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  • 1.
    Hense, Sabrina
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiological Methods and Etiologic Research, Bremen Institute for Prevention Research and Social Medicine (BIPS), Germany.
    Pohlabeln, Hermann
    Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med BIPS, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med BIPS, Dept Biometry & Data Management, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Health, Dept Movement & Sport Sci, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Goteborg, Sahlgranska Sch Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molnar, Denes
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, University of Pécs, Hungary.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Univ Zaragoza, EU Ciencas Salud, GENUD Res Grp, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Barba, Gianvincenzo
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Pavia, Italy.
    Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med BIPS, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Sleep Duration and Overweight in European Children: Is the Association Modified by Geographic Region?2011In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 885-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To investigate differences and a possible effect modification by geographical region in the association between sleep duration and overweight. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Primary schools and preschools in 8 European countries. Participants: 7867 children aged 2 to 9 years. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements: Nocturnal sleep duration was assessed as part of a parental 24-h recall. Height and weight were measured by standardized procedures across centers. Data on personal, social, environmental and behavioral factors were collected using a standardized parental questionnaire. Results: Sleep duration differed (P < 0.001) between European regions and normal vs. overweight children. A dose-dependent inverse association between sleep duration and overweight could be seen, with crude odds ratios ranging from 1.73 (99% CI 1.33; 2.25) for sleeping between 10 and 11 h to 3.81 (99% CI 2.85; 5.09) for sleeping less than 9 h (reference category > 11 h). This persisted after adjustment, but remained significant only for sleeping less than 9 h per night (north: OR = 1.70; 99% CI 1.13; 2.58 vs. south: OR = 2.84; 99% CI 1.57; 5.12) if stratified by region. No effect modification by region could be found, but adjustment for region accounted for changes in the effect estimate for sleeping less than 9 h (OR = 2.22; 99% CI 1.64; 3.02). The association was stronger in school children than in preschool children. Conclusion: Geographic region and related aspects-even if they do not seem to modify the association between sleep and overweight-should in any case be taken in consideration as a confounding factor on this association.

  • 2.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Finland.
    Ollila, Hanna M.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Finland / University of Eastern Finland, Institute for Public Health and Clinical Nutrition.
    Paunio, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-20072013In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 1041-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level.

  • 3.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health, Unit of Chronic Disease Prevention, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health, Unit of Chronic Disease Prevention, Turku, Finland / University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Kuopio, Finland / Hospital District of North Karelia, Joensuu, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki University and University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nightmares: Risk factors among the Finnish general adult population2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 507-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations.

    DESIGN: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study.

    SETTING: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25-74 y.

    INTERVENTIONS: N/A.

    MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all).

    CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being.

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