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  • 1.
    Cardeña, Etzel
    et al.
    Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Lund, PO Box 213, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Terhune, Devin B.
    Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Lund, PO Box 213, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Buratti, Sandra
    Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Lund, PO Box 213, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Lööf, Angelica
    Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Lund, PO Box 213, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    The effects of translation and sex on hypnotizability testing2007In: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 154-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared hypnotizability between two samples from different universities in Sweden. One test was administered in Swedish (University of Skövde) using a translated Swedish version of the HGSHS : A (Bergman, Trenter and Kallio, 2003). At Lund University, the original English version of the HGSHS : A (Shor and Orne, 1962) was used and participants also completed the Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth (ISHD; Field, 1965). The results suggest that administering the HGSHS : A in English to Swedish University students may only slightly reduce hypnotizability scores. Because the HGSHS : A was designed to be used for the initial screening of hypnotic suggestibility, for most practical purposes the original version seems a valid choice among non-English groups fl uent in English. The data also support some recent fi ndings about females exhibiting higher objective and subjective hypnotizability scores than male volunteers. Copyright © 2007 British Society of Experimental & Clinical Hypnosis. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  • 2.
    Fingelkurts, Alexander
    et al.
    BM-SCIENCE – Brain & Mind Technologies Research Centre, Finland.
    Fingelkurts, Andrew
    BM-SCIENCE – Brain & Mind Technologies Research Centre, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hypnosis Induces Reorganization in the Composition of Brain Oscillations in EEG: A case study2007In: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive functions associated with the frontal lobes of the brain may be specifically involved in hypnosis. Thus, the frontal area of the brain has recently been of great interest when searching for neural changes associated with hypnosis. We tested the hypothesis that EEG during pure hypnosis would differ from the normal non-hypnotic EEG especially above the frontal area of the brain. The composition of brain oscillations was examined in a broad frequency band (1-30 Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of a single virtuoso subject. Data was collected in two independent data collection periods separated by one year. The hypnotic and non-hypnotic conditions were repeated multiple times during each data acquisition session. We found that pure hypnosis induced reorganization in the composition of brain oscillations especially in prefrontal and right occipital EEG channels. Additionally, hypnosis was characterized by consistent right-side-dominance asymmetry. In the prefrontal EEG channels the composition of brain oscillations included spectral patterns during hypnosis that were completely different from those observed during non-hypnosis. Furthermore, the EEG spectral patterns observed overall during the hypnotic condition did not return to the pre-hypnotic baseline EEG immediately when hypnosis was terminated. This suggests that for the brain, the return to a normal neurophysiological baseline condition after hypnosis is a time-consuming process. The present results suggest that pure hypnosis is characterized by an increase in alertness and heightened attention, reflected as cognitive and neuronal activation. Taken together, the present data provide support for the hypothesis that in a very highly hypnotizable person (a hypnotic virtuoso) hypnosis as such may be accompanied by a changed pattern of neural activity in the brain. Copyright © 2007 British Society of Experimental & Clinical Hypnosis. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 3.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Altering the state of the altered state debate: reply to commentaries2005In: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main point of our article Hypnotic phenomena and altered states of consciousness: A multilevel framework of description and explanation was to clarify, explicate and reveal the differences between current theoretical viewpoints in explaining hypnosis. Furthermore, we wanted to present a research programme and propose some experiments that if carried out, might lend decisive support to either the Nonstate View (NSV) or the State View (SV) approaches to hypnosis. The commentaries revealed that the concept of altered state of consciousness (ASC) still lacks a commonly accepted definition and is in need of further clarification. The controversy between NSV and SV of hypnosis seems to boil down to the question concerning the explanatory power of the neural level and especially to what the results at this level tell us. In this reply we further clarify the multilevel framework of explanation, the problems associated with the concept of ASC, and we explain the rationale for our proposal of using virtuosos as a model system in hypnosis research. Copyright © 2005 British Society of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis

  • 4.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The observer remains hidden2005In: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 138-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of hidden observer is one of the most controversial issues in hypnosis research. Green, Page, Handley and Rasekhy (this issue) approach it by using an ideomotor task which has not previously been used in association with the hidden observer. We regard their experiment as interesting; however, there are conceptual and methodological problems that hamper the impact of their study. In our commentary, we take the opportunity to point out some problems in their paper as well as to stress the importance to integrate concepts used in hypnosis research to mainstream cognitive neuroscience and consciousness research. Copyright © 2005 British Society of Experimental & Clinical Hypnosis. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 5.
    Kirsch, Irving
    et al.
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Cardena, Etzel
    Lund University.
    Derbyshire, Stuart
    University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Dienes, Zoltan
    University of Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Heap, Michael
    University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Mazzoni, Giuliana
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Naish, Peter
    Open University, United Kingdom.
    Oakley, David
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Potter, Catherine
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Walters, Val
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Whalley, Matthew
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Definitions of Hypnosis and Hypnotizability and their Relation to Suggestion and Suggestibility: A Consensus Statement2011In: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports a consensus that was reached at an Advanced Workshop in Experimental Hypnosis held as part of the joint annual conference of the British Society of Medical and Dental Hypnosis (BSMDH) and the British Society of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis (BSECH). The unanimous consensus was that conventional definitions of hypnosis and hypnotizability are logically inconsistent and that at least one of them needed to be changed. Participants were divided between the alternatives of (1) broadening the operational definition of hypnosis so as to include responding to so-called waking suggestion and (2) limiting the term 'hypnotizability' to the effects of administering a hypnotic induction.

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