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  • 1.
    Fingelkurts, Andrew
    et al.
    BM-SCIENCE - Brain and Mind Technologies Research Centre, P.O. Box 77, FI-02601 Espoo, Finland.
    Fingelkurts, Alexander
    BM-SCIENCE - Brain and Mind Technologies Research Centre, P.O. Box 77, FI-02601 Espoo, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Cortex Functional Connectivity as a Neurophysiological Correlate of Hypnosis: an EEG Case Study2007In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 1452-1462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cortex functional connectivity associated with hypnosis was investigated in a single highly hypnotizable subject in a normal baseline condition and under neutral hypnosis during two sessions separated by a year. After the hypnotic induction, but without further suggestions as compared to the baseline condition, all studied parameters of local and remote functional connectivity were significantly changed. The significant differences between hypnosis and the baseline condition were observable (to different extent) in five studied independent frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma). The results were consistent and stable after 1 year. Based on these findings we conclude that alteration in functional connectivity of the brain may be regarded as a neuronal correlate of hypnosis (at least in very highly hypnotizable subjects) in which separate cognitive modules and subsystems may be temporarily incapable of communicating with each other normally

  • 2.
    Grassini, Simone
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland /Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Souchet, Jérémie
    Station D'Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale Du CNRS, France.
    Aubret, Fabien
    Station D'Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale Du CNRS, France.
    Segurini, Giulia V.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Pattern matters: Snakes exhibiting triangular and diamond-shaped skin patterns modulate electrophysiological activity in human visual cortex2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 131, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural and perceptual mechanisms that support the efficient visual detection of snakes in humans are still not fully understood. According to the Snake Detection Theory, selection pressures posed by snakes on early primates have shaped the development of the visual system. Previous studies in humans have investigated early visual electrophysiological activity in response to snake images vs. various alternative dangerous or non-dangerous stimuli. These studies have shown that the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) component is selectively elicited by snake or snake-like images. Recent findings yielded the complementary/alternative hypothesis that early humans (and possibly other primates) evolved an aversion especially for potentially harmful triangular shapes, such as teeth, claws or spikes. In the present study we investigated the effect of triangular and diamond-shaped patterns in snake skins on the ERP correlates of visual processing in humans. In the first experiment, we employed pictures of snakes displaying either triangular/diamond-shaped patterns or no particular pattern on their skins, and pictures of frogs as control. Participants observed a random visual presentation of these pictures. Consistent with previous studies, snakes elicited an enhanced negativity between 225 and 300 ms (EPN) compared to frogs. However, snakes featuring triangular/diamond-shaped patterns on their skin produced an enhanced EPN compared to the snakes that did not display such patterns. In a second experiment we used pictures displaying only skin patterns of snakes and frogs. Results from the second experiment confirmed the results of the first experiment, suggesting that triangular snake-skin patterns modulate the activity in human visual cortex. Taken together, our results constitute an important contribution to the snake detection theory. 

  • 3.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Hurme, Mikko
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Railo, Henry
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Vorobyev, Victor
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Tallus, Jussi
    Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Paavilainen, Teemu
    Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    TMS-EEG reveals hemispheric asymmetries in top-down influences of posterior intraparietal cortex on behavior and visual event-related potentials2017In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 107, p. 94-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posterior part of intraparietal sulcus (IPS1) while the participants were viewing and rating the visibility of bilaterally presented Gabor patches. Subjective visibility ratings showed that TMS of right IPS shifted the visibility toward the right hemifield, while TMS of left IPS did not have any behavioral effect. TMS of right IPS, but not left one, reduced the amplitude of posterior N1 potential, 180–220 ms after stimulus-onset. The attenuation of N1 occurred bilaterally over the posterior areas of both hemispheres. Consistent with previous TMS-fMRI studies, this finding suggests that the right IPS has top-down control on the neural processing in visual cortex. As N1 most probably reflects reactivation of early visual areas, the current findings support the view that the posterior parietal cortex in the right hemisphere amplifies recurrent interactions in ventral visual areas during the time-window that is critical for conscious perception.

  • 4.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kainulainen, Pasi
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The relationship between awareness and attention: Evidence from ERP responses2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, no 13, p. 2891-2899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between attention and awareness is complex, because both concepts can be understood in different ways. Here we review our recent series of experiments which have tracked the independent contributions of different types of visual attention and awareness to electrophysiological brain responses, and then we report a new experiment focusing on spatial attention, nonspatial selection of objects, and visual consciousness at the same time. The results indicate that the earliest electrophysiological correlate of consciousness, assumed to correlate with “phenomenal consciousness”, was dependent on spatial attention, suggesting that spatial attention is a prerequisite for the internal representations of space that provide the medium for phenomenal experience. The correlate of phenomenal consciousness emerged independent of nonspatial selection of objects, but its later part was modified by it. By contrast, the correlate of access to later conscious processing stages (“reflective consciousness”) that take the selected contents of phenomenal consciousness as input for conceptual thought and working memory, was dependent on both spatial attention and nonspatial selection. These results imply that one should distinguish between different types of attention and different forms of awareness, when describing the relationship between attention and awareness.

  • 5.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Noreika, Valdas
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Vanni, Simo
    Brain Research Unit, O.V. Lounasmaa Laboratory, Aalto University School of Science, Finland / Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Aalto University School of Science, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation suggests that area V2 is necessary for visual awareness2012In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1621-1627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary visual cortex (V1) has been shown to be critical for visual awareness, but the importance of other low-level visual areas has remained unclear. To clarify the role of human cortical area V2 in visual awareness, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over V2 while participants were carrying out a visual discrimination task and rating their subjective awareness. Individual retinotopic maps and modelling of the TMS-induced electric field in V1, V2 and V3d ensured that the electric field was at or under the phosphene threshold level in V1 and V3d, whereas in V2 it was at the higher suppressive level. As earlier shown for the V1, our results imply that also V2 is necessary for conscious visual experience. Visual awareness of stimulus presence was completely suppressed when the TMS pulse was delivered 44-84 ms after the onset of visual stimulus. Visual discrimination and awareness of stimulus features was impaired when the TMS pulse was delivered 44-104 ms after the visual stimulus onset. These results suggest that visual awareness cannot be generated without an intact V2. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Vorobyev, Victor
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Alakurtti, Kati
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Does TMS on V3 block conscious visual perception?2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 128, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary visual cortex (V1) and extrastriate V2 are necessary for the emergence of visual consciousness, but the effects of involvement of extrastriate V3 on visual consciousness is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the causal role of V3 in visual consciousness in humans. We combined neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a computational model of the TMS-induced electric field to test whether or not the intact processing of visual input in V3, like in V1 and V2, is necessary for conscious visual perception. We targeted the stimulation both to V2 and to V3. If TMS of V3 blocks conscious visual perception of stimuli, then activation in V3 is a causally necessary prerequisite for conscious perception of stimuli. According to the alternative hypothesis, TMS of V3 will not block the conscious visual perception of stimuli, because the pathways from V1 to the higher cortical areas that go around V3 provide sufficient visual input for the emergence of conscious visual perception. The results showed that TMS interfered with conscious perception of features, detection of stimulus presence and the ability to discriminate the letter stimuli both when TMS was targeted either to V3 or to V2. For the conscious detection of stimulus presence, the effect was significantly stronger when V2 was stimulated than when V3 was stimulated. The results of the present study suggest that in addition to the primary visual cortex and V2, also V3 causally contributes to the generation of the most basic form of visual consciousness. Importantly, the results also indicate that V3 is necessary for visual perception in general, not only for visual consciousness.

1 - 6 of 6
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