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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Muhammad Abbas Khan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    The effect of time pressure on human behavior regarding phishing susceptibility: Human aspects in information security2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human errors are common in the contemporary cyber ecosystem, and in an organization’s cybersecurity chain, humans are considered the weakest link. Cybercriminals exploit human vulnerabilities using sophisticated attacks such as phishing. Human susceptibility to phishing is a persistent threat, and has a devastating effect on organizational and personal security. Previous researchers found that human susceptibility to phishing increases in presence of some factors such as organizational, individual, and environmental. Various studies highlight time pressure as one of the influencing factors that can negatively or positively impact human behavior. This research study aimed to investigate the effect of time pressure on human cybersecurity behavior regarding the ability to detect phishing. The study used quantitative research and developed a questionnaire comprising interactive phishing emails distributed online to 03 random groups having different time limits to complete the questionnaire. The study received 356 complete responses. The study's result shows a slight change in user behavior under time pressure, and the impact of time pressure can be positive or negative. However, the results are not statistically significant for all demographic groups to accept this slight change in variance. Moreover, this study's results validate previous studies on human susceptibility to phishing and found more than 50 % of respondents vulnerable to phishing.

    Thus, the results of this study indicate that the factor of time pressure itself does not significantly impact the human ability to detect phishing. However, it is essential to note that other work-related tasks or stress associated with time pressure can influence human behavior in detecting phishing attempts.

    In conclusion, the author also proposes further testing and some methodology tweaking by modifying the time given to each tested group and adding more elements to the questionnaire. Finally, the study also suggested conducting the same analysis on physically controlled groups in an organizational or institutional setting. 

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  • 2.
    Abdulhadi, Osama
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    The human connection to information security: A qualitative study on policy development, communication and compliance in government agencies2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The human factor and insider threats play a crucial role in information security. In today’s digital age, protecting organizational data requires a deep understanding of human behaviour and its impact on information security. The increasing volume of electronically stored data has led to a rise in cyber threats and breaches, necessitating effective information security policies and regulations.

    This study focuses on the experiences and perspectives of employees and top management in government agencies regarding the development, communication, compliance, and attitudes towards information security policies and regulations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from both top management or information security officers and regular employees, which allowed for an in-depth exploration of their experiences and perspectives.

    The findings show that government agencies systematically develop policies by engaging stakeholders, ensuring accessibility, and adhering to legal frameworks. Addressing the human factor involves training, awareness programs, and top management support. Policy development and implementation include risk assessment, stakeholder identification, objective setting, continuous review, and integration into daily operations. Communication channels such as intranets, training, coordinators, and awareness events are utilized, but their effectiveness is not directly measured. Proposed improvements include enhancing accessibility, improving policy document management, and using clearer language.

    Employees generally possess a positive attitude towards information security, though their understanding varies, and challenges to their understanding include complex language and unclear instructions. Compliance also varies, with difficulties arising from technical terminology and information overload. Enhanced compliance can be achieved through simplified language, providing better resources, and top management support. Proactive incident management focuses on learning and risk minimization. The human factor and insider threats remain significant concerns, which emphasizes the need for further education, awareness training, and motivation. 

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  • 3.
    Abdulkader, Mohamad
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Why do people use public Wi-Fi?: An investigation of risk-taking behaviour and factors lead to decisions2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of public Wi-Fi and hotspots has witnessed a substantial increase in recent times, providing convenient connectivity in various public areas. Public wireless networks are now widely accessible, especially in smart cities. However, utilising public Wi-Fi exposes individuals to potential threats to their privacy and security. Hackers can exploit vulnerabilities present in public Wi-Fi networks, such as the "Evil Twin" attack, to deceive users and unlawfully obtain their personal information. The main objective of the research was to investigate people's awareness of the security risks associated with public Wi-Fi usage and to identify the factors that contribute to their willingness to take such risks. The research adopted a qualitative approach, utilising semi-structured interviews with 14 participants to gain valuable insights into their understanding and knowledge of the risks connected with public Wi-Fi. The majority of respondents employed public Wi-Fi for educational purposes, browsing the Internet, and engaging with social media platforms. Additionally, the findings of the study explored the motivations and influences that lead individuals to take risks when using public Wi-Fi. Factors such as convenience, cost-effectiveness, saving mobile data usage, limited mobile network coverage, and a lack of awareness concerning privacy and security risks emerged as the most significant reasons and influences behind the utilisation of public Wi-Fi.

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  • 4.
    Abdullah, Mohammed
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Säkerhetsmedvetenhet och dess inverkan på informationssäkerhet inom hälso-och sjukvården2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Framväxten av digitalisering och skillnader i utvecklingstakt mellan digitalisering och informationssäkerhet har lett till ökade utmaningar för många sektorer i samhället, inklusive hälso- och sjukvården. En central del i att hantera dessa utmaningar är att förstå hur viktigt det är att ha en god säkerhetsmedvetenhet hos anställda. Säkerhetsmedvetenhet är därför en nödvändig komponent för att skydda och bevara informationssäkerheten i en organisation. Informationssäkerhet innefattar mer än tekniska och administrativa säkerhetsåtgärder, eftersom människor är involverade i alla aspekter av informationssäkerhet och ofta anses vara den svagaste länken i säkerhetskedjan. Till följd av detta kan ökad medvetenhet bland personalen bidra till mer effektiv informationssäkerhet. Studien fokuserade på att undersöka följande frågeställning: Hur kan IT-chefer inom hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn arbeta systematiskt för att öka personalens säkerhetsmedvetenhet?

    Resultatet visade att ledningens engagemang kan påverka personalens medvetenhet och bidra till att skapa en stark säkerhetskultur, vilket är i linje med vad litteraturen beskriver. Genom ökad medvetenhet bland personalen kan många säkerhetsincidenter relaterade till mänskliga misstag undvikas. Studien genomfördes med stöd av kvalitativa forskningsmetoder och semistrukturerade intervjuer, där ledande roller inom hälso- och sjukvården intervjuades. I nuläget visar resultatet att det finns utrymme för förbättring när det gäller personalens nuvarande medvetenhet. Dessutom visade resultatet att det inte finns en effektiv metod för att utvärdera och mäta denna medvetenhet. Däremot visar både praktiken och litteraturen att antalet ökade cyberattacker ökar och att det finns betydande utmaningar kopplade till att säkerställa informationssäkerhet. Samtidigt påvisar resultatet ett tydligt behov av ytterligare forskning samt utveckling av metoder för att mäta och förbättra personalens säkerhetsmedvetenhet.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Almkvist, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Paratexter och spelupplevelsen: Hur kan digitala uppslagsverk påverka spelupplevelsen i överlevnadsspel?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Paratexter är verk som ger konsumenter en uppfattning om en produkt utan att interagera med själva produkten. Denna undersökning har studerat hur spelupplevelsen kan påverkas av en viss typ av paratext, digitala uppslagsverk, i överlevnadsspel. Spelupplevelsen är ett subjektivt fenomen, vilket ligger till grund för undersökningens kvalitativa ansats. En prototyp av ett generiskt överlevnadsspel, samt ett digitalt uppslagsverk för spelet, producerades. Därefter användes observationer och semistrukturerade intervjuer för att jämföra tio respondenters handlingar med deras åsikter. Resultatet bekräftade att det finns många olika attityder gentemot digitala uppslagsverk. Bland annat påvisades att dessa paratexter aktivt bidrar till att skapa mål för spelaren, och kan komplettera eventuella brister i spelets design. Spelupplevelsen kan också försämras, eftersom spelaren redan ”upplevt spelet” genom uppslagsverket. Framtida studier bör förslagsvis utnyttja denna introducerande studie för att skapa ett paratextuellt ramverk som spelutvecklare kan använda för att skapa så genomtänkta spelupplevelser som möjligt.

