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  • 1.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland .
    Henriksson, Linda
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci, Brain Res Unit, Low Temp Lab, Helsinki, Finland / Aalto Univ, Sch Sci, Adv Magnet Imaging Ctr, Helsinki, Finland .
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Railo, Henry
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland .
    Unconscious response priming by shape depends on geniculostriate visual projection2012Inngår i: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 623-633Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that unconscious visual processing of some stimulus features might occur without the contribution of early visual cortex (V1/V2). In the present study, the causal role of V1/V2 in unconscious processing of simple shapes in intact human brain was studied by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on early visual cortex or lateral occipital cortex (LO) while observers performed a metacontrast-masked response priming task with arrow figures as visual stimuli. Magnetic stimulation of V1/V2 impaired masked priming 3090 ms after the onset of the prime. Stimulation of LO reduced the magnitude of masked priming at 90120 ms, but this effect occurred only in the early parts of the priming experiment. A control task measuring the visibility of masked primes indicated that the orientation of masked primes could not be consciously discriminated and that TMS did not influence the conscious visibility of the primes indirectly by reducing the effectiveness of the mask in the critical time windows. We conclude that feedforward sweep of processing from V1/V2 (3090 ms) to LO (90 ms and above) is necessary for unconscious priming of shape, whereas conscious perception requires also the contribution of recurrent (feedback) processing.

  • 2.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Subjective visual awareness emerges prior to P32016Inngår i: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 43, nr 12, s. 1601-1611Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the neural basis of visual awareness, the subjective experience of seeing, have found several potential neural corre- lates of visual awareness. Some of them may not directly correlate with awareness but with post-perceptual processes, such as reporting one’s awareness of the stimulus. We dissociated potential electrophysiological correlates of visual awareness from those occurring during response selection and thus co-occurring with post-perceptual processing. The participants performed two GO-NOGO conditions. In the aware-GO condition they responded with a key press when they were aware of the stimulus and withheld responding when they were unaware of it. In the unaware-GO condition they withheld responding when they were aware and responded when they were not aware of the stimulus. Thus, event-related potentials could be measured to aware and una- ware trials when responding was required and when not required. The results revealed that the N200 amplitude (180–280 ms) over the occipital and posterior temporal cortex was enhanced in aware trials as compared with trials without awareness. This effect (visual awareness negativity, VAN) did not depend on responding. The amplitude of P3 (350–450 ms) also was enhanced in aware trials as compared with unaware trials. In addition, the amplitudes in the P3 time window depended on responding: they were greater when awareness was mapped to GO-response than when not, suggesting that P3 reflects post-perceptual process- ing, that is, it occurs after awareness has emerged. These findings support theories of visual awareness that assume a relatively early onset of visual awareness before P3. 

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