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  • 1.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almér, Alexander
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Sandamirskaya, Yulia
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, Neuroscience Center Zurich, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Balkenius, Christian
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Affective–associative two-process theory: a neurocomputational account of partial reinforcement extinction effects2017Inngår i: Biological Cybernetics, ISSN 0340-1200, E-ISSN 1432-0770, Vol. 111, nr 5-6, s. 365-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) is an experimentally established phenomenon: behavioural response to a given stimulus is more persistent when previously inconsistently rewarded than when consistently rewarded. This phenomenon is, however, controversial in animal/human learning theory. Contradictory findings exist regarding when the PREE occurs. One body of research has found a within-subjects PREE, while another has found a within-subjects reversed PREE (RPREE). These opposing findings constitute what is considered the most important problem of PREE for theoreticians to explain. Here, we provide a neurocomputational account of the PREE, which helps to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings of within-subjects experimental conditions. The performance of our model demonstrates how omission expectancy, learned according to low probability reward, comes to control response choice following discontinuation of reward presentation (extinction). We find that a PREE will occur when multiple responses become controlled by omission expectation in extinction, but not when only one omission-mediated response is available. Our model exploits the affective states of reward acquisition and reward omission expectancy in order to differentially classify stimuli and differentially mediate response choice. We demonstrate that stimulus–response (retrospective) and stimulus–expectation–response (prospective) routes are required to provide a necessary and sufficient explanation of the PREE versus RPREE data and that Omission representation is key for explaining the nonlinear nature of extinction data.

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