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  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Viktor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Visualisering av geospatialdata från firms i heatmaps: En jämförelse av visualiseringstekniker med D3.js och Heatmap.js baserat på utritningstid2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora mängder miljödata samlas hela tiden in och för att använda all data behöver den förstås av användarna så de kan applicera kunskapen inom deras område. Visualisering skapar förståelse om data. Heatmaps kan användas för att visualisera geospatial data och interaktivitet är ett hjälpmedel för att skapa ytterligare grafiska representationer. I detta arbete evalueras JavaScript-teknikerna D3.js, Heatmap.js och Vue.js angående vad som är mest lämpligt för att visualisera geospatial data utifrån effektiviteten vid utritning av heatmaps. Ett experiment genomförs där biblioteken D3.js, Heatmap.js testas i ramverket Vue.js. Detta för att ta reda på vilket bibliotek som föredras vid utritning av heatmaps och om ett ramverk påverkar resultatet. En miljö sätts upp för att genomföra undersökningen och tester för att påvisa detta. Resultatet indikerar att Heatmap.js och mindre datamängder ger en lägre utritningstid i den tillämpning som undersökts. I framtiden är det intressant att undersöka flera bibliotek och flera datamängder.

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  • 7.
    Acarsoy, Sara Nil
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Effects of interactivity on narrative-driven games: A heuristic approach for narrative-driven games2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In narrative-driven games, the story is an essential part of the gameplay, and understanding the story is of great importance. Given that what separates this genre from other storytelling media is interactivity, this thesis focuses on the elements in narrative-driven video games that effects the players' perception of narrative through interactivity. Using players' likes and dislikes from their previous experiences in narrative-driven games, this thesis aims to develop a heuristic approach for interactive narrative elements that offer the narrative through players' input to the game's system and create an effective gameplay experience that delivers the story to the players.

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  • 8.
    Adamson, Victor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Bägerfeldt, Johan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Assessing the effectiveness of ChatGPT in generating Python code2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated ChatGPT’s Python code generation capabilities with a quasi-experiment and a case study, incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods respectively. The quantitative analysis compared ChatGPT-generated code to human-written solutions in terms of accuracy, quality, and readability, while the qualitative study interviewed participants with varying levels of programming experience about the usability of ChatGPT for code generation. The findings revealed significant differences in quality between AI-generated and human-written solutions but maintained overall similarities in accuracy and readability. The interviewees reported that ChatGPT showed potential for generating simple programs but struggled with complex problems and iterative development, though most participants were optimistic about its future capabilities. Future research could involve larger samples, more programming languages, and increased problem complexities. 

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  • 9.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Critical Success Factors in Capturing Knowledge for Retention in IT-Supported Repositories2014In: Information, ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 558-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate the suitability of IT-supported knowledge repositories for knowledge retention. Successful knowledge retention is dependent on whatis stored in a repository and, hence, possible to share. Accordingly, the ability to capture theright (relevant) knowledge is a key aspect. Therefore, to increase the quality in an IT-supported knowledge repository, the identification activity, which starts the capture process, must besuccessfully performed. While critical success factors (CSFs) for knowledge retention andknowledge management are frequently discussed in the literature, there is a knowledge gapconcerning CSFs for this specific knowledge capture activity. From a knowledge retention perspective, this paper proposes a model that characterizes CSFs for the identification activity and highlights the CSFs’ contribution to knowledge retention.

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    Critical Success Factors in Capturing Knowledge for Retention in IT-Supported Repositories
  • 10.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Svensson, Ann
    School of Business Economics and IT, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    How to Apply and Manage Critical Success Factors in Healthcare Information Systems Development?2023In: Systems, E-ISSN 2079-8954, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in Healthcare Information Systems (HIS) development projects have traditionally often been limited to retrospectively identifying CSFs in a finished project. In this paper, we focus on how to prospectively apply and manage CSFs in HIS projects. Based on a holistic perspective and systems thinking, an inductive research strategy was applied and a single in-depth case study was conducted. The findings include detailed descriptions that contribute to further understanding of how to prospectively apply and manage CSFs in HIS projects. The analysis reveals that CSFs must be applied differently and managed on various system levels. Furthermore, it shows how interactions exist between different system levels, both in the case of a specific CSF and between different CSFs on various system levels. Our analysis framework and findings indicate new directions for future research: how to prospectively apply and manage CSFs in HIS development projects can now be investigated both in a more holistic way and more in detail. Finally, healthcare practitioners can use the descriptions as practical checklists for guiding them in how to realize situational adaptation of CSFs in HIS projects across different system levels.

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  • 11.
    Ahlborg, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    How mail components on the server side detects and process undesired emails: a systematic literature review2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of emails increases constantly every year, so do the reports of various victims in society, on companies and individuals who have been affected by these undesirable emails in the form of spam, spoofing and phishing in their inbox. The effect of undesirable emails are many, but in summary, they cost the society and organization immense amount of money. This study will aim to understand why these emails still make its way into a user’s inbox by identifying current existing solutions that are being used by email servers to evaluate incoming undesirable emails.

    The analysis of the study shows that there are shortcomings in the solutions that are being used today, which lead to undesirable emails reaching a user’s inbox, and it is likely to continue in the near foreseeable future, unless research and or actions are applied to some of the brought-up issues in this study, namely problems with adoption and usage rate of authentication protocols, technical issues within authentication protocols and emails being wrongly classified by today's filtering techniques.

