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Efimov, Yuri
    Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (VNIRO), Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Department of Inland Fisheries, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Horbowy, Jan
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Hüssy, Karin
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Johansson, Reine
    Baltic Sea Advisory Council, Dyrön, Sweden.
    Jonusas, Stanislovas
    DGMare, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kornelius, George
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment (BIOR) 8 Daugavgrivas Str. Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Köster, Fritz
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Kraak, Sarah
    Thünen Institute, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Large, Scott
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Swedish Cod Fishermen’s Producer Organisation, Lycke, Sweden.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lövgren, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Maguire, Jean-Jacques
    Godefroy, Quebec, Canada.
    Mosegaard, Henrik
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Anders
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Stepputtis, Daniel
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Stern, Edward
    The Fisheries Secretariat (FISH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Strehlow, Harry Vincent
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Trenkel, Verena
    Ifremer Nantes Centre, Nantes, France.
    Wæver Pedersen, Martin
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Zimmermann, Christopher
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Baltic Cod Stocks (WKBALTCOD)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES Benchmark Workshop on Baltic Cod Stocks (WKBALTCOD), chaired by External Chair Jean-Jacques Maguire, Canada and ICES Chair Marie Storr-Paulsen, Denmark, and attended by two invited external experts Verena Trenkel, France and Meaghan Bryan, USA met in Rostock, Germany, 2–6 March 2015 with 39 participants and six countries represented. The objective of WKBALTCOD was to evaluate the appropriateness of data and methods to determine stock status and investigate meth-ods appropriate to use in the single-stock assessment for the cod stock in SD 22–24 and cod in SD 25–32 in the Baltic. Participants in the workshop were a large group with diverse backgrounds representing the industry, fisheries, NGOs, managers and scientists.The single-stock analytic assessment of the eastern Baltic stock was not accepted by the assessment working group (WGBFAS) in 2014 due to severe problems with the input data. The advice for the eastern Baltic cod was, therefore, based on the ICES approach for data-limited stocks. As an outcome ICES decided to establish a bench-mark for both cod stocks and to scope an integrated assessment for the Baltic cod stocks. The first meeting (WKSIBCA) was therefore meant to introduce the interces-sional work conducted since the assessment working group in April 2014, and to reach some conclusions on how to proceed both in the short term (Benchmark in March 2015) and longer term (2–3 years) and was seen as a data compilation work-shop, there is produced a separate report from this workshop. The WKBALTCOD was the 2nd meeting in the benchmark process and was intended to come up with a final stock assessment method, stock annex and input data for both stocks. As it was not possible to reach conclusive decision on the final model to be used for the east Baltic cod stock during the benchmark meeting and as more work on the preferable models was needed, it was decided by the ACOM leadership to prolong the bench-mark process until the assessment working group meeting in April 2015. This deci-sion has led to a relatively long process partly mixed with the assessment working group WGBFAS.It became clear during the benchmark process that although large effort has been put into explaining the underlying processes leading to the changes in the Baltic ecosys-tem, there is still some lack of understanding of the present situation in the eastern Baltic cod stock. Therefore, it was not possible to reach firm conclusions on the final model to be used and therefore not possible to set reference points. It was decided to continue to explore the most promising models and to continue to improve the input data until the assessment working group started in April.The main challenges still to be solved for the Eastern Baltic cod stock is the quantifi-cation of increased natural mortality and decrease in growth. Through several presentations during the workshop (both WKSIBCA and WKBALTCOD) it became clear that natural mortality very likely has increased in later years, due to decreased condition and increased parasite infection. A decrease in growth also seems plausible duo to a decrease in condition and/or selectivity-induced mortality of the largest in-dividuals. However, as none of these parameters are easily estimated, especially with the severe ageing problems, different model assumptions made the output very shaky.For the western Baltic cod, stock identification issues were examined in area SD 24, the intermediate area: based on otolith characteristics and genetics. Due to the results showing a large proportion of east cod in this area, it was decided to split the catch2 | ICES WKBALTCOD REPORT 2015and survey from SD 24 into either the western or eastern Baltic cod stock. It was pos-sible to derive proportions of eastern and western cod in SD 24 back to the mid-1990s.For the western Baltic cod stock a modelled survey indices was included in the as-sessment covering the western part of SD 24 and Area 22+23 and based on a smoothed ALK.Both cod stocks have in the past used commercial tuning fleet to have a better cov-ered of older age groups. It was decided to abound this time-series duo quality issues such as a limited coverage and problems with technical creeping.WKBALTCOD was not able to explore and define reference points for the Western Baltic cod stock during the meeting due to time constraints, but these were calculated and decided by correspondence after the meeting. The recent protocols on estimation procedures developed by WKMSYREF3 for stocks with a full analytical assessment and for data-limited stocks served as objective guidelines to obtain reference point estimates.

  • 5.
    Alvarez Svahn, Rodrigo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The hippocampal dependence of long-term declarative memory2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations into the neural correlates of memory have found the hippocampus to be a crucial structure for long-term declarative memories, but the exact nature of this contribution remains under debate. This paper covers three theories concerned with how the hippocampus is involved in long-term memory, namely the Standard Consolidation Model, the Multiple-Trace Theory, and the Distributed Reinstatement Theory. According to the Standard Consolidation Model, long-term declarative memories (both episodic and semantic) are dependent on the hippocampus for a limited time during which the memories undergo a process of consolidation, after which they become dependent on the neocortex. In contrast, the Multiple-Trace Theory argues that detailed and context-specific episodic (but not semantic) memories remain dependent on the hippocampus indefinitely. While both the aforementioned theories posit that memories are initially dependent on the hippocampus, the Distributed Reinstatement Theory does not. Advocates of this theory propose that several memory systems compete for the encoding of a memory, and that the hippocampus usually is the dominant system. However, it is also suggested that the other (unspecified) memory systems can overcome the hippocampal dominance through extensive and distributed learning sessions. In this paper, findings from both human and rodent studies focusing on the hippocampus are reviewed and used to evaluate the claims made by each theory on a systems level.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sleep and Its Effects on Synaptic Strength2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Andersson Szabo, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    A Biological And Psychological Profile of Eudaimonia as High Psychological Well-Being2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aristotle (4th century B.C.E/1925) described eudaimonia as “the good life”, and is today commonly understood as eudaimonic well-being (EWB) within research. Despite the long history, the definitions and operationalizations of EWB are diverse and no coherent description or explanation for the biology of EWB exist. Hence, the present thesis reviews current neuroscientific- and additional biological research on EWB. This review reveals EWB to be most frequently operationalized as psychological well-being (PWB) (Ryff, 2014), and is here used as basis for an attempt to explain the biological and psychological profiles of EWB as high PWB. High PWB was characterized by brain activity linked to the reward circuitry, dorsolateral and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and grey matter (GM) volume in areas of the brainstem and insular cortex. High PWB was also positively related to lower levels of several harmful biomarkers. The proposed psychological profile of high PWB included the psychological functions goal directed behaviour and emotional control. It is hoped that the proposed profiles will serve as inspiration for further exploration of the biology and psychology of human well-being (WB).

  • 8.
    Anna-Karin, Weivert
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Music and Emotion: The Neural Correlates of Music-Induced Positive Affect2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Listening to music is rated as one of the most pleasurable activities in human life and,in fact, listeners report the emotional impact of music to be one of the main motivatorsas to why they listen to music. This thesis focuses on the positive affective statesexperienced when listening to music and their underlying neural substrates. Despite thefact that research on the neural correlates of music-induced positive affect is arelatively recent undertaking our understanding has significantly improved during thelast decades. The aim of the current thesis is to give an overview of the neuralcorrelates of music-induced positive affect in healthy individuals. As such,psychophysiological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies are reviewed.Across studies the consistent involvement of brain regions, such as the orbitofrontalcortex, the striatum and the amygdala and left hemisphere frontal regions in response tomusic-induced positive affect has been found. These structures constitute an importantpart of the mesolimbocortical reward circuitry found to be involved in the processing ofa wide range of pleasures. The thesis also discusses conceptual and methodologicallimitations inherent in the studies reviewed. Understanding the nature and underlyingneural basis of music-induced positive affect is important because of the implications itmay have for psychological and physical wellbeing.

