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  • 1.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Asplund, Annika
    R&D, Hepatocyte Product Development, Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Toet, Karin
    Department of Metabolic Health Research, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    R&D, Hepatocyte Product Development, Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Ann
    The Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, Departments of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanemaaijer, Roeland
    Department of Metabolic Health Research, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    R&D, Hepatocyte Product Development, Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Characterization of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes with Mature Features and Potential for Modeling Metabolic Diseases2020In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 21, no 2, article id E469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong anticipated future for human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hiPS-HEP), but so far, their use has been limited due to insufficient functionality. We investigated the potential of hiPS-HEP as an in vitro model for metabolic diseases by combining transcriptomics with multiple functional assays. The transcriptomics analysis revealed that 86% of the genes were expressed at similar levels in hiPS-HEP as in human primary hepatocytes (hphep). Adult characteristics of the hiPS-HEP were confirmed by the presence of important hepatocyte features, e.g., Albumin secretion and expression of major drug metabolizing genes. Normal energy metabolism is crucial for modeling metabolic diseases, and both transcriptomics data and functional assays showed that hiPS-HEP were similar to hphep regarding uptake of glucose, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and fatty acids. Importantly, the inflammatory state of the hiPS-HEP was low under standard conditions, but in response to lipid accumulation and ER stress the inflammation marker tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was upregulated. Furthermore, hiPS-HEP could be co-cultured with primary hepatic stellate cells both in 2D and in 3D spheroids, paving the way for using these co-cultures for modeling non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Taken together, hiPS-HEP have the potential to serve as an in vitro model for metabolic diseases. Furthermore, differently expressed genes identified in this study can serve as targets for future improvements of the hiPS-HEP.

  • 2.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Thick and thin filament gene mutations in striated muscle diseases2008In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1259-1275Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sarcomere is the fundamental unit of cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction. During the last ten years, there has been growing awareness of the etiology of skeletal and cardiac muscle diseases originating in the sarcomere, an important evolving field. Many sarcomeric diseases affect newborn children, i. e. are congenital myopathies. The discovery and characterization of several myopathies caused by mutations in myosin heavy chain genes, coding for the major component of skeletal muscle thick filaments, has led to the introduction of a new entity in the field of neuromuscular disorders: myosin myopathies. Recently, mutations in genes coding for skeletal muscle thin filaments, associated with various clinical features, have been identified. These mutations evoke distinct structural changes within the sarcomeric thin filament. Current knowledge regarding contractile protein dysfunction as it relates to disease pathogenesis has failed to decipher the mechanistic links between mutations identified in sarcomeric proteins and skeletal myopathies, which will no doubt require an integrated physiological approach. The discovery of additional genes associated with myopathies and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis will lead to improved and more accurate diagnosis, including prenatally, and to enhanced potential for prognosis, genetic counseling and developing possible treatments for these diseases. The goal of this review is to present recent progress in the identification of gene mutations from each of the major structural components of the sarcomere, the thick and thin filaments, related to skeletal muscle disease. The genetics and clinical manifestations of these disorders will be discussed.

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