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  • 12.
    Ahlsén, Corinne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Karlsson, Casper
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    LEVEL DESIGNS FÖRMÅGA ATT FÖRMEDLA STÄMNING: Storlek och upplevd stämning i Bloodborne2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Om storleken på utrymmen i spels levlar påverkar stämningen har diskuterats av leveldesignförfattare, bland andra Totten (2019) som nämner i sin bok, An Architectural Approach to Level Design, att olika storlekar på utrymmen i spel främjar olika känslor. Denna bakgrund för studien har sedan applicerats på den data som samlats in för att svara på problemformuleringen Hur påverkas upplevd stämning av områdets storlek i Bloodbornes Forbidden Woods och Upper Cathedral Ward? Datan består av storleksmätningar av utrymmen i två av spelets områden samt kommentarer från internet. Kommentarerna granskades efter ord och uttryck kopplade till upplevd stämning och områdets storlek. Efter att ha sammanställt kommentarerna om områdena analyserades de utefter storleksmätningarna och Tottens (2019) teori. Vi fann indikation till att storlek påverkar upplevd stämning, men att mer forskning krävs för att säkerställa resultatet. Denna kunskap kan potentiellt användas av level designers för att skapa en bättre spelupplevelse. För framtida arbete föreslår författarna att skapa en egen artefakt för att bättre kunna kontrollera beroende och oberoende variabler. 

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  • 13.
    Ahmad Sheikh Sleiman, Shirin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Aueis en ny UX-utvärderingsmetod för engagemang vid interaktion med sociala robotar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The user experience design (UX) perspective is essential when evaluating interaction with all types of robots, but especially social robots. As these are developed to perform important tasks in society such as being companion robots in geriatric care, schools and more. The User Experience Design area has a wide collection of evaluation methods that the human-robot interaction area can benefit from. This study aims to improve the experience of interacting with a social robot. For this purpose, literature studies have been conducted where UX aspects were identified that are relevant to focus on when evaluating the conditions for engagement in the interaction between human and social robot. A knowledge gap was identified of limited available analytical evaluation methods in human-robot interaction (HRI). In order to develop a new analytical evaluation method to promote engagement with a social robot, a methodological approach was used to develop evaluation methods. The design process of the new method consisted of five iterative phases that resulted in an Analytical evaluation method of engagement in interaction with social companion robots (AUEIS). AEUIS is designed to evaluate the conditions for achieving engagement when interacting with a social robot. Great focus was placed on the fifth phase where versions of AUEIS were tested by several UX designers based on the criteria that AUEIS should have high validity, be useful and have good learnability. The testing was performed with four UX designers with different experiences in HRI. The results of the testing showed that a UX designer without previous experience in evaluating HRI can use AUEIS without problems. At the same time, the aspects developed to carry out the evaluation were comprehensive to identify problems when interacting with a social robot.

    The result of this is work is a complete analytical evaluation method. AUEIS consists of seven aspects that study the conditions for engagement with a social robot. To evaluate with AUEIS, there are three phases: Preparation, evaluation, and analysis. Each phase has some activities that are followed to obtain a result about the conditions of engagement in the interaction with a social robot. The result of the evaluation with AUEIS will consist of qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data that is obtained can be analyzed to get a list of which aspects of engagement are not fulfilled by the social robot. The quantitative data can provide a quick overview of which aspects have the most problems and which problems are most serious. AUEIS evaluates the conditions for engagement when interacting with a social robot and is limited to this because it evaluates whether the social robot meets those conditions for engagement. Therefore, the user experience of engagement is evaluated only in a minor way based on how much the social robot meets the conditions for engagement. Future research and development of AUEIS would have been interesting and needed for AEUIS to be able to evaluate whether the user is engaged and to what extent is. Another interesting aspect to study can be the user experience of engagement whether it is during long-term interaction, short-term interaction, or different phases of an engagement. For example, how to evaluate that the user begins engagement with a social robot and how should it be evaluated that the engagement is maintained and continues or if it interrupts and why from a user perspective?

    Chapter 5 (End result the AUEIS method) presents the method and detailed instructions on implementation are presented in Appendix 7.

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  • 14.
    Ahmed, Abukar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Jämförelse mellan Joomla och React.js utifrån svarstid på en bokhandel webbsida2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie jämförs JavaScript-biblioteket React mot Joomla på en e-commerce webbsida. Tillämpningen på e-commerce webbsidan är bokhandel. I implementationen skapades det två webbsidor. En med React och den andra med Joomla. Webbsidan använder sig även av Bootstrap som CSS-ramverk för att få samma layout. Detta är viktigt då mätningen utförs i en kontrollerad miljö där det är viktigt att allting utgår ifrån samma förutsättningar. Mätningen sker genom ett eget skript som körs genom Tampermonkey tillägget i Chrome. Resultatet av mätningarna visas senare i grafer som indikerar att React har en mycket snabbare svarstid jämfört med Joomla-webbsidan. I framtida arbeten går det att öka antalet produkter och innehåll och göra webbsidan mer verklighetsbaserat. Det går även att byta tillämpningstema till en elektronikwebbsida där det förmodligen skulle behöva innehålla fler bilder och även videoklipp.

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  • 15.
    Ahmed, Hiwa
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Jämförelse mellan Cakephp och Codeigniter Ramverk med/utan Model mapping (ORM)2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 16.
    Aho Lind, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    What are the needs and use of educational games in the modern workplace?: A case study on the prospects of equality, diversity, and inclusion education in a multinational business, through the use of a serious game2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace diversity is an increasingly important topic for all companies who wish to stay in business. The purpose of this master’s thesis is to evaluate the needs and usage of a serious game in the form of an educational tool when teaching employees at a multinational business about equality, diversity, and inclusion topics. The study also involves an evaluation of the development of soft skills through an artificial environment offered through a team-based game experience. This was done by conducting a quasi-quantitative with a pre-test/post-test design, inspired by the work of Parker and Du Plooy (2021). The data gathered was analysed, where the results suggested that there is a growing need for serious games as an educational tool in the modern workplace, and if executed correctly, they can be of use for training soft skills regarding equality, diversity and inclusion matters in the employees. Notable connections between earlier research and this thesis’s findings arealsopresented and analysed.

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  • 17.
    Al Amin, Jasin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    An investigation on personally identifiable information leakage on five different smartphone devices: A case study2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The installation of bloatwares in smartphones has over the years been increasing. By having bloatwares installed on the devices it has develop monopoly for the original equipment manufacturer, but at the same time it has create problems for consumers and privacy issue. The aim of this research was to investigate in five different original equipment manufacturers devices, on how they protect users against personally identifiable information leaking from bloatware and which personally identifiable information is collected; processed; sent by bloatware with or without any interaction. The method that was selected for this study was to do an action study, where the author experimented with five different devices (Sony, Samsung, Google Pixel, Apple, Oneplus) and different software programs. To be able to conduct the data from the devices, there was a strategy process where the approach was both dynamic analysis and static analysis. The results showed that that all devices that was part of this case study are leaking some type of personally identifiable information, due to poor security or that failed to protect against leaking personally identifiable information. Furthermore, the Android operating system that was part of this study seems to be the most optimal operating system in terms of monitoring the users. Since they were transmitting out a request every minute to the same address.