  • 9.
    Annett, Judith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Berglund, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Increasing Societal Well-Being Through Enhanced Empathy Using Computer Games2015In: Well-Being in Contemporary Society / [ed] Johnny H. Søraker, Jan-Willem Van der Rijt, Jelle de Boer, Pak-Hang Wong & Philip Brey, Springer, 2015, 135-155 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that the well-being of both individuals and society in general may have a neurobiological basis linked to empathy. This raises the issue of available routes for enhancing empathy (through interventions such as education, training, pharmacology, etc.). One of the most important features of the human brain, especially of the brains of children and teenagers, is its plasticity. Millions of children and teenagers spend many hours every day playing computer games. Many computer games include different forms of violence and aggression and there has been extensive research that indicates that there is a correlation between playing these games, aggression, and reduced disposition to pro-social behaviors. However, much less research has been conducted on the potential effects of pro-social and non-violent computer games. Since there is not yet a comprehensive model of the possible causal relationships between playing such games and neuropsychological function, neuroendocrine function (e.g. oxytocin release), empathy, pro-social behaviors, and individual and societal well-being, we provide a basic theoretical framework for empirical research on these issues. The aim of this framework is ultimately to establish not only correlational evidence, but to allow the development of experimental protocols to meaningfully examine the causal relationships and mechanisms.

  • 10.
    Arnesén, Lisa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Vems landskap ska förändras för att öka den biologiska mångfalden?: En studie av skillnaderna i odlingslandskapets konnektivitet med avseende på två skyddsvärda arter med olika preferenser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organisms relevant for nature conservation dont follow administrative borders. Because of this there is a need for a landscape perspective within conservation and planning, and a need for the species of interest to have legal protection. Network analysis adapted for ecological purposes has grown to become a powerful tool for studying and communicating the relationships between species dispersion and access to habitat. In this study the following question is posed: How is the Osmoderma eremita and the Pernis apivorus dispersal possibilities in the small scale cultivated landscape of Borås affected by exploitation in respect to a) dispersal ability, b) habitat quality, c) position of habitat patches in a network? The analysis were based on municipal and regional nature conservation data, which in due to confidentiality is not accounted for in the report by maps, coordinates, etc. Several networks were established for both species to indicate how habitat patches are distributed today and how the species dispersal changes depending on which patches are excluded – this was done to imitate how exploitation can affect the species future survival and dispersion. The results showed that the O.e. is mainly inhibited by its poor dispersal abilities, followed by patch position, while the P.a. is the most affected by degrading habitat quality. The most important conclusions of the study were that the O.e. natural dispersal may be restricted but can be improved by linking small network components together and by maintaining the largest components. As for the P.a. it was concluded that a different type of analysis, focusing on its behaviour and need for different patches for different purposes, would generate more interesting results.

  • 11.
    Aronsson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kan tacksamhet främja moraliskt beteende?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har undersökt om tacksamhet kan påverka vårt moraliska beteende, genom att se över studier som gjorts inom psykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mestadels på hur det kognitiva resonerandet påverkar ens moral. På senare tid har forskningen allt mer betonat specifika emotioners avgörande roll för om man agerar efter moraliska normer eller inte. Dessa emotioner benämns som moraliska emotioner. En av dessa moraliska emotioner är tacksamhet. Tacksamhet har i studier visats fungera som en moralisk barometer, stärka välgörares fortsatta moraliska beteende samt fungera som ett moraliskt motiv. Den neurala grunden för tacksamhet är ännu relativt outforskad. Emotioners generella påverkan på moraliskt beteende samt positiva emotioners tendenser till agerande (eng: action tendencies) kan dock ses som ett steg till ökad förståelse om hur tacksamheten påverkar vårt moraliska beteende.

  • 12.
    Asplund, Annika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pradip, Arvind
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    van Giezen, Mariska
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aspegren, Anders
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Choukair, Helena
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rehnström, Marie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghosheh, Nidal
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    El Hajjam, Dorra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Sandra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Benecke, Jörg
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Butron, Mariela
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wigander, Annelie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Noaksson, Karin
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca R&D, GMD CVMD GMed, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / NovaHep AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Arvid Wallgrens Backe 20, 413 46, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    One Standardized Differentiation Procedure Robustly Generates Homogenous Hepatocyte Cultures Displaying Metabolic Diversity from a Large Panel of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells2016In: Stem Cell Reviews, ISSN 1550-8943, E-ISSN 1558-6804, Vol. 12, no 1, 90-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human hepatocytes display substantial functional inter-individual variation regarding drug metabolizing functions. In order to investigate if this diversity is mirrored in hepatocytes derived from different human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, we evaluated 25 hPSC lines originating from 24 different donors for hepatic differentiation and functionality. Homogenous hepatocyte cultures could be derived from all hPSC lines using onestandardized differentiation procedure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a standardized hepatic differentiation procedure that is generally applicable across a large panel of hPSC lines without any adaptations to individual lines. Importantly, with regard to functional aspects, such as Cytochrome P450 activities, we observed that hepatocytes derived from different hPSC lines displayed inter-individual variation characteristic for primary hepatocytes obtained from different donors, while these activities were highly reproducible between repeated experiments using the same line. Taken together, these data demonstrate the emerging possibility to compile panels of hPSC-derived hepatocytes of particular phenotypes/genotypes relevant for drug metabolism and toxicity studies. Moreover, these findings are of significance for applications within the regenerative medicine field, since our stringent differentiation procedure allows the derivation of homogenous hepatocyte cultures from multiple donors which is a prerequisite for the realization of future personalized stem cell based therapies.

  • 13.
    Asplund Fromholz, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anspänning, oro och stress är tre begrepp som har studerats länge, vilket har gett upphov till flertalet modeller, teorier och domäner där dessa begrepp har studerats och fortfarande studeras. I denna uppsats så kommer dessa tre begrepp bland annat att redogöras för var för sig med koppling till mätmetoder, idrott och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva hur idrottsprestationer kan påverkas av anspänning, oro och stress för att utifrån det kunna redogöra för evidensbaserade metoder som kan appliceras för att främja en idrottsprestation. Först kommer anspänning att redogöras för, anspänning följs sedan av oro som i sin tur följs av stress som sista begrepp. Avslutningsvis så behandlas även problematik och möjligheter för dessa begrepp inom forskningsfältet och dess tillämpningsområden.

  • 14.
    Axelsson, K. F.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Center for Bone Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, R.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Lorentzon, M.
    Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Center for Bone Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of a minimal resource fracture liaison service2016In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 27, no 11, 3165-3175 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if a 2-year intervention with a minimal resource fracture liaison service (FLS) was associated with increased investigation and medical treatment and if treatment was related to reduced re-fracture risk.

    METHODS: The FLS started in 2013 using existing secretaries (without an FLS coordinator) at the emergency department and orthopaedic wards to identify risk patients. All patients older than 50 years of age with a fractured hip, vertebra, shoulder, wrist or pelvis were followed during 2013-2014 (n = 2713) and compared with their historic counterparts in 2011-2012 (n = 2616) at the same hospital. Re-fractures were X-ray verified. A time-dependent adjusted (for age, sex, previous fracture, index fracture type, prevalent treatment, comorbidity and secondary osteoporosis) Cox model was used.

