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  • 1. Intaité, Monika
    et al.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Ruksenas, Osvaldas
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Reversal negativity and bistable stimuli: Attention, awareness, or something else?2010In: Brain and Cognition, ISSN 0278-2626, E-ISSN 1090-2147, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambiguous (or bistable) figures are visual stimuli that have two mutually exclusive perceptual interpretations that spontaneously alternate with each other. Perceptual reversals, as compared with non-reversals, typically elicit a negative difference called reversal negativity (RN), peaking around 250 ms from stimulus onset. The cognitive interpretation of RN remains unclear: it may reflect either bottom-up processes, attentional processes that select between the alternative views of the stimulus, or it may reflect the change in the contents of subjective awareness. In the present study, event-related potentials in response to endogenous unilateral and bilateral reversals of two Necker lattices were compared with exogenously induced reversals of unambiguous lattices. The RN neither resembled the attention-related N2pc response, nor did it correlate with the content of subjective visual awareness. Thus, we conclude that RN is a non-attentional ERP correlate of the changes in the perceptual configuration of the presented object.

  • 2.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Fdn, Turku 20014, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Philosophy, Turku 20014, Finland.
    Lähteenmäki, Mikko
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Fdn, Turku 20014, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Turku 20014, Finland.
    Sörensen, Thomas Alrik
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Psychol, DK-1361 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Vangkilde, Signe
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Psychol, DK-1361 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Overgaard, Morten
    Hammel Neuroctr, DK-8250 Hammel, Denmark.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The earliest electrophysiological correlate of visual awareness?2008In: Brain and Cognition, ISSN 0278-2626, E-ISSN 1090-2147, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 91-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine the neural correlates and timing of human visual awareness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments while the observers were detecting a grey dot that was presented near subjective threshold. ERPs were averaged for conscious detections of the stimulus (hits) and nondetections (misses) separately. Our results revealed that hits, as compared to misses, showed a negativity around 180–350 ms at occipital and posterior temporal sites. It was followed by a positive wave after 400–500 ms, peaking at parietal sites. These correlates were not affected by a manipulation of attention. The early negativity, called ‘visual awareness negativity’ (VAN), may be a general, primary electrophysiological correlate of visual awareness. The present data show that it can be observed in response to appearance of a stimulus in visual awareness and that it generalizes across different manipulations of stimulus visibility.

  • 3.
    Noreika, Valdas
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Jylhänkangas, Leila
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Móró, Levente
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Kaskinoro, Kimmo
    Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Aantaa, Riku
    Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, and Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Consciousness lost and found: Subjective experiences in an unresponsive state2011In: Brain and Cognition, ISSN 0278-2626, E-ISSN 1090-2147, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 327-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anesthetic-induced changes in the neural activity of the brain have been recently utilized as a research model to investigate the neural mechanisms of phenomenal consciousness. However, the anesthesiologic definition of consciousness as ‘‘responsiveness to the environment’’ seems to sidestep the possibility that an unresponsive individual may have subjective experiences. The aim of the present study was to analyze subjective reports in sessions where sedation and the loss of responsiveness were induced by dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane or xenon in a nonsurgical experimental setting. After regaining responsiveness, participants recalled subjective experiences in almost 60% of sessions. During dexmedetomidine sessions, subjective experiences were associated with shallower ‘‘depth of sedation’’ as measured by an electroencephalography-derived anesthesia depth monitor. Results confirm that subjective experiences may occur during clinically defined unresponsiveness, and that studies aiming to investigate phenomenal consciousness under sedative and anesthetic effects should control the subjective state of unresponsive participants with post-recovery interviews.

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