  • 18.
    Alenljung, Zackarias
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Användarupplevelse i förstärkt verklighet: En holistisk utvärdering av en AR prototyp för monteringsinstruktioner2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is important to the societies economy and therefore needs to function as flawlessly and efficiently as possible to benefit the companies, because the manufacturing process is expensive. The most expensive part of the process is the assembly, which can cost between 25-50 % of the total manufacturing cost, and in particular manual assembly work is expensive. Assembly is carried out using assembly instructions on paper or in the computer. A new technology that has the potential to further streamline the work of assemblers which is called AR (augmented reality) is under development. There are no clear design guidelines for what works or not when developers should design instructions in AR. A further difficulty is the demands that are made when using new technology for safety-critical systems. New research in safety-critical systems shows that user experience design can help achieve a safer work environment and more efficient work. This thesis explores assembly instructions in AR through the development of a prototype, which is then evaluated with the help of assemblers, to create a better understanding of the possibilities of implementing AR-based instructions when assembling from a user experience perspective. To achieve this, an interview was conducted with an external company that previously investigated the possibilities of implementing AR in its production. Subsequently, a prototype was created that was evaluated with a user experience test in which both hedonic and pragmatic qualities were investigated. The prototype achieved three out of the nine set goals. Based on the result, five recommendations were made for how instructions should be presented in AR.

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  • 19.
    Alid, Hani
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Experience with users about the various GDPR provisions available through the services2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and its impact on individuals since the GDPR became effective in May 2018. The regulation has had significant implications for companies and organizations that handle user data as it provides fines if they are non-compliance. However, the GDPR was created to protect individuals' privacy and personal data in the European Union (EU), which has added many complexities to companies and individuals. This study aims to provide an experiment with individuals in Sweden to document their knowledge of the regulations and their ability to exercise the rights granted and to know their opinions through interviews with 19 samples of individuals. The research deals with the third chapter more than other chapters of the GDPR. The results revealed a lack of awareness among the participants, with only a small percentage having prior knowledge of the GDPR and lacking a clear understanding of the implications and practical implementation of these rights, despite the participants' enthusiasm when explaining the rights to them. Participants acknowledged the importance of their data and assessed the provisions of the GDPR. They emphasized rights such as access, rectification, and erasure as necessary to protect privacy. After obtaining nearly complete knowledge, the participants could exercise and find the GDPR rights entirely on Swedish sites, except those who were able to find the rights with only a little knowledge. The study highlights the need to enhance individuals' awareness of the GDPR and improve transparency and accessibility of privacy policies.

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  • 20.
    Alkhed, Johannes
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Nordamerikanska urfolk och stereotyper: En analys av karaktärsdesign i fyra västerländska äventyrsspel2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Minoriteter avbildas ofta på negativa sätt och det kan ha verkliga konsekvenser för de som identifierar sig med dessa minoritetsgrupper. Den här studien var intresserad av att se hur ursprungsamerikaner skildrades i spel i förhållande till verkliga motsvarigheter från historia. Arbetet tog sig an frågan genom en komparativ analys av kvalitativ natur för att kunna upptäcka större sociokulturella mönster. Fyra karaktärer analyserades i flera steg efter stereotyper, karaktärsdesignsprinciper och motsvarande historiska exempel. Arbetet såg ett visst samband mellan hur stereotyp en karaktär var och hur trovärdigt den gestaltade ursprungsamerikaner.

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  • 21.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The active instructor: Benefits and barriers to instructor-led serious gaming2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 8-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is a wealth of studies on the subject of serious games, the same cannot be said on the issue of teaching with games, especially in game-based learning settings with adult learners. Over the years, most research in this area has been focused on the ‘active substance(s)’ of games for learning, focusing mainly on characteristics of games, but often failing to take the whole context of game-based learning into consideration, such as the role(s) of the teacher. However, the past two or three years has seen a shift in focus from merely the game as an isolated artefact, to also include more discussions on how games can successfully be integrated into an educational setting, as well as challenges as pitfalls of which instructors need to be aware. This paper aims to outline the contemporary research on instructor-led serious gaming and its implications for the design of serious gaming environments.

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  • 22.
    Alloh, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Förtroende inom e-handel: En checklista för utvecklingen av förtroendeingivande e-handelswebbplatser2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trust in e-commerce is one of the most important factors for a business to succeed online. For successful sales between company and consumer, the website requires trust in different ways. The scientific literature that has been examined in the background chapter shows a need for categorization of aspects regarding trust in e-commerce as well as a checklist that can support the development of trustworthy e-commerce sites. To get further understanding of this area, articles that examine trust in e-commerce have been collected. The gathering of articles was done by a systematic literature study in relevant journals and databases. An analysis and summary of the aspects were made and divided into categories. The categorization of the aspects resulted in a checklist that can help a user experience designer to develop trustworthy e-commerce websites. For future studies, the checklist can either be tested by a UX designer in his work or by an empirical study to validate whether the checklist needs to be changed or expanded with more aspects.

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  • 23.
    Amanuel, Meron Abraham
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Hämtningstid i relationsdatabaser och dokumentdatabaser för fordonsskulder data2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilken av databaserna MySQL och MongoDB som utför hämtning av fordonsrelaterade skulder data på kortaste tiden. För att undersöka prestanda gällande hämtningstiden utvecklades en webbapplikation som visualiserar datan i form av diagram med hjälp av Javascript biblioteket Chart.js. Experimentet genomfördes fem gånger med olika mängder data och mätningspunkter för att se hur det kan påverka svarstiden hos databasen. Resultaten visade att MySQL var snabbare än MongoDB oavsett datamängden eller mätningspunkter. Framtida arbete kan bland annat hämta data slumpmässigt från databaserna och öka mängden data till en stor del samt användning av olika webbläsare för att undvika bias i studien. 

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  • 24.
    Ameel, Hans
    et al.
    Howest University of Applied Sciences, Kortrijk, Belgium.
    Decavele, Tom
    Howest University of Applied Sciences, Kortrijk, Belgium.
    Eeckhout, Claudia
    Howest University of Applied Sciences, Kortrijk, Belgium.
    van der Heide, Josha
    Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Zwolle, The Netherlands.
    Lohner, Daniela
    St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences, St. Pölten, Austria.
    van der Ploeg, Bram
    Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Zwolle, The Netherlands.
    Rietberg, Wim
    Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Zwolle, The Netherlands.
    Steiner-Cardell, Andrea
    St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences, St. Pölten, Austria.
    Tjoa, Simon
    St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences, St. Pölten, Austria.
    Kochberger, Patrick
    St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences, St. Pölten, Austria.
    Kävrestad, Joakim
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Luh, Robert
    St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences, St. Pölten, Austria.
    Experiences From a Multi-National Course in Cybersecurity Awareness Raising2023In: International Journal of Information Security and Cybercrime (IJISC), ISSN 2285-9225, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 18-22, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU), as well as the entire world, is facing emerging challenges in the cybersecurity domain. Two of the most prominent challenges are citizens’ cybersecurity awareness which is the first line of defense against cybersecurity incidents, and the cybersecurity skill gap expected to lead to a future shortage of cybersecurity professionals. This paper presents an effort to combat those issues through the implementation of an intra-European course on cybersecurity awareness. The course engages university students from four EU member states who learn about increasing cybersecurity awareness while practically developing cybersecurity awareness activities for preadolescents. The paper provides an overview of the course and lessons learned from implementing it in international cooperation. The intention is to provide a guide for the development of such courses and outline success factors others can adopt and pitfalls that should be avoided.