    RESULTS: The minimal resource FLS increased the proportion of DXA-investigated patients after fracture from 7.6 to 39.6 % (p < 0.001) and the treatment rate after fracture from 12.6 to 31.8 %, which is well in line with FLS types using the conventional coordinator model. Treated patients had a 51 % lower risk of any re-fracture than untreated patients (HR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65 p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found that our minimal resource FLS was effective in increasing investigation and treatment, in line with conventional coordinator-based services, and that treated patients had a 51 % reduced risk of new fractures, indicating that also non-coordinator based fracture liaison services can improve secondary prevention of fractures.

  • 15.
    Banks, H. T.
    et al.
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Banks, J. E.
    Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center (UROC) California State University, Monterey Bay Seaside, CA, USA.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Curtsdotter, Alva
    Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Laubmeier, A. N.
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Parameter estimation for an allometric food web model2017In: International journal of pure and applied mathematics, ISSN 1311-8080, E-ISSN 1314-3395, Vol. 114, no 1, 143-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of mechanistic models to natural systems is of interest to ecological researchers. We use the mechanistic Allometric Trophic Network (ATN) model, whichis well-studied for controlled and theoretical systems, to describe the dynamics of the aphidRhopalosiphum padi in an agricultural field. We diagnose problems that arise in a first attemptat a least squares parameter estimation on this system, including formulation of the modelfor the inverse problem and information content present in the data. We seek to establishwhether the field data, as it is currently collected, can support parameter estimation for theATN model.

  • 16.
    Bays, Harold E.
    et al.
    Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc., Louisville, KY, USA.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Global Medicines Development, CVMD, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Xu, John
    Biometrics and Information Sciences, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
    Sjöstrom, Carl David
    Global Medicines Development, CVMD, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Underberg, James A.
    Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine & NYU Center for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, New York, NY, USA.
    Dapagliflozin in patients with type II diabetes mellitus, with and without elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels2017In: Journal of Clinical Lipidology, ISSN 1933-2874, E-ISSN 1876-4789, Vol. 11, no 2, 450-458 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin is a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that improves glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by reducing renal glucose reabsorption.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the lipid effects of dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo in patients with T2DM with/without baseline elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels.

    METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of 10 phase 3, placebo-controlled studies of dapagliflozin 10 mg (N = 2237) or placebo (N = 2164) administered for 24 weeks in patients with T2DM. Patients with elevated triglyceride (>= 150 mg/dL [1.69 mmol/L]) and reduced HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL [1.04 mmol/L] in men; <50 mg/dL [1.29 mmol/L] in women) were included (group A). The reference group (group B) included patients who did not meet the defined lipid criteria.

    RESULTS: The effects of dapagliflozin on fasting lipid profiles were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups (ie, groups A and B) and, compared with placebo, were associated with minor increases in non-HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol levels. The effects on triglyceride levels were inconsistent. The incidence of adverse events (AEs)/serious AEs, and AEs of genital infection, urinary tract infection, volume reduction, renal function, and hypoglycemia were similar in the 2 lipid groups.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with T2DM treated with dapagliflozin experienced minor changes in lipid levels; the changes were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups. The clinical significance of these changes in lipids is unclear, especially in view of the positive effects of dapagliflozin on other cardiovascular disease risk factors. 

  • 17.
    Berg, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Abnormala beteendestörningar och stereotyper hos djur i fångenskap.: Enrichment ett sätt att motverka?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Dept of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Pimenov, Aexander
    Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany / Environmental Research Inst., Univ. College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Palmer, Catherine
    Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany.
    Emmerson, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, Queen's Univ. Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Dept of Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ecological communities are vulnerable to realistic extinction sequences2015In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 124, no 4, 486-496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Boje, Jesper
    The National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Degel, Henrik
    The National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Eero, Margit
    The National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Management Systems, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Florin, Ann-Britt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Grygiel, Wlodzimierz
    Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Gröhsler, Tomas
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Sweden.
    Horbowy, Jan
    Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kaljuste, Olavi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Karpushevskiy, Igor
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Karpushevskaia, Anastasiia
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    Latvian Fish Resources Agency, Riga, Latvia.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lövgren, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pönni, Jukka
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research, Institute Kotka Unit, Kotka, Finland.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Raid, Tiit
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Raitaniemi, Jari
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute Turku Game and Fisheries Research, Turku, Finland.
    Statkus, Romas
    Division of fishery research and science, Fishery service under Ministry of Agriculture, Klaipeda, Lithuania.
    Stoetera, Sven
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua - National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Ustups, Didzis
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment (BIOR), Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Walther, Yvonne
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS): 14-21 April 2015, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS) met 14-21 April 2015 (Chair: Mare Storr-Paulsen, Denmark), with 28 participants and 9 countries represented. The objective of WGBFAS was to assess the status of the following stocks:

    1 ) Sole in Division IIIa, SDs 20-22

    2 ) Cod in Kattegat, Cod in SD 22-24, Cod in SD 25-32

    3 ) Herring in SD 25-27, 28.2, 29 and 32, Herring in SD 28.1 (Gulf of Riga), Herring in SD 30, Herring SD 31.

    4 ) Sprat in SD 22-32

    5 ) Plaice 21-23, Plaice 2425

    6 ) Flounder 22-23; 24-25; 26+28 and 27+29-32, Brill 2232, Dab 2232, and Turbot 2232 (survey trends)

    WGBFAS also identified the data needed, for next year’s data call with some suggestions for improvements in the data call as well as in InterCatch. The report contains an introduction with the summary of other WGs relevant for the WGBFAS, country specific fishery description, the methods used, and ecosystem considerations. The results of the analytical stock assessment or survey trends for the species listed above are then presented with all the stocks with the same species in the same sections. The report ends with references, list of Working Documents, recommendations and Stock Annexes. In first quarter 2015 the Baltic cod stocks and the plaice stocks were benchmarked. As a result the Baltic cod stocks now have to apply a splitting key in SD 24 were both stocks are present. This has changed the assessment from being an area based assessment to now being a stock based assessments and has implications for the advice. The principle analytical models used for the stock assessments were XSA and SAM. For most flatfishes, CPUE trends from bottom trawl surveys were presented (except plaice 2425 and her31 using relative SSB from SAM and XSA, respectively). Ecosystem changes have been analytically considered in the following stock assessments: Herring in SD 25-27, 28.2, 29 and 32, and Sprat in SD 22-32, in form of cod predation mortality. Last year a very large retrospective pattern in the Eastern Baltic cod stock caused that the WG rejected the analytic assessment. Several uncertainties in the data lead to this conclusion i.a age reading problems with large inconsistency between and within nations as well as a change in growth and natural mortality. However, even though a data compilation workshop and a benchmark have been conducted in the intermediate time it was not possible to solve the main issue on growth. The lack of knowledge on growth caused to that even the length based data required in the data call was very uncertain for the models and in the end the WG was not able to produce a better model than was presented last year which is based on survey trends. The Her-30 (Herring in the Botnian Sea) was by the working group down scaled from a category 1 stock to a category 3 stock due to the commercial tuning fleet used in the assessment having very uncertain estimates in the last couples of years. However, during the Baltic ADG an alternative assessment was suggested were the stock is still considered a category 1 stock but the last 8 years of the commercial tuning fleet was terminated. This assessment was conducted after the working group but has been included in the report.

