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  • 1.
    Nahar, Nour
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Rahman, Aminur
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Functional studies of AtACR2 gene putatively involved in accumulation, reduction and/or sequestration of arsenic species in plants2017In: Biologia (Bratislava), ISSN 0006-3088, E-ISSN 1336-9563, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 520-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food-based exposure to arsenic is a human carcinogen and can severely impact human health resulting in many cancerous diseases and various neurological and vascular disorders. This project is a part of our attempts to develop new varieties of crops for avoiding arsenic contaminated foods. For this purpose, we have previously identified four key genes, and molecular functions of two of these, AtACR2 and AtPCSl, have been studied based on both in silico and in vivo experiments. In the present study, a T-DNA tagged mutant, (SALK-143282C with mutation in AtACR2 gene) of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied for further verification of the function of AtACR2 gene. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that this mutant exhibits a significantly reduced expression of the AtACR2 gene. When exposed to 100 μM of arsenate (AsV) for three weeks, the mutant plants accumulated arsenic approximately three times higher (778 μg/g d. wt.) than that observed in the control plants (235 μg/g d. wt.). In contrast, when the plants were exposed to 100 μM of arsenite (AsIII), no significant difference in arsenic accumulation was observed between the control and the mutant plants (535 μg/g d. wt. and 498 μg/g d. wt., respectively). Also, when arsenate and arsenite was measured separately either in shoots or roots, significant differences in accumulation of these substances were observed between the mutant and the control plants. These results suggest that AtACR2 gene is involved not only in accumulation of arsenic in plants, but also in conversion of arsenate to arsenite inside the plant cells. © 2017 Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

  • 2.
    Nawani, Neelu
    et al.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Rahman, Aminur
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Saha, Anandakumar
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Kapadnis, Balasaheb
    Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule University of Pune, Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Status of metal pollution in rivers flowing through urban settlements at Pune and its effect on resident microflora2016In: Biologia (Bratislava), ISSN 0006-3088, E-ISSN 1336-9563, Vol. 71, no 5, p. 494-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates the sporadic distribution of metals in fluvial systems flowing from catchments to urban settlements. This is a detailed study prognosticating the deteriorating quality of rivers at specific locations due to metal pollution. Heavy metals like cadmium, lead, nickel and mercury are prominent in industrial sector. Contour plots derived using spatial and temporal data could determine the focal point of metal pollution and its gradation. Metal values recorded were cadmium 157 mg/L, lead 47 mg/L, nickel 61 mg/L and mercury 0.56 mg/L. Prokaryote diversity was less in polluted water and it harboured metal tolerant bacteria, which were isolated from these polluted sites. Actinomycetes like Streptomyces and several other bacteria like Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas isolated from the polluted river sites exhibited changes in morphology in presence of heavy metals. This stress response offered remedial measures as Streptomyces were effective in biosorption of cadmium, nickel and lead and Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas were effective in the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium. The amount of 89 mg of lead and 106 mg of nickel could be adsorbed on one gram of Streptomyces biomass-based biosorbent. Such biological remedies can be further explored to remove metals from polluted sites and from metal contaminated industrial or waste waters.

  • 3.
    Salgaonkar, Neeta A.
    et al.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Thakare, Prasad M.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Junnarkar, Manisha V.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Kapadnis, Balasaheb P.
    Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule University of Pune, Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Neelu, Nawani N.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Use of N,N-diacetylchitobiose in decreasing toxic effects of indoor air pollution by preventing oxidative DNA damage2016In: Biologia (Bratislava), ISSN 0006-3088, E-ISSN 1336-9563, Vol. 71, no 5, p. 505-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor air pollution occurs due to hazardous pollutants, such as tobacco smoke, pesticides and carbon oxides, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides arising from combustion of biomass fuels. Exposure to these pollutants results in respiratory conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pneumonia and other lower respiratory infections. Several of these infections are a result of inflammation and oxidative stress. Here we demonstrate the ability of N,N-diacetylchitobiose in preventing oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to biomass smoke extracts and cigarette smoke extract. The cytotoxic effect of these pollutants was determined by trypan blue exclusion assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, where cytotoxicity in decreasing order was  garette > wood > sawdust > cowdung. Cytotoxicity could be due to single- and double-strand breaks in the DNA as a result of oxidative stress. Comet assay measures the extent of DNA damage in the cells exposed to toxic agents. When mononuclear cells were treated with N,N-diacetylchitobiose and later exposed to smoke extracts, the extent of DNA damage decreased by 44.5% and 57.5% as compared to untreated cells. The protection offered by N,N-diacetylchitobiose towards oxidative DNA damage was at par with quercetin, a popular herbal medicine. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was determined in mononuclear cells exposed to smoke extracts, where oxidative stress in cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract was maximum. The present study demonstrates for the first time the ability of N,N -diacetylchitobiose to alleviate the harmful effects of indoor air pollutants.

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