  • 25.
    Ameri, Haydar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Exploring information security culture within Swedish municipalities: A qualitative study2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The human aspect in the context of security has been a well-debated topic over the last two decades among researchers and practitioners. It has been recognized that technology alone cannot provide full protection, but should be combined with information security culture. This thesis explored how Swedish municipalities address the cultural aspects of information security. In addition, several important aspects and challenges were identified. Interviews were conducted as a data collection method with nine respondents from nine municipalities to gather their insights and experiences on the topic. The material from the interviews was then analyzed by applying thematic analysis.

    The results of this thesis have shown that most municipalities used what was feasible from the standards for the protection of information. One challenge was finding a balance between security measures and the various operations of the various entities to avoid hindrances to service delivery. With respect to training and awareness, initiatives employed diverse approaches, in some cases customized while in others not. The follow-up on information security culture was con[1]ducted using the tool Information Security Check provided by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, along with measurements of security awareness through questionnaires, in some cases customized while in others not.

    Involving top management included diverse activities with support taking various forms beyond financial and human resources. However, the degree of follow-up, top management involvement, and support exhibited variations and in some cases were lacking. One notable discovery was the importance of educating not only the network of champions but also managers in information security, fostering a symbiotic relationship between the two. With respect to the lacking aspects, another finding was the importance of leadership and management knowledge/skills, not only essential for people in the security domain but also for other managerial roles in maintaining a positive information security culture.

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  • 26.
    Andemariam, Mikias
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Self-service business intelligence: Hur kan användarrelaterade utmaningar hanteras vid implementering av SSBI2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Self-Service Business Intelligence är en business intelligence-trend som uppstått som ett resultat av företagens växande oro för icke-tekniska användare som kräver mer och mer information från tekniska användare för att kunna fatta rätt beslut. SSBI fokuserar på att göra beslutsfattare mer självständiga genom att låta dem delta i data och analysera data utan hjälp av en IT-avdelning för att kunna fatta bästa möjliga beslut. Organisationer lyckas inte alltid med att implementera SSBI. De möter en mängd olika användarrelaterade utmaningar vid implementering av SSBI. Om dessa svårigheter inte åtgärdas på lämpligt sätt kan dåliga beslut fattas. De användarrelaterade utmaningarna som ofta följer på antagandet av SSBI har undersökts i denna forskning, såväl som hur dessa utmaningar kan lösas. För att hantera dessa utmaningar uppstod följande frågeställning,

    “Hur kan användarrelaterade utmaningar hanteras vid implementering av SSBI?”

    För att ytterligare förstå hur utmaningarna kan hanteras effektivt hölls fem intervjuer på olika företag med respondenter som har en bra förståelse för ämnet och relation till införandet av SSBI. Rapportens slutsats är att många av dessa utmaningar hänger ihop, men att var och en måste hanteras korrekt för att en organisation ska blomstra i SSBI implementation. Studiens resultat inkluderar en modell av användarrelaterade utmaningar vid implementering av SSBI, samt rekommendationer för hur de kan åtgärdas. Företager kan skapa perfekta situationer för konsumenter genom att dra fördel av dessa problem när de etablerar SSBI, vilket ökar chanserna att implementera en effektiv och hållbar SSBI.

  • 27.
    Andersson, David
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    En studie om kritiska faktorer vid implementering av E-förvaltning inom skolan.: En internanvändares perspektiv.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, many of the services run by governments around the world have begun to become more and more digitilized. This means that many processes that required manual / physical handling have become possible to do in the comfort of your home without having to face the company/organization directly. Many of these services include healthcare, the tax office and the school. These systems aim to serve the residents, but also to streamline the work for the internal users within the municipality or government.

    During these developments and implementation processes, there are usually factors that developers or organizations should try to achieve if the system or service being developed is to succeed. There are many of these factors that have been documented in previous studies. Napitupulu (2014) is one of these researchers who collected and documented these factors. Examples of these factors are Training, top managers support, User participation and strong leadership.

    These factors, however, have never been centered on the internal end-users of these systems and it has often not been emphasized in previous research on factors for e-government about which of these factors have the most significant impact if these were to be achieved.

    This study therefore focused on finding the most important factors when implementing internal end users. The work has focused on interviewing internal users of E-administration whom have been implemented in schools around the local municipality of Skövde and other neighboring municipalities. Where they recently had a new E-administration system implemented. The responses will then be compared to previous focuses that have been found to see which of these factors are most important when a system is to be implemented. The results that come from this study hope that municipalities and companies can learn which areas should be focused on when implementing new systems in the school. The study also hopes to provide a good basis for future research to continue on the future. This study was conducted at a municipal level, but more data and factors can be assured if this study is done at national level.

    Keywords: eGovernment, Factors, Implementation

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  • 28.
    Andersson, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Sociotekniska utmaningar och möjligheter med att implementera elektroniska patientjournaler i Bosnien & Hercegovina2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of E-health innovations varies between countries. An E-health innovation that has had a big impact on healthcare is the electronic patient medical record. Electronic patient medical records contribute to better communication between caregivers and to a better operation by providing caregivers the right information at the right time. The European Commission writes that digital solutions in healthcare can improve the overall health for European citizens. E-health innovations and the access to Electronic Patient Medical Records differs in Europe. While some countries have fully developed Electronic Patient Medical Records, some have not even started. Bosnia & Herzegovina is striving for EU-membership and is yet under implementation of Electronic patient medical records. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of what socio-technical challenges and opportunities Bosnia and Herzegovina is facing when implementing electronic patient medical records.

    The method used to answer the research question is a qualitative method using a purposeful sampling by interviewing healthcare professionals in Bosnia & Herzegovina. Six semi-structured interviews were carried out with the help of a translator. The data was analyzed using an inductive content analysis enabling to distinguish challenges and possibilities with the implementation of electronic patient medical records at the hospital in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    The result of the study indicates that Bosnia & Herzegovina are facing challenges such as lack of IT-skills, troubles with accessing the electronic patient medical records during power outs or system crashes and the system not fully supporting the way the doctors want to document. The opportunities listed are a better ability to provide patients with quality care, a greater access to information and the possibility to further implement E-health innovations.