  • 20.
    Bergström, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm Recilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frelat, Romain
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haapasaari, Päivi
    University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Haas, Bianca
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg Germany.
    Heikinheimo, Outi
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jernberg, Susanna
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Large, Scott
    ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lindegren, Martin
    Centre for Ocean Life, DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Levin, Phil
    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, USA.
    Lehikoinen, Annukka
    Helsinki University, Kotka Maritime Research Centre, Kotka, Finland.
    Möllmann, Christian
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Nordström, Marie
    Åbo Akademi University, Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo, Finland.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Otto, Saskia
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Peltonen, Heikki
    Marine Research Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Précuchét, Laurence
    Centre for Ocean Life, DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Putnis, Ivars
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment BIOR, Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Romakkaniemi, Atso
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Oulun yliopisto, Finland.
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Torres, Marian
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Laura
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Weigel, Benjamin
    Åbo Akademi University, Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo, Finland.
    Wesslander, Karin
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Marine Environment, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Zagrodzka, Zuzanna
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Interim Report of the ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB): 18-22 April 2016 Helsinki, Finland2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB) meeting was held in Helsinki (Finland), 18-22 April 2016. The meeting was attended by 26 participants from five countries and chaired by Laura Uusitalo, Fin-land, Saskia Otto, Germany, Martin Lindegren, Denmark, and Lena Bergström, Swe-den. This was the first year of the new three-year Terms of Reference (ToR) for WGIAB. The main working activities in 2016 were to A) develop the trait-based ap-proach of understanding the ecosystem function, and B) explore the social-ecological system, including indicator development, revising the conceptual model, and devel-oping case studies. As a primary outcome of the ToR A, we built on our previous work on integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs) in the Baltic Sea, but extended it beyond considering changes in abundances of a few dominant species, to accounting for community-wide changes in a number of key traits across multiple trophic levels. These traits represent various ecosystem functions upon which we derive important ecosystem services. By investigating temporal changes in the community weighted mean traits of phyto-plankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, and fish, we demonstrated whether trait reor-ganizations at the level of entire communities occurred in the Central Baltic Sea as a result of the 1980s regime shift. Using in total 29 traits combined for all groups we found indications of two breakpoints across all four taxonomic groups over the last decades, i.e. one around 1990 and one around 2000. Further work will focus on ex-ploring the nature of the changes in trait composition and on standardizing the num-ber of traits and data types (i.e. binary, continuous or categorical) across taxonomic group.In addition, we collected data on key functional groups and abiotic variables in all main sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, setting the stage for a cross-regional comparison of temporal patterns and trends in lower trophic level in the face of recent develop-ments in climate-related drivers.With reference to Tor B, to explore how social indicators could be used in parallel with biological indicators in an integrated assessment framework, we developed a conceptual model of interrelationships between ecosystem and society. We used the model as a basis for mapping factors to be accounted for in the ecosystem-based management using the Baltic salmon and clupeid species as case studies. The models depict 1) the structure of the foodweb relevant to the target species, 2) the key com-munity level and population traits that contribute to the state of the species, 3) main pressures affecting the foodweb and their effects on the species, 4) key management measures, and 5) benefits that the species can produce for society.To support the development of Ecosystem Overview the group members evaluated the probability of occurrence and the magnitude of the effect of 15 pressures occur-ring in the Baltic Sea. The top five pressures identified were input of nutrients, in-creased temperature, decreased salinity, input of hazardous substances, and input or spread of non-indigenous species.The work will continue intersessionally and the next meeting of WGIAB is planned to be held in Lisbon, Portugal, back-to-back with WGCOMEDA and WGEAWESS.

  • 21.
    Bergström, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Hamrén, Henrik
    Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jacob, Ute
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kininmonth, Stuart
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Large, Scott
    ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Levin, Phil
    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, USA.
    Lehikoinen, Annukka
    Helsinki University, Kotka Maritime Research Centre, Kotka, Finland.
    Llope, Marcos
    Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Cádiz, Spain.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Müller-Karulis, Bärbel
    Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Möllmann, Christian
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Neuenfeldt, Stefan
    DTU Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Jens
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Otto, Saskia
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Rau, Andrea
    Thuenen-Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Reid, David
    Marine Institute, Rinville, Galway, Ireland.
    Tomczak, Maciej, T.
    Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torres, Marian
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Ustups, Didzis
    Institute of Food safety, Animal Health and Environment, Riga, Latvia.
    Uusitalo, Laura
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wesslander, Karin
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Marine Environment, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Report of the ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea(WGIAB) was established in 2007 as a forum for developing and combining ecosystembasedmanagement efforts for the Baltic Sea. The group intends to serve as a scientificcounterpart and support for the ICES Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group(WGBFAS) as well as for efforts and projects related to Integrated Ecosystem Assessments(IEA) within ICES and HELCOM. The group works in cooperation with similargroups within the ACOM/SCICOM Steering Group on Integrated Ecosystem Assessments(SSGIEA).The 2015 WGIAB meeting was held in Cádiz, Spain, from 9–13 March, back-to-backwith the meeting of its counterpart in the Working Group on Ecosystem Assessmentof Western European Shelf Seas (WGEAWESS). The meetings had joint sessions as wellas WG specific work, and some participants effectively participated in both meetings.The WGIAB meeting was attended by 27 participants from nine countries. The meetingwas chaired by Christian Möllmann, Germany, Laura Uusitalo, Finland and Lena Bergström,Sweden.This was the last year of the ongoing three-year Terms of Reference (ToR) for WGIAB.The main working activities in 2015 were to i) conduct studies on Baltic Sea ecosystemfunctioning with the goal to publish case studies from different parts of the Baltic Seain peer-reviewed journals, ii) work on the demonstration exercise to develop ecosystem-based assessment and advice for Baltic fish stocks focusing on cod (DEMO) withmultiple approaches, iii) plan further how to integrate the social and economic aspectsmore tightly in the WGIAB work, and iv) discuss the future focus and format of theWGIAB work.The Baltic ecosystem functioning activity focused on identifying and exploring keytrends and linkages in the Baltic Sea foodweb. This was pursued by presentation andfurther discussion of ongoing intersessional work on foodweb modelling and integratedanalyses, and by exercises to develop conceptual models Baltic Sea foodwebsand the links to ecosystem function. Long-term monitoring datasets on the abiotic andbiotic parts of the Baltic Sea Proper ecosystem were updated for use in the continuedwork to develop environmental indicators for fisheries and marine management.The focus of the DEMO 3 (DEMOnstration exercise for Integrated Ecosystem Assessmentand Advice of Baltic Sea cod) was on finding a way to use the results from theDEMO1 and DEMO2 workshops in short and midterm projections/scenarios of Balticcod dynamics based on different types of modelling, as well as designing methodologyand modelling data for practical implementation of Integrated Advice for Baltic cod.The WGIAB was positively inclined towards including social and economic aspectsinto the integrated assessment. Openings to this path were provided by presentationon ongoing project work, and discussing their linkages to ecological aspects. It wasseen as crucial that experts on social and economic analysis should be included andtake an active part in the future work of the group.The group concluded that its upcoming work should focus more closely on functionaldiversity, which was identified as a recurring issue in the Baltic Sea. This approach wasalso identified as a useful connection point between scientific and management aspectsin order for the group to continue serving as a forum for developing ecosystem-basedmanagement efforts in the Baltic Sea. A focus on functional diversity was also seen as2 | ICES WGIAB REPORT 2015a potentially feasible way of bringing together management aspects for different sectors,by linking to ecosystem services concepts.The group proposed Saskia Otto, Germany and Martin Lindegren, Denmark as newincoming Chairs, together with Lena Bergström, Sweden and Laura Uusitalo, Finland.Having four Chairs is justified due to the wide scope of the group's work, as well asthe increased work load due to the planned new foci.

  • 22.
    Bjurberg, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Academic achievement and personality traits: an empirical and neurobiological investigation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis explores how personality traits are connected to academic achievement. First, a theoretical discussion on the neurobiological basis of different personality traits is presented, where variance in brain- activity, volume and chemistry describes possible differences in personality. Traits previously linked to academic achievement is also described in terms of neurobiology. This is followed by an empirical investigation of the connection between personality traits and academic achievement. Previous research suggest the Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) personality traits of conscientiousness, order and self-discipline to be positively associated with academic achievement. Also, similar suggestions have been put forward concerning the Values in Action (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) character strengths of love of learning, self-regulation and persistence and academic achievement. 90 students in a medium sized Swedish senior high school completed the two personality inventories and their grades were collected. Positive correlations were found for the personality traits conscientiousness, order, and self-discipline and for the character strengths persistence, love of learning, perspective and open-mindedness. The results partly supported the hypotheses as well as extended the knowledge about what factors contribute to academic achievement. Discussion of the results and suggestions for further research concludes the thesis.

