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  • 1.
    Brose, Ulrich
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Cushing, Lara
    Berlow, Eric L.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Banasek-Richter, Carolin
    Bersier, Louis-Felix
    Blanchard, Julia L.
    Brey, Thomas
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Blandenier, Marie-France
    Cohen, Joel E.
    Dawah, Hassan Ali
    Dell, Tony
    Edwards, Francois
    Harper-Smith, Sarah
    Jacob, Ute
    Knapp, Roland A.
    Ledger, Mark E.
    Memmott, Jane
    Mintenbeck, Katja
    Pinnegar, John K.
    Rall, Björn C.
    Rayner, Tom
    Ruess, Liliane
    Ulrich, Werner
    Warren, Philip
    Williams, Rich J.
    Woodward, Guy
    Yodzis, Peter
    Martinez, Neo D.
    Body sizes of consumers and their resources2005In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 86, no 9, p. 2545-2545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trophic information—who eats whom—and species’ body sizes are two of the most basic descriptions necessary to understand community structure as well as ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Consumer–resource body size ratios between predators and their prey, and parasitoids and their hosts, have recently gained increasing attention due to their important implications for species’ interaction strengths and dynamical population stability. This data set documents body sizes of consumers and their resources. We gathered body size data for the food webs of Skipwith Pond, a parasitoid community of grass-feeding chalcid wasps in British grasslands; the pelagic community of the Benguela system, a source web based on broom in the United Kingdom; Broadstone Stream, UK; the Grand Caric¸aie marsh at Lake Neuchaˆtel, Switzerland; Tuesday Lake, USA; alpine lakes in the Sierra Nevada of California; Mill Stream, UK; and the eastern Weddell Sea Shelf, Antarctica. Further consumer–resource body size data are included for planktonic predators, predatory nematodes, parasitoids, marine fish predators, freshwater invertebrates, Australian terrestrial consumers, and aphid parasitoids. Containing 16 807 records, this is the largest data set ever compiled for body sizes of consumers and their resources. In addition to body sizes, the data set includes information on consumer and resource taxonomy, the geographic location of the study, the habitat studied, the type of the feeding interaction (e.g., predacious, parasitic) and the metabolic categories of the species (e.g., invertebrate, ectotherm vertebrate). The present data set was gathered with the intent to stimulate research on effects of consumer–resource body size patterns on food-web structure, interaction-strength distributions, population dynamics, and community stability. The use of a common data set may facilitate cross-study comparisons and understanding of the relationships between different scientific approaches and models.

  • 2.
    Brose, Ulrich
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany / Pacific Ecoinformatics and Computational Ecology Lab., Berkeley, CA 94703, United States.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Berlow, Eric L.
    Department of Biology, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany / Pacific Ecoinformatics and Computational Ecology Lab., Berkeley, CA 94703, United States / University of California, Merced, Sierra Nevada Research Institute, Yosemite National Park, CA 95389, United States.
    Warren, Philip
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Banasek-Richter, Carolin
    Department of Biology, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Bersier, Louis-Felix
    Department of Biology, Unit of Ecology and Evolution, Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Blanchard, Julia L.
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Suffolk, United Kingdom.
    Brey, Thomas
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, United States.
    et al.,
    Consumer-resource body-size relationships in natural food webs2006In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 87, no 10, p. 2411-2417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that differences in body size between consumer and resource species may have important implications for interaction strengths, population dynamics, and eventually food web structure, function, and evolution. Still, the general distribution of consumer-'resource body-size ratios in real ecosystems, and whether they vary systematically among habitats or broad taxonomic groups, is poorly understood. Using a unique global database on consumer and resource body sizes, we show that the mean body-size ratios of aquatic herbivorous and detritivorous consumers are several orders of magnitude larger than those of carnivorous predators. Carnivorous predator-prey body-size ratios vary across different habitats and predator and prey types (invertebrates, ectotherm, and endotherm vertebrates). Predator-prey body-size ratios are on average significantly higher (1) in freshwater habitats than in marine or terrestrial habitats, (2) for vertebrate than for invertebrate predators, and (3) for invertebrate than for ectotherm vertebrate prey. If recent studies that relate body-size ratios to interaction strengths are general, our results suggest that mean consumer-resource interaction strengths may vary systematically across different habitat categories and consumer types.

  • 3.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    IFM, Theory and Modelling, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Nina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Westerberg, Lars
    IFM, Biology, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wennergren, Uno
    IFM, Theory and Modelling, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Splitting the tail of the displacement kernel shows the unimportance of kurtosis2008In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 89, no 7, p. 1784-1790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals disperse in space through different movement behaviors, resulting in different displacement distances. This is often described with a displacement kernel where the long-distance dispersers are within the tail of the kernel. A displacement with a large proportion of long-distance dispersers may have impact on different aspects of spatial ecology such as invasion speed, population persistence, and distribution. It is, however, unclear whether the kurtosis of the kernel plays a major role since a fatter tail also influences the variance of the kernel. We modeled displacement in landscapes with different amounts and configurations of habitats and handled kurtosis and variance separately to study how these affected population distribution and transition time. We conclude that kurtosis is not important for any of these aspects of spatial ecology. The variance of the kernel, on the other hand, was of great importance to both population distribution and transition time. We argue that separating variance and kurtosis can cast new light on the way in which long-distance dispersers are important in ecological processes. Consequences for empirical studies are discussed.

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