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  • 29.
    Andersson, Filip
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Cloud-native storage solutions for Kubernetes: A performance comparison2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Kubernetes is a container orchestration system that has been rising in popularity in recent years. The modular nature of Kubernetes allows the usage of different storage solutions, and for cloud environments, cloud-native distributed storage solutions maybe attractive due to their redundant nature. There are many tools for cloud-native distributed storage available on the market today with differing features and performance. Choosing the correct one for an organisation can be difficult.

    Organisations utilising Kubernetes in cloud environments would like to be as performance efficient as possible to save on costs and resources. This study aims to offer a benchmark and analysis for some of the most popular tools, to help organisations choose the ‘best’ solution for their operational needs, from a performance perspective.

    The benchmarks compare three cloud-native distributed storage solutions, OpenEBS, Portworx, and Rook-Ceph on both Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) and Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS). For a baseline comparison, the study will also benchmark the cloud providers own solutions; Azure Disk Storage, and Amazon Elastic Block Storage. The study compares these solutions from three key metrics; bandwidth, latency, and IOPS, in both read and write performance.

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  • 30.
    Andersson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A bilevel approach to parameter tuning of optimization algorithms using evolutionary computing: Understanding optimization algorithms through optimization2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most optimization problems found in the real world cannot be solved using analytical methods. For these types of difficult optimization problems, an alternative approach is needed. Metaheuristics are a category of optimization algorithms that do not guarantee that an optimal solution will be found, but instead search for the best solutions using some general heuristics. Metaheuristics have been shown to be effective at finding “good-enough” solutions to a wide variety of difficult problems. Most metaheuristics involve control parameters that can be used to modify how the heuristics perform its search. This is necessary because different problems may require different search strategies to be solved effectively. The control parameters allow for the optimization algorithm to be adapted to the problem at hand. It is, however, difficult to predict what the optimal control parameters are for any given problem. The problem of finding these optimal control parameter values is known as parameter tuning and is the main topic of this thesis. This thesis uses a bilevel optimization approach to solve parameter tuning problems. In this approach, the parameter tuning problem itself is formulated as an optimization problem and solved with an optimization algorithm. The parameter tuning problem formulated as a bilevel optimization problem is challenging because of nonlinear objective functions, interacting variables, multiple local optima, and noise. However, it is in precisely this kind of difficult optimization problem that evolutionary algorithms, which are a subclass of metaheuristics, have been shown to be effective. That is the motivation for using evolutionary algorithms for the upper-level optimization (i.e. tuning algorithm) of the bilevel optimization approach. Solving the parameter tuning problem using a bilevel optimization approach is also computationally expensive, since a complete optimization run has to be completed for every evaluation of a set of control parameter values. It is therefore important that the tuning algorithm be as efficient as possible, so that the parameter tuning problem can be solved to a satisfactory level with relatively few evaluations. Even so, bilevel optimization experiments can take a long time to run on a single computer. There is, however, considerable parallelization potential in the bilevel optimization approach, since many of the optimizations are independent of one another. This thesis has three primary aims: first, to present a bilevel optimization framework and software architecture for parallel parameter tuning; second, to use this framework and software architecture to evaluate and configure evolutionary algorithms as tuners and compare them with other parameter tuning methods; and, finally, to use parameter tuning experiments to gain new insights into and understanding of how optimization algorithms work and how they can used be to their maximum potential. The proposed framework and software architecture have been implemented and deployed in more than one hundred computers running many thousands of parameter tuning experiments for many millions of optimizations. This illustrates that this design and implementation approach can handle large parameter tuning experiments. Two types of evolutionary algorithms, i.e. differential evolution (DE) and a genetic algorithm (GA), have been evaluated as tuners against the parameter tuning algorithm irace. The as pects of algorithm configuration and noise handling for DE and the GA as related to the parameter tuning problem were also investigated. The results indicate that dynamic resampling strategies outperform static resampling strategies. It was also shown that the GA needs an explicit exploration and exploitation strategy in order not become stuck in local optima. The comparison with irace shows that both DE and the GA can significantly outperform it in a variety of different tuning problems.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Towe
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Menydesign för mobila handelswebbplatser: En jämförande studie av två hierarkiska menystrukturer2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie jämför två olika menytyper samt deras position på mobila pekskärmar. I en problemformulering lyfts problem med bristande navigering samt element som är utanför tummens räckvidd på skärmen upp. Ett experiment genomfördes där 41 anonyma personer deltog. I experimentet ingick fyra stycken test för två versioner av de båda menyerna. Deltagarnas uppgift var att navigera till fyra förbestämda produkter (en produkt per meny/test). Tiden för deltagarna att nå rättprodukt i menyn mättes. De två menyerna hade samma innehåll men skiljde sig frånvarandra i och med att den ena visade den hierarkiska strukturen och den andra visade inte den hierarkiska strukturen. Resultatet visade att menytypen där den hierarkiska strukturen inte var synlig hade bäst svarstid. Slutsatsen som drogs var att hypotesen inte kunde bevisas. I det sista kapitlet diskuteras potentiella framtida arbeten där det bland annat talas om att skapa fler webbstandarder för menyer.

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  • 32.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    School of Business, Economics and IT, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    School of Business, Economics and IT, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    School of Business, Economics and IT, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Can Measurements of Online Behavior Predict Course Performance?2016In: Proceedings of the 7th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2016 and the 7th International Multi-Conference onSociety and Information Technologies: ICSIT 2016: Volume II (Post-Conference Edition) / [ed] M Savoie; N C Callaos; B Sanchez; A Tremante; J Horne, International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, 2016, p. 4-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a pilot study on the relationship between performance in online classes and behavior in online discussion forums. Measuring student activity on the discussion forum, the collected data is then analyzed and mapped to the performance of the students on the course. The student activity was dividedinto a number of parameters, and during the study these parameters were compared to the performance of the students.The significance of each parameter was also analyzed through a Kruskall-Wallis-test Overall there was a strong tendency thatstudents with more activity and engagement received higher grades. This is in the future useful for developing some kind of monitoring to identify and support students on the verge of failing the course.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, Sweden.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, Sweden.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Sweden.
    How well can completion of online courses be predicted using binary logistic regression?2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Lena Pareto; Lars Svensson; Johan Lundin; Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses binary logistic regression to create models for predicting course performance. The data used is the data-trail left by students activities on a discussion forum while attending an online course. The purpose of the study is to evalute how well models based on binary logistic regression can be used to predict course completion.Three sets of data was used for this. One set collected at the end of the course, one collected after 75% of the course and one set collected after half the course. The result of the study says that it's possible to design models with an accuracy of between 70% and 80% using these methods, regardless of what time is used.