    Keywords: personality trait, character strength, neurobiology, academic achievement, BFI, VIA-IS

  • 23.
    Björnberg, Klara
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    PLACEBO: EN STUDIE UTIFRÅN SMÄRTA,MOTORISK PRESTATION OCH HORMONER2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Placeboeffekter/placeboresponser avser de subjektiva eller biologiskt mätbara resultat som uppstår trots att de i kliniska tester endast varit designade för att fungera som en kontroll. Placebo avser själva förmedlingen som framkallar dessa effekter. Detta kan exempelvis vara ord, piller och kirurgi. Denna litteraturstudie avser att sammanfatta relevant vetenskaplig litteratur inom fältet placebo med särskild fokus på smärtlindring. Delar som presenteras är bland annat vad placeboeffekten innebär, evolutionär bakgrund och information om läkare-patient interaktionen. Neurofysiologiska aspekter och berörda hjärnstrukturer som visat sig vara västentliga inom placebo och smärtlindring är framför allt dopamin- och opioidsystemet, samt nucleus accumbens. Uppsatsen pekar också på att de två mest kända framkallningssätten inom smärtlindrande placebo; betingning och förväntan inte nödvändigtvis behöver utesluta varandra. Dessa fenomen kan istället utgöra olika roller under skilda omständigheter. De motsättningar i litteraturen som framträtt tydligast är hur orden placeboeffekt eller placeborespons ska användas eller om dessa ord ens är lämpliga för att beskriva det som avses.

  • 24.
    Boström, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The cognitive and neurodevelopmental benefits of breastfeeding:: Nutrition or parent-infant interaction2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breastfeeding is encouraged exclusively until the infant is 6 months and then continuing up until the age of two years and further, as a supplement to solid food. Few infants get this opportunity even though positive effects have been seen. In recent days brain imaging techniques has begun to study the differences in brain development between breastfed and formula fed infants. In this essay methods for assessing the cognitive and neurodevelopmental aspect of breastfeeding aspects will be reviewed. The results found in this review suggest that breastfeeding has a benefit in the development of the brain and in addition a beneficial impact on the parents. This can be seen in faster development of crucial brain areas, better cognitive functions and better maternal sensitivity which in turn relates to a child’s better adjustment. However, it is not clear how these benefits develop, if it is due to breastfeeding or parental characteristics related to breastfeeding.  

  • 25.
    Browall, Sarah
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Backhaus, Erik
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Naucler, Pontus
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Galanis, Ilias
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Karin
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Berg, Stefan
    Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Luthander, Joachim
    Department of Paediatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Margareta
    Department of Paediatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Spindler, Carl
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Ejdebäck, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Trollfors, Birger
    Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Darenberg, Jessica
    Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Kalin, Mats
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Örtqvist, Åke
    Department of Communicable Diseases Control and Prevention, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Henriques-Normark, Birgitta
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Dept of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Clinical manifestations of invasive pneumococcal disease by vaccine and non-vaccine types2014In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 44, no 6, 1646-1657 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Budnjo, Almir
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Gene expression of MAP2K1 and Cyclin D1 in BDII rat model of Endometrial cancer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most frequently diagnosed gynecological cancer of the female genital tract in the Western world. Research studies in EC is difficult to conduct on human tumor samples due to the complex nature of tumor arousal and genetic heterogeneousness in the human population. Therefore, inbred animal models can be promising tools to use in EC research due to similar histopathology and pathogenesis as humans. Studies performed on MAP2K1 and CCND1 has shown that their altered expression play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. CCND1 has been demonstrated to have oncogenic properties when overexpressed in human neoplasias.

    The aim of this study is to investigate gene expression levels of MAP2K1 and CCND1 in BDII rat model of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to analyze expression levels of MAP2K1 and CCND1 genes in BDII/Han rat model of endometrial cancer cells using TaqMan approach. The differences in gene expression levels of MAP2K1 and CCND1 between pathologically EAC malignant and nonmalignant cells showed an upregulation of MAP2K1 and CCND1 in EAC malignant cells. The analyzed data presented observable mean differences between MAP2K1 and CCND1 in several endometrial cell lines that were examined.

    Although no statistical significance was reached, an alteration in gene expression levels in malignant and nonmalignant endometrial cells could be observed. Furthermore, this present study shows observable upregulation of MAP2K1 and CCND1 in endometrial carcinoma cells vs. nonmalignant endometrium cells and encourages further investigation of the role of CCND1 and MAP2K genes in endometrial carcinogenesis.

  • 27.
    Bukhari, Shervin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Exploring The Socially Anxious Brain: Cognitive Neuroscience, Functional Connectivity and Neuropsychiatry2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition, which causes considerablesuffering. The disorder has for long been studied in neuroscience, although the clinical impact ofresearch results have so far been insignificant. In the first part of this essay, the basic understanding ofSAD within cognitive neuroscience is provided. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) have revealed that SAD is primarily related to dysfunctions in, and between, threat processing,emotional regulatory, attentional and perceptual neural systems - implicating regions such as theamygdala, insula, prefrontal, parietal and occipital lobes in the disorder . To this background follows apresentation and discussion about more recent research on SAD using a neuroimaging method knownas functional connectivity. Here, I find that the functional connectivity research, although problematicin many regards, extends the cognitive neuroscientific view on SAD. This by suggesting that thedisorder is related to abnormalities in functional connectivity between several of the above-mentionedregions and within brain networks such as the default mode network. Finally, I explore the potential offunctional connectivity as a tool for the diagnosis of SAD and for predicting individual patients'treatment responses. Studies on these topics, while sparse, indicate that functional connectivitymeasures can make both accurate classifications of SAD and predictions of treatment outcomes on thelevel of individuals. However, there is not sufficient empirical evidence to suggest that functionalconnectivity measures are superior to other neuroimaging measures in these contexts. Moreover, thereare substantial challenges that need to be surmounted before neuroimaging measures can have clinicalviability.

  • 28.
    Chamorro, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Theories of Nightmares in Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dreaming is a complex, multimodal and sequentially organized model of the waking world (Metzinger, 2003). Nightmares are a category of dreams involving threatening scenarios, anxiety and other negative emotions (Hartmann, 1998; Nielsen & Levin, 2007). Dreams and nightmares are explored in this present thesis in the light of psychology and modern cognitive neuroscience as to their nature, function and neural correlates. The three main dream theories and their leading investigations are reviewed to evaluate their evidence and overall explanatory power to account for the function of dreams and nightmares. Random Activation Theories (RATs) claim dreams are biological epiphenomena and by-products of sleep underlying mechanisms (Crick & Mitchison, 1983; Flanagan, 1995, 2000a, 2000b, Hobson & McCarley, 1997). Mood regulation theories consider that the psychological function of dreams is to regulate mood and help with the adaptation of individuals to their current environment such as solving daily concerns and recovery after trauma exposure (Hartmann, 1996; Levin, 1998; Stickgold, 2008; Kramer, 1991a, 1991b, 2014). Threat Simulation Theories of dreams present the evolutionary function for dreaming as a simulating off-line model of the world used to rehearse threatening events encountered in the human ancestral environment (Revonsuo, 2000a). With the threat-simulation system, threats were likely to be recognized and avoidance skills developed to guarantee reproductive success. TST consider nightmares to reflect the threat-simulation system fully activated (Revonsuo, 2000a). Supported by a robust body of evidence TST is concluded to be the most plausible theory at the moment to account as a theoretical explanation of dreams and nightmares

