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  • 1.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Shabnam, Jahan
    Independent Researcher, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andrews-Chavez, Johanna
    Tufts University, Boston, USA.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Economic empowerment of women and utilization of maternal delivery care in Bangladesh2012In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 628-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Maternal mortality is a major public health problem in low-income countries, such as Bangladesh. Women's empowerment in relation to enhanced utilization of delivery care is underexplored. This study investigates the associations between women's economic empowerment and their utilization of maternal health care services in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 4925 women (15-49 years of age) with at least one child from whole Bangladesh constituted the study sample. Home delivery without skilled birth attendant and use of institutional delivery services were the main outcome variables used for the analyses. Economic empowerment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, household economic status, and demographic factors were considered as explanatory variables. The chi square test and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were applied at the collected data. Results: In the adjusted model, respondent's and husband's education, household economic status, and residency emerged as important predictors for utilization of delivery care services. In the unadjusted model, economically empowered working and microfinanced women displayed more home delivery. Conclusion: The current study shows that use of delivery care services is associated with socioeconomic development and can be enhanced by societies that focus on general issues such as schooling, economic wellbeing, and gender-based discrimination.

  • 2.
    El Ansari, Walid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar / School of Sports and Exercise, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester, England, United Kingdom.
    Samara, Anastasia
    Unit for Health Promotion, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Adherence to Recommended Dietary Guidelines and the Relationships with the Importance of Eating Healthy in Egyptian University Students2018In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known on the food consumption habits and adherence to dietary guidelines among young adults. We examined students' adherence to recommended guidelines, and the associations between importance of eating healthy and guidelines adherence. Methods: A total of 3271 undergraduates at 11 faculties, Assiut University, Egypt (2009-2010), completed a questionnaire reporting their consumption of 12 food groups; number of servings of fruits/vegetables/day; and how important it is for them to eat healthy. We employed the WHO guidelines for the Eastern Mediterranean region (WHO 2012) to compute students' adherence to dietary guidelines for the different food groups. Chi-square tested the differences for adherence to guidelines by gender, and the associations between the importance of healthy eating and guidelines adherence for the whole sample and by gender. Results: Except for cereal products, no food group had an adherence level >45%. Gender differences were observed (men had better adherence for sweets, cake/cookies, snacks, and raw vegetables but not for fast food/canned food or cooked vegetables, P < 0.001 for each). There was a significant positive trend between the increase of subjective importance of eating healthy and adherence to guidelines (P = 0.012-<0.001). However, this association was only for some food groups and gender dependent. Conclusions: Across the majority of food groups we examined, this sample exhibited low adherence levels to International Nutrition Guidelines. Healthier eating educational/intervention efforts should target foods exhibiting low adherence (most food groups, particularly salad/raw vegetables, fresh fruits, dairy/dairy products, meat/sausage products); consider gender differences (females reported lower adherence across most food groups); and note the relation between adherence and subjective importance of eating healthy by food groups and gender.

  • 3.
    Lao, Zhiqin
    et al.
    Independent researcher, China.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. School of Health & Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Economic Cost of Childhood Unintentional Injuries2012In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 303-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study aims to review the economic cost of childhood (0-18 years) unintentional injuries (UI) and focuses upon comparing the cost burden between developing and developed countries.

    Methods: Articles were selected from PUBMED using the search words “Economic Cost”, “Unintentional injuries” and “Children”. Nine articles were selected.

    Results: Studies in China focused upon cost to hospitals, in Bangladesh they focused on personal payment in rural areas, and in Vietnam they focused upon community-based cost analysis. There was one study from Norway on UI at home. There were 5 articles from the USA focusing on submersion injury, UI insurance, unintentional traumatic brain injury, UI due to firearms and UI medical costs. The cost of childhood UI is enormous, ranging from US $516,938 to US $9,550,704 per year. This represents a large economic burden on society. Additionally, there is a large gap between lower-middle income countries (LMIC) and high income countries (HIC) in the burden of injury, injury health care and insurance systems.

    Conclusion: Different bases and contexts of studies make it difficult to draw a solid conclusion about the amount of costs of UI among children. Therefore, more studies of children’s unintentional injuries should be carried out in low and middle income countries.

  • 4.
    Wu, Jie
    et al.
    IMS Health Shanghai.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific: The role of socioeconomic status and health system development2012In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify the relationship between socioeconomic status, health system development and the incidence, prevalence and mortality of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific. Methods: Incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of tuberculosis and 20 variables of  socioeconomic, health system and biological behavioral issues were included in the study involving all 46 countries of  the Asian Development Bank region (2007 data). Both univariate and multivariate linear regressions were used. Results: The worst three tuberculosis affected countries were Cambodia, India and Indonesia, while the least affected was Australia. Tuberculosis incidence, prevalence and mortality rate were higher in countries with lower human development index, corruption perception index, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and countries with more people under minimum food supplements. Among the health system variables, total health expenditure per capita, governmental health expenditure per capita, hospital beds, and access to improved water and sanitation were strongly associated with tuberculosis. Conclusions: Socioeconomic determinants and health system development have significant effect on the control of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific region. The study has some policy implications by means of  lowering the corruption and improving the sanitation.

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