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  • 34.
    Andréasson, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Towards a Digital Analytics Maturity Model: A Design Science Research Approach2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Digital analytics kallas den samling teknologier som med olika teknikeranalyserar digitala kanaler (webbsidor, email och även offline data) för attsöka förståelse för kunders beteenden och intentioner. Digital Analytics harblivit en mycket viktig komponent till en stor del webbaserade systemmiljöer,där den stödjer och underlättar affärer och beslutsfattande för organisationer.Men hur väl tillämpas dessa teknologier och hur ser den digitalatransformationen ut som utspelar sig inom organisationer, och hur kan manmäta denna digitala mognadsprocess?Denna studie tillämpar en Design Science Research-approach för att uppfyllamålet om att utveckla en Digital Analytics Maturity Model (DAMM) lämpligför små till medelstora företag, varav en expertpanel bestående av 6 st ledandeforskare inom mognadsforskning och Digital Analytic är tillsatt i formen av enDelphi-undersökning. Resultaten från studien visar bl.a att organisatoriskaaspekter spelar en viktig roll för Digital Analytics samt att utvecklingen av enfunktionsduglig DAMM som är redo att tas i burk är möjligt.

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  • 35.
    Anglesjö, Alice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Interaktiv visualisering av stora dataset med webbtekniker: En jämförelse mellan JavaScript-biblioteken Leaflet och OpenLayers2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Visualisering är ett kraftfullt sätt att ge människor en förståelse för data med hjälp av mönster. Fördelarna med att kunna visualisera data på rätt kan resultera i förbättrat beslutsfattande, bättre inriktad dataanalys och bättre samarbete och informationsdelning. Visualisering av stora datamängder medför en rad olika utmaningar tack vare dess storlek och struktur. I och med att dagens webbteknologier utvecklats så pass mycket att de kan mäta sig med desktop-applikationer är webbtekniker ett utmärkt hjälpmedel vid visualisering av data för att också göra det mer tillgängligt.

    I arbetet skapas två applikationer med hjälp av webbteknikerna i MEAN-stacken där datapunkter kommer att skrivas ut på två olika kartor skapade med Leaflet och OpenLayers. Därefter genomförs sedan ett experiment som mäter laddningstider vid utritning av datapunkterna samt vid interaktion med kartapplikationen. Arbetet ska i sin helhet analysera laddningstider hos en interaktiv karta som visualiserar Big Data med hjälp av webbtekniker.

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  • 36.
    Antoine, James Chilila
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Training LSTM RNN models for network flow data classification for attack intention recognition systems2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The classification of network attack data, and prediction of the next likely set of network traffic flows is of particular interest to the cyber security domain, as it forms the basis for the timely response to cyber attacks as they progress. This work presents an overview of the main Attack Intention Recognition (AIR) approaches and techniques proposed over the last few years and proceeds to propose a system for classifying and distinguishing different types of network attacks using LSTM-RNN models. A set of LSTM-RNN models for detecting and distinguishing brute force, denial of service, ping scan, port scan, normal and suspicious network flow data, were trained for application to a real-time AIR algorithm using the CIDDS-001 dataset. The selected models are good enough to be applied to the overall AIR algorithm. The Brute Force model gave 86% accuracy, DOS 71% accuracy, Ping Scan 93% accuracy, Port Scan 71% accuracy. The performance of the selected models are comparable to those models oultined in the literature review and in a few cases seem to perform better. This work highlights that single layer LSTM-RNNs with no more than 150 hidden units are able to accurately classify flows given only the first 5% ofan attack. As the accuracy in this regard is greater than 70%, the selected models are good enough to be applied to the overall AIR algorithm. The report finally discusses suggestions for future work on developing the algorithm.

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  • 37.
    Apelqvist, Joakim
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Sorteringsalgoritmer för strömmad data: Algoritmer för sortering av spatio-temporal data i JSON-objekt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Data från positioneringssystem som GPS är alltmer vanlig, men är svårhanterlig i traditionella datalagringssystem. Sådan data består av spatiala och temporala attribut och representeras i vissa fall i JSON-format. Sortering av JSON objekt sker via inbyggda sorteringsfunktioner, vilka kräver att hela JSON objektet finns avserialiserat i minnet. Om datan strömmas måste hela datamängden tas emot innan sortering kan ske. För att förebygga detta krävs att en utvecklare utvecklar metoder för sortering av strömmad data medans strömmen pågår. Den här studien identifierar tre lämpliga sorteringsalgoritmer, och jämför dessa på hur snabbt de sorterar den strömmade datan samt deras minnesanvändning. En klientapplikation och en serverapplikation jämfördes även för att se om sortering på servern genererade bättre resultat. De slutsatser som drogs av experimentets resultat var att merge sort var snabbast men använde mest minne, medans heap sort var långsammast men hade lägst minesanvändning. Klientapplikationens sorteringstider var något snabbare än serverapplikationens.

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  • 38.
    Arsala, Mina
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Processdokument om testdatahantering som ökar efterlevnaden av GDPR: En kvalitativ studie från testarnas perspektiv2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    När nya funktioner utvecklas måste funktionerna testas utifrån den givna kravspecifikationen för att garantera en korrekt implementering. Testning är en del av utvecklingsprocessen och en viktig komponent som behövs för att förbättra tillförlitligheten av system. Testdata är den data som används för att utföra specifika testfall. Företagets testdata är riktiga produktionsdata, nämligen personuppgifter, som avidentifieras med pseudonymisering för att minska länkbarheten till den fysiska individen. Pseudonymisering tillämpas dock inte på personnummer, då företaget behöver riktiga personnummer för att utföra sina tester. Det skapas en osäkerhet när riktiga personuppgifter används vid testsammanhang, eftersom GDPR skyddar enskilda individers grundläggande rättigheter och beskriver individers rätt till skydd av personuppgifter (Integritetsskyddsmyndigheten 2021b). Företaget har idag riktlinjer och organisatoriska skyddsåtgärder som följs av anställda för att i den utsträckning det går arbeta i enlighet med GDPR. Testdata som inkluderar personnummer är problematiskt att arbeta med och som nyanställd kan det bli utmanande att lära sig hur en korrekt hantering genomförs om det inte finns ett processdokument som beskriver hur testdata hanteras hos företaget. 

    En fallstudie har genomförts för att konstruera ett processdokument med hjälp av kunniga anställda på företaget. Syftet med fallstudien var att grundligt dokumenteratestdatahanteringen, i syfte att hitta förbättringsförslag för att i framtiden öka efterlevnaden av GDPR. För att ta reda på hur processdokument ökar efterlevnaden av GDPR har en kvalitativ ansats tillämpats för att utvärdera innehållet i det konstruerade processdokumentet. Åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med testare för att fånga deras tankar och åsikter kring processdokumentet. Resultatet indikerar att det konstruerade processdokumentet beskriver en hantering som företaget strävar efter att uppnå i framtiden. Det framgår även att de som har mest nytta av processdokumentet är nyanställda.