  • 29.
    Chandini, Murarilal Ratnadevi
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Molecular Characterization of arsC gene involved in accumulation of arsenics in Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Chaudhari, Aditi
    et al.
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krumlinde, Daniel
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Annika
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Akyürek, Levent M.
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bandaru, Sashidhar
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skålén, Kristina
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ståhlman, Marcus
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Borén, Jan
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wettergren, Yvonne
    Department of Surgery, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rotter Sopasakis, Victoria
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    p110α hot spot mutations E545K and H1047R exert metabolic reprogramming independently of p110α kinase activity2015In: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 35, no 19, 3258-3273 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit p110α is the most frequently mutated kinase in human cancer, and the hot spot mutations E542K, E545K, and H1047R are the most common mutations in p110α. Very little is known about the metabolic consequences of the hot spot mutations of p110α in vivo. In this study, we used adenoviral gene transfer in mice to investigate the effects of the E545K and H1047R mutations on hepatic and whole-body glucose metabolism. We show that hepatic expression of these hot spot mutations results in rapid hepatic steatosis, paradoxically accompanied by increased glucose tolerance, and marked glycogen accumulation. In contrast, wild-type p110α expression does not lead to hepatic accumulation of lipids or glycogen despite similar degrees of upregulated glycolysis and expression of lipogenic genes. The reprogrammed metabolism of the E545K and H1047R p110α mutants was surprisingly not dependent on altered p110α lipid kinase activity.

  • 31.
    Chowdhury, Manjushree
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mostafa, M. G.
    Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Biswas, Tapan Kumar
    Department of Chemistry, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Saha, Ananda Kumar
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Characterization of the effluents from leather processing industries2015In: Environmental Processes, ISSN 2198-7491, Vol. 2, no 1, 173-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Dahlquist, Clara
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Somatosensory system; touch: Physiology and Neuronal Correlates of Discriminative and Affective Touch2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about the somatosensory system, which is divided into different kinds of touch. Described briefly are the proprioceptive touch, which is transported to the brain via A-alfa fibers and transmits information about e. g. limb position and movement. The cutaneous touch is the main focus and it is divided into discriminative touch and affective touch. The first corresponds to stimuli such as vibration and pressure and is transported via A-beta axons. The second, affective touch, corresponds to e.g. painful and pleasant stimuli which are transported to the brain via A-delta and C-fibers. The aim of the essay is to give an overview of the sense of touch, by doing a literature search, including a discussion of relevant neuronal correlates focusing particularly on affective touch. Moreover, the physiological aspects of touch will be presented. The sources that are used are review and original articles taken from databases such as ScienceDirect, and some articles send by the author. Some books have also been used to find more general knowledge. The conclusion for the essay is that touch is important for humans to function in everyday life. Additional, a specific receptor called C- tactile (CT) is identified to correspond to gentle touch and is suggested to have a vital role for humans in maintaining and forming social bounds. Moreover, discriminative touch is associated with activation in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, whereas affective touch seems to be associated with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex and the insula cortex, as well as the prefrontal cortex, which is suggested to be activated during interpersonal touch. Further, the sense touch needs to be more researched in order to understand its functions and benefits deeper.

  • 33.
    Dalile, Boushra
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Is the High Probability of Type II Error an Issue in Error Awareness ERP Studies?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When researchers began addressing the electrophysiology of conscious error awareness more than a decade ago, the role of the error-related negativity (ERN), alongside the subsequently occurring error positivity (Pe), was an obvious locus of attention given the fact that they are taken as indices of cortical error processing. In contrast to the clear-cut findings that link the amplitude of the Pe to error awareness, the association between the ERN amplitude and error awareness is vastly unclear, with a range of studies reporting significant differences in the ERN amplitude with respect to error awareness, while others observing no modulation of the ERN amplitude. One problem in the studies obtaining null findings is the fact that conclusions are drawn based on small sample sizes, increasing the probability of type II error, especially given the fact that the ERN elicited using various error awareness paradigms tends to be small. The aim of the present study was to therefore address the issue of type II error in order to draw more certain conclusions about the modulation of the ERN amplitude by conscious error awareness. Forty participants performed a manual response inhibition task optimised to examine error awareness. While the early and late Pe amplitudes showed the expected sensitivity to error awareness, the ERN results depicted a more complex picture. The ERN amplitude for unaware errors appeared more negative than that of aware errors, both numerically and on the grand average ERP. The unexpected findings were explained in terms of (a) latency issues in the present data, (b) characteristics of the manual response inhibition task used and the possibility that it elicits variation in neurocognitive processing, and (c), in relation to possible contamination by the contingent negative variation (CNV), an ERP component elicited during response preparation. Suggestions for future research on how to address the issues raised in the present paper are also discussed.

  • 34.
    Desale, Prithviraj
    et al.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Kashyap, Deboleena
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Rahman, Aminur
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kapadnis, Balasaheb
    University of Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Biosorption of nickel by Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 native to bauxite mine2014In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 107, 260-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current scenario of environmental pollution urges the need for an effective solution for toxic heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater. Bioremediation is the most cost effective process employed by the use of microbes especially bacteria resistant to toxic metals. In this study, Lysinibacillus sp. BA2, a nickel tolerant strain isolated from bauxite mine was used for the biosorption of Ni(II). Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 biomass had isoelectric point (pI) of 3.3. The maximum negative zeta potential value (−39.45) was obtained at pH 6.0 which was highly favourable for Ni(II) biosorption. 238.04 mg of Ni(II) adsorbed on one gram of dead biomass and 196.32 mg adsorbed on one gram of live biomass. The adsorption of Ni(II) on biomass increased with time and attained saturation after 180 min with rapid biosorption in initial 30 min. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms could fit well for biosorption of Ni(II) by dead biomass while Langmuir isotherm provided a better fit for live biomass based on correlation coefficient values. The kinetic studies of Ni(II) removal, using dead and live biomass was well explained by second-order kinetic model. Ni(II) adsorption on live biomass was confirmed by SEM-EDX where cell aggregation and increasing irregularity of cell morphology was observed even though cells were in non-growing state. The FTIR analysis of biomass revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups, which seem responsible for biosorption of Ni(II). The beads made using dead biomass of Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 could efficiently remove Ni(II) from effluent solutions. These microbial cells can substitute expensive methods for treating nickel contaminated industrial wastewaters.

  • 35.
    Diaz Cruz, Maria Araceli
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Quantitative detection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and prediction of stem rot rape seed plants disease by using real time PCR.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Eero, Margit
    et al.
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Behrens, Jane
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Buchmann, Kurt
    Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cardinale, Massimiliano
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Casini, Michele
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Horbowy, Jan
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Hüssy, Karin
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Kirkegaard, Eskil
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR”, Riga, Latvia.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Köster, Friedrich W.
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Plikshs, Maris
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR”, Riga, Latvia.
    Radtke, Krzysztof
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Raid, Tiit
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Schmidt, Jörn
    Department of Economics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinther, Morten
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Zimmermann, Christopher
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment2015In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 72, no 8, 2180-2186 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidlydeclined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective managementmeasures, and the EB cod was considered one of the most successful stock recoveries in recent times. In contrast to this optimistic view, theanalytical stock assessment failed in 2014, leaving the present stock status unclear. Deteriorated quality of some basic input data for stock assessmentin combination with changes in environmental and ecological conditions has led to an unusual situation for cod in the Baltic Sea, which posesnew challenges for stock assessment and management advice.Anumber of adverse developments such as low nutritional condition and disappearanceof larger individuals indicate that the stock is in distress. In this study, we (i) summarize the knowledge of recent changes in cod biology andecosystem conditions, (ii) describe the subsequent challenges for stock assessment, and (iii) highlight the key questions where answers are urgentlyneeded to understand the present stock status and provide scientifically solid support for cod management in the Baltic Sea.

