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  • 1.
    Ferrari, Fabiano C.
    et al.
    Computing Department, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil.
    Durelli, Vinicius H. S.
    Computer Science Department, Federal University of São João del-Rei, Brazil.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Department of Computer Science, University at Albany, Albany, NY, United States.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Müllner, Nils
    DLR (Deutsche Luft- und Raumfahrt, German Aerospace Center), Cologne, Germany.
    On transforming model-based tests into code: A systematic literature review2023In: Software testing, verification & reliability, ISSN 0960-0833, E-ISSN 1099-1689, Vol. 33, no 8, article id e1860Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based test design is increasingly being applied in practice and studied in research. Model-based testing (MBT) exploits abstract models of the software behaviour to generate abstract tests, which are then transformed into concrete tests ready to run on the code. Given that abstract tests are designed to cover models but are run on code (after transformation), the effectiveness of MBT is dependent on whether model coverage also ensures coverage of key functional code. In this article, we investigate how MBT approaches generate tests from model specifications and how the coverage of tests designed strictly based on the model translates to code coverage. We used snowballing to conduct a systematic literature review. We started with three primary studies, which we refer to as the initial seeds. At the end of our search iterations, we analysed 30 studies that helped answer our research questions. More specifically, this article characterizes how test sets generated at the model level are mapped and applied to the source code level, discusses how tests are generated from the model specifications, analyses how the test coverage of models relates to the test coverage of the code when the same test set is executed and identifies the technologies and software development tasks that are on focus in the selected studies. Finally, we identify common characteristics and limitations that impact the research and practice of MBT: (i) some studies did not fully describe how tools transform abstract tests into concrete tests, (ii) some studies overlooked the computational cost of model-based approaches and (iii) some studies found evidence that bears out a robust correlation between decision coverage at the model level and branch coverage at the code level. We also noted that most primary studies omitted essential details about the experiments. 

  • 2.
    Grindal, Mats
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Offutt, Jeff
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Combination Testing Strategies: A Survey2005In: Software testing, verification & reliability, ISSN 0960-0833, E-ISSN 1099-1689, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 167-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combination strategies are test case selection methods that identify test cases by combining values of the different test object input parameters based on some combinatorial strategy. This survey presents 16 different combination strategies, covering more than 40 papers that focus on one or several combination strategies. This collection represents most of the existing work performed on combination strategies. This survey describes the basic algorithms used by the combination strategies. Some properties of combination strategies, including coverage criteria and theoretical bounds on the size of test suites, are also included in this description. This survey paper also includes a subsumption hierarchy that attempts to relate the various coverage criteria associated with the identified combination strategies

  • 3.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Márki, András
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On strong mutation and the theory of subsuming logic‐based mutants2019In: Software testing, verification & reliability, ISSN 0960-0833, E-ISSN 1099-1689, Vol. 29, no 1-2 Special Issue: SI, p. 1-23, article id e1667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redundant mutants might cause problems when benchmarking since testing techniques can get high scores without detecting any nonredundant mutants. However, removing nonredundant mutants might cause similar problems. Subsumed mutants are per definition also redundant since no additional tests are required to detect them once all other mutants are detected. We focus on relational operator replacement (ROR) and conditional operator replacement mutants. Subsumption relations between ROR mutants are defined by fault hierarchies. The fault hierarchies are proven for weak mutation but have since they were published been used with strong mutation. We prove that ROR fault hierarchies do not hold for strong mutation and show why. We also show that the probability for a random test to experience the problem can be more than 30% and that 50% of the mutants might be affected in a real software system. Finally, we show that there is a similar problem with the theory on sufficient conditional operator replacement.

  • 4.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, RISE SICS Västerås.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Aichernig, Bernhard K.
    Graz University of Technology, Institute for Software Technology, Austria.
    Special issue on testing extra-functional properties2020In: Software testing, verification & reliability, ISSN 0960-0833, E-ISSN 1099-1689, Vol. 30, no 1, article id e1726Article in journal (Other academic)
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