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  • 39.
    Arvidsson, Kimmie
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Skillnader i svarstid: GraphQL vs. REST på Raspberry Pi2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens samhälle är beroende av internet och webbapplikationer för olika uppgifter. Svarstiden för API:er spelar en avgörande roll i responsiviteten för webbapplikationer. Två huvudsakliga API-tillvägagångssätt, GraphQL och REST, har sina egna styrkor och svagheter. Studien syftar till att jämföra svarstider för GraphQL och REST API:er och undersöka minneskapaciteten hos Raspberry Pi och Ubuntu som serverarkitekturer. En artefakt byggs för att agera som API och mätverktyg. Resultaten kommer att ha betydelse för datavetenskapen och ha praktiska implikationer för webbutvecklare och användare. Mätningar visar att REST har snabbare svarstider vid enskilda anrop medan GraphQL är snabbare vid underfetching, och minnesprestandan mellan Raspberry Pi och Ubuntu visar ingen signifikant skillnad. 

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  • 40.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Education of the Future: Learnings and Experiences from Offering Education to Industry Professionals2022In: SPS2022: Proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Amos H. C. Ng; Anna Syberfeldt; Dan Högberg; Magnus Holm, Amsterdam; Berlin; Washington, DC: IOS Press, 2022, p. 665-676Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is forcing the industry to rethink current practices in all business domains, pushing for a digital transformation of business and operations at a high rate and, thus, paving the way for new business models and making others redundant. For small and medium-sized companies (SME), in particular, it is an enormous challenge to keep up with the pace of technological development. Several initiatives have argued the industry’s need for continuous digitalization, innovation, transformation ability, and future skills and competencies development. However, the advancement of the Swedish industry in this area has been uneven, where larger organizations have begun their digital transformation journey to some extent, but SMEs risk falling behind. In addition to the technological transformation, the challenges regarding the industries’ skills supply need to be solved, where a workforce with the right competencies, knowledge, and skill sets are equally, if not more, important for remaining competitive. One of the key elements to face these challenges in the companies will be to recruit knowledgeable employees or re-skill the existing ones. Efficient access to relevant knowledge and skills is still a major concern for companies that will surely affect their competitiveness for a long time to come. This paper elaborates on the opportunities and challenges that Swedish universities face in the context of lifelong learning and education for industry professionals. The paper presents results and experiences gained from a lifelong learning project for industry professionals at the University of Skövde in collaboration with ten industry partners. The results from the project show that in addition to pedagogical methods, current structures and policies within academia need to be further developed to effectively serve industry professionals. The paper also presents a concept of education for industry professionals in the lifelong learning context based on the results and experience gained from the project.

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  • 41.
    Ayad, Fady
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    How is AI research applied in the field of network fault management2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The internet growth rapidly increased by the years, and the traffic is increasing daily. The management of the network is becoming more and more complexed for humans to handle on their own, with that being said a new direction of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies is being implemented in the direction of network fault management. In order to keep up with the development network, new solutions need to be implemented. Traditional network fault management are dependent of system administrators and there is too much human error that can happen during operations. That’s why AI is a great tool to be used in future network fault management. There are currently many challenges within network fault management, and this makes an opportunity for AI to be implemented. The studies shows that AI subpart “supervised learning” is the most popular used in network fault management. AI have shown that there is potential to tackle problems such as detection, prediction and also improve the system as whole.

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  • 42.
    Ayele, Workneh Y.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Non-repudiation mechanisms for IoT applications: A systematic literature review2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 43.
    Bank, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Digital förberedelse inför ett bilköp: En studie kring användarförväntningar online2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a digitalization proceeding which affects us in different ways, in order to make purchase decisions we are now able to gather information from many sources. As a result of this terms like electronic word of mouth marketing (eWom) started to appear in science, which means that people have started to review products online or discuss products in online forums or other kinds of social media. This has made buying easier in a lot of ways because one can assure oneself before the purchase through the experiences and opinions of other users. Regarding cars though, digitalizationis not as far ahead as other goods when it comes to actually purchase cars online, but the research process before the purchase is in many ways already a digital process. This thesis investigates the research process regarding car purchases, with a focus on the social aspects coming from other users through online-reviews and online forums to see how they affect the User Expectations. User Expectations is a part of the User Experience can be explained as how we as users build expectations about a product or a service through anticipating the use of it. Within User Experience context isrelevant, in this case the context is how users conduct the research process before buying a car, inorder to reach a deeper understanding of the users pragmatic and hedonic needs. User Expectations are affected by both past experiences and other users and User Expectations is also formed during the User Experience. The aim of this study is to explore how a digital and social context affects the User Expectations and in order to explore this a research question has been formulated which is: When conducting product research before buying a car, how do online-reviews and online forums affect the User Expectations?

    The research question is answered with a qualitative study through a survey and in depth interviews with six of the survey respondents. The sampled data show that one uses online forum in order toget “ordinary people’s” experiences of cars and that the main impact on anticipating the use of one’s future cars is through usage examples or how another user solved a problem, for example regarding electric cars how another user described how they went on a car trip through Europe only on electricity. The respondents tends to be more susceptible to information from specific users, these users are either regarded very competent or they tend to have a lot of similarities in life with the respondents. By finding other users in similar situations the respondents get more assured and are able to anticipate their use of the specific car in mind.

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  • 44.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Spelarupplevelse i MOBA-spel: Betydelsen avtävling, lagarbete och mästerskap2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores player experiences within Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games, focusing on the themes of competition, teamwork, and mastery. Through in-depth interviews, a qualitative analysis was made to shed light on the connection between game balance, communication tools, and player support systems. Mastery is highlighted as a central aspect, significantly enhancing player engagement, with an accentuated effect in team contexts. Emotional dynamics were found to be pivotal in player experiences, indicating the importance ofeffective communication and balanced game mechanics.

    Recommendations include a broader approach in future research, combining qualitative and quantitative methods for a comprehensive understanding of player experiences. A diversified player demographic and consideration of evolving gaming trends are paramount. The findings underscore the necessity for game developers to integrate both technical and social dimensions in game design, facilitating the aspects of competition, teamwork, and mastery, which provide an enriched player experience. In essence, the research sheds light on the intricate interplay of skill development, emotional engagement, and team dynamics within the MOBA gaming sphere, providing direction for future game development and research.

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  • 45.
    Bengtsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Reinforcement learning behavior during an epidemic2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master’s degree project, an experiment is made to compare how agents trained with reinforcement learning behave during an epidemic. The goal of the project was to answer the question: How the spread rate of a pandemic virus affects the behavior of agents in reinforcement learning. To answer the question, an artefact was created. The artefact consists of an experiment environment that uses agents trained with reinforcement learning. The experiment environment is a big square where there are 20 agents and 20 goals. Five of each are placed on each edge of the square. The environment runs in multiple episodes