  • 37.
    Eidering, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    INCREASED MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE FROM FOCUSING ON TASK INSTEAD OF SELF: INDUCED BY TRIAL-TO-TRIAL FEEDBACK: An fmri study2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback is argued to be an impactful variable in learning. The impact however, depends on what kind of feedback- and in what way the feedback is provided. The way intelligence, in terms of subjective experience of ability, is perceived has been observed to affect motivation and performance in individuals. This is hypothesized to be associated with whether individuals’ identifies their personal self with performance or not. Individuals who see intelligence as changeable through effort generally adopt learning goals which are associated with increased motivation and performance. Individuals who see intelligence as unchangeable and as a permanent trait of the self, generally adopt performance goals which instead are associated with decreases in motivation and performance. In this fMRI study, 20 participants were given trial-to-trial feedback when performing a typical conflict paradigm. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of feedback to alter participants’ attention towards themselves (being smart) or their task actions (choosing correct). It was found that task feedback (‘you chose correct’) increased participants’ motivation to continue with the task. Those who were given task feedback also improved their accuracy. Task feedback was associated with enhanced brain activation in brain regions associated with rule-switching. However, self-feedback was associated with self-monitoring regions. Findings support the a priori hypothesis that self-focus is associated with reduced motivation and less accuracy improvement. Task-focus seems to be superior in learning and in performing cognitive tasks.  

  • 38.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vickes, Oscar
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kuchipudi, Arunakar
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Wettergren, Yvonne
    Department of General Surgery, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Uv, Anne
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rotter Sopasakis, Victoria
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The unique non-catalytic C-terminus of p37delta-PI3K adds proliferative properties in vitro and in vivo2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, e0127497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PI3K/Akt pathway is central for numerous cellular functions and is frequently deregulated in human cancers. The catalytic subunits of PI3K, p110, are thought to have a potential oncogenic function, and the regulatory subunit p85 exerts tumor suppressor properties. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a highly suitable system to investigate PI3K signaling, expressing one catalytic, Dp110, and one regulatory subunit, Dp60, and both show strong homology with the human PI3K proteins p110 and p85. We recently showed that p37δ, an alternatively spliced product of human PI3K p110δ, displayed strong proliferation-promoting properties despite lacking the catalytic domain completely. Here we functionally evaluate the different domains of human p37δ in Drosophila. The N-terminal region of Dp110 alone promotes cell proliferation, and we show that the unique C-terminal region of human p37δ further enhances these proliferative properties, both when expressed in Drosophila, and in human HEK-293 cells. Surprisingly, although the N-terminal region of Dp110 and the C-terminal region of p37δ both display proliferative effects, over-expression of full length Dp110 or the N-terminal part of Dp110 decreases survival in Drosophila, whereas the unique C-terminal region of p37δ prevents this effect. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminal region of the catalytic subunit of PI3K p110, including only the Dp60 (p85)-binding domain and a minor part of the Ras binding domain, rescues phenotypes with severely impaired development caused by Dp60 over-expression in Drosophila, possibly by regulating the levels of Dp60, and also by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Akt. Our results indicate a novel kinase-independent function of the PI3K catalytic subunit.

  • 39.
    Elfstrand Corlin, Tinna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    The impact of personality on person-centred care: a study of care staff in Swedish nursing homes2017In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 12, no 2, e12132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objective: In this study, we explore how personal and situational factors relate to the provision of person-centred care (PCC) in nursing homes. Specifically, we focus on the relationship between the care staff's personality traits and provision of PCC and to what extent perceptions of the working environment influences this relationship.

    Background: The ultimate goal of elderly care is to meet the older person's needs and individual preferences (PCC). Interpersonal aspects of care and the quality of relationship between the care staff and the older person are therefore central in PCC.

    Design and methods: A cross-sectional Swedish sample of elderly care staff (= 322) completed an electronic survey including measures of personality (Mini-IPIP) and person-centred care (Individualized Care Inventory, ICI). A principal component analysis was conducted on the ICI-data to separate the user orientation (process quality) of PCC from the preconditions (structure quality) of PCC.

    Results: Among the five factors of personality, neuroticism was the strongest predictor of ICI user orientation. ICI preconditions significantly mediated this relationship, indicating the importance of a supportive working environment. In addition, stress was introduced as a potential explanation and was shown to mediate the impact of neuroticism on ICI preconditions.

    Conclusions: Personality traits have a significant impact on user orientation, and the perception of a supportive and stress free working environment is an important prerequisite for achieving high-quality person-centred elderly care.

    Implications for practice: Understanding how personality is linked to the way care staff interacts with the older person adds a new perspective on provision of person-centred elderly care.

  • 40.
    Enroth, Helena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Unilabs AB.
    Engstrand, L
    Karolinska Institute and Science for Life Laboratory.
    Infectious Diseases: Helicobacter pylori2015In: Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, Elsevier, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common human infections in the world. The bacteria cause peptic ulcer disease and their infection is an important factor for gastric cancer development. The bacteria are transmitted from person to person within families, with young children most often infected. The bacteria reside in the stomach for a lifetime if untreated by antimicrobial agents. Many virulence factors are known that contribute to the persistence of the bacteria in the stomach, and the bacteria harbors a pathogenicity island in its genome. The discovery of H. pylori as a cause of gastritis in the stomach led to the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005.

  • 41.
    Enroth, Helena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Unilabs AB.
    Wefer, Hugo
    Clinical genomics, Science for Life Laboratories.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde.
    Tilevik, Diana
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    NGS pilot study of E. coli ESBL from patients with suspected sepsis2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Fagerlind, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Stålhammar, Hans
    VikingGenetics, Skara.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Expression of miRNAs in Bull Spermatozoa Correlates with Fertility Rates2015In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 50, no 4, 587-594 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Fasthén, Patrick
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Virtual Self: Sensory-Motor Plasticity of Virtual Body-Ownership2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between the sense of body-ownership and the sense of agency has attracted considerable empirical and theoretical interest lately. However, the respective contributions of multisensory and sensorimotor integration to these two varieties of body experience are still the subject of ongoing research. In this study, I examine the various methodological problems encountered in the empirical study of body-ownership and agency with the use of novel immersive virtual environment technology to investigate the interplay between sensory and motor information. More specifically, the focus is on testing the relative contributions and possible interactions of visual-tactile and visual-motor contingencies implemented under the same experimental protocol. The effect of this is supported by physiological measurements obtained from skin conductance responses and heart rate. The findings outline a relatively simple method for identifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for the experience of body-ownership and agency, as studied with immersive virtual environment technology.

  • 44.
    Fatima, Zahida
    et al.
    Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Athar Khan, Muhammad
    University of Lahore, Pakistan.
    Ahmad, Mansur-ud-Din
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Muhammad, Khushi
    Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Khwaja, Khalid Naeem
    Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Khan, Amjad
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Anwar, Zubair
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Ahad, Abdul
    Department of Microbiology and Veterinary and Public Health, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Bangladesh.
    Mahmood, Altaf
    Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Cross Sectional Survey of Live Bird Markets and Zoo Birds for Circulating Influenza Subtypes in Pakistan2017In: Pakistan Veterinary Journal, ISSN 0253-8318, E-ISSN 2074-7764, Vol. 37, no 2, 185-189 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Pakistan, avian influenza surveillance has been both active and passive. Here, we present the results of a survey effort focusing solely on the live bird markets and wild bird species from different zoos and national parks to understand the impact of live bird markets on the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. A cross sectional survey was conducted from Jan-Dec 2011 to identify and isolate the circulating avian influenza virus subtypes in live bird markets and wild birds from different localities in and around Islamabad Capital Territory. Swabs, tracheal tissues and sera samples were collected, screened and diagnosed by hemagglutination inhibition assay and RT-PCR. The highest seropositivity was recorded for H9 (100%) followed by H5 (89.4%) and H7 (72.3%). All 27 isolates were of the low pathogenic H9N2 subtypes and no viruses could be successfully isolated of subtype H5N1 or H7N7. The higher prevalence of H5N1 (89.4%) observed in the present study was an alarming threat; therefore, we suggested immediate control strategies against this emerging risk of H5N1 for human in live bird markets in Pakistan. The factors unveiled in this study will help in understanding the lapses in controlling persistent outbreaks of avian influenza in country.

  • 45.
    Feilhauer, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Measuring Emotions in Dreams: Methodological Challenges2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although emotions are a natural component of dream experiences, a lack of consensus prevails in research literature concerning the specific characteristics of emotional dream experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent this lack of convergence among studies stems from whether dream emotions are self- or externally rated - forty-four healthy participants (16 males and 28 females; mean age = 26.93, range = 19 - 40) kept a home dream diary for three consecutive weeks, and daily rated their emotional experiences in dreams with the Swedish modified Differential Emotions Scale (smDES; Fredrickson, 2013). Two external judges rated emotions in the same 552 home dream reports using the same scale. Results obtained with the two methods differed in that the self-ratings, compared to external ratings, revealed: (a) more emotional dreams; (b) more positive than negative emotions per dream (with the ratio being relatively balanced); (c) a relatively more balanced proportion of positive and negative emotions, while the external ratings revealed more negative than positive emotions per dream. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentation of positive emotions with external ratings. Thus, the results continue to question the extent of convergence between self- and external ratings when investigating emotional dream contents, and bring to attention the importance of methodological aspects when investigating dream emotions.

  • 46.
    Fors, John
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Effectiveness of reduced-dose efavirenz in hiv therapy considering patient adherence2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Antiretroviral drugs have revolutionized HIV care and enabled better management of the infection thus allowing patients survive for many years. One proposed approach to increase access to such drugs in sub-Saharan Africa is to use of a reduced-dose alternative of the drug efavirenz, with 400 mg rather than regular 600 mg dose. This effectively would provide medication for 50 percent more persons with the same amount of active ingredient. However, antiretroviral drugs require high patient adherence to achieve intended therapeutic effect, and it is unclear if a reduced-dose therapy would have sufficient efficacy, and if it would lead to an increased risk of viral resistance.

    The time profile of drug plasma concentration and corresponding long-term viral load was estimated using integrated population PK/PD simulations, with model parameters based on selected research studies. The results suggest a reduced dose 400 mg, rather than 600 mg regular dose, efavirenz in HIV therapy would place strict demands on patients to maintain very high adherence levels, at least 80-90 percent, to maintain sufficient drug concentration in blood plasma, and to minimize risk of viral failure. However, it is relatively rare for HIV therapy programs in sub-Saharan Africa to consistently achieve such high adherence levels. In addition, if patients are co-administered rifampin, a drug widely used in TB care, this increases hepatic metabolism and plasma clearance rate, resulting in further reduced average drug plasma concentration. These findings suggest a reduced dose efavirenz treatment alternative may be most (only) relevant for patient categories expected to maintain high adherence; and in particular among persons who have been confirmed to have CYP2B6 genotype consistent with inherently lower drug metabolism. At usual adherence levels it is estimated a reduced dose alternative may increase the share of patients at risk of viral failure by 5 to 15 percent vs. regular dose of 600 mg.

  • 47.
    Freij, Mathilda
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Restaureringens roll gällande Hornborgasjöns förmåga till kväve- och fosforretention2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today Lake Hornborga is one of Europe’s most important bird lakes but that has not always been the case. Before natural and cultural conservation interests were given credit the lake was drained in favor of agricultural purposes and left to overgrow. The lake was restored in the early 90’s which meant an increased area and higher water levels in the lake.

     

    The water quality of the lake has been regularly tested in both the inlets and the outlet. This report sought to use some of this data to examine the retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake, as well as the changes in retention due to the restauration. This was made by using the mean differences between the inlets and the outlet. The mean difference will indicate if less content is pouring out of the lake than in to the lake.

     

    The analysis shows that the mean differences in total nitrogen between the inlets and the outlet have increased after the restauration. No distinction can be shown in most of the tests regarding the mean differences in total phosphorus. In fact one of the tests shows that the mean differences in total phosphorus between the inlets and the outlet have significantly decreased. These results indicates that the restauration of Lake Hornborga have increased its ability to reduce contents of nitrogen but not phosphorus. However, more comprehensive studies with more accurate methods are needed to prove these results.

  • 48.
    Gerafi, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Long-term functional outcome after ischemic stroke: Prognostic value of early identification of neglect and aphasia2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Gerafi, Joel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / The Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, H.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Viken, J. I.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomgren, C.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Claesson, L.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jern, C.
    Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomstrand, C.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jood, K.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Neurology, The Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Neglect and aphasia in the acute phase as predictors of functional outcome 7 years after ischemic stroke2017In: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 24, no 11, 1407-1415 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Visuospatial inattention (VSI) and languageimpairment (LI) are often present early after stroke and associations with an unfavorable short-term functional outcome have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a screening of VSI and LI as indicators of cortical symptoms early after stroke could predict long-term functional outcomes. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 375 patients with ischemic stroke was assessed for the occurrence of VSI at a median of 7 days after admission (interquartile range, 1–5 days) using the Star Cancellation Test and for LI (within the first 7 days) with the language item in the Scandinavian StrokeScale. Seven years later, functional outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin scale and Frenchay Activities Index in 235 survivors without recurrent stroke. Relationships between baseline predictors and functional outcome at 7 years were analyzed with bivariate correlations and multiple categorical regressions with optimal scaling. Results: The regression model significantly explained variance in the modified Rankin scale (R2= 0.435, P < 0.001) and identified VSI (P=0.001) and neurological deficits (P < 0.001; Scandinavian Stroke Scale score without the language item) as the significant independent predictors. The model for FrenchayActivities Index was also significant (R2= 0.269, P < 0.001) with VSI(P = 0.035) and neurological deficits (P < 0.001) as significant independent predictors. Conclusions: Visuospatial inattention at acute stroke has an independent impact on long-term functional outcomes. Early recognition may enable targeted rehabilitative interventions.

  • 50.
    Ghosheh, Nidal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    Takara Bio Europe Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Asplund, Annika
    Takara Bio Europe Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Andersson, Tommy B.
    Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacogenetics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    NovaHep Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carén, Helena
    Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Stina
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca Research and Development, Global Medicines Development Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Global Medicines Development Unit, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Comparative transcriptomics of hepatic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells and adult human liver tissue2017In: Physiological Genomics, ISSN 1094-8341, E-ISSN 1531-2267, Vol. 49, no 8, 430-446 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-HEP) have the potential to replace presently used hepatocyte sources applied in liver disease treatment and models of drug discovery and development. Established hepatocyte differentiation protocols are effective and generate hepatocytes, which recapitulate some key features of their in vivo counterparts. However, generating mature hPSC-HEP remains a challenge. In this study, we applied transcriptomics to investigate the progress of in vitro hepatic differentiation of hPSCs at the developmental stages, definitive endoderm, hepatoblasts, early hPSC-HEP, and mature hPSC-HEP, to identify functional targets that enhance efficient hepatocyte differentiation. Using functional annotation, pathway and protein interaction network analyses, we observed the grouping of differentially expressed genes in specific clusters representing typical developmental stages of hepatic differentiation. In addition, we identified hub proteins and modules that were involved in the cell cycle process at early differentiation stages. We also identified hub proteins that differed in expression levels between hPSC-HEP and the liver tissue controls. Moreover, we identified a module of genes that were expressed at higher levels in the liver tissue samples than in the hPSC-HEP. Considering that hub proteins and modules generally are essential and have important roles in the protein-protein interactions, further investigation of these genes and their regulators may contribute to a better understanding of the differentiation process. This may suggest novel target pathways and molecules for improvement of hPSC-HEP functionality, having the potential to finally bring this technology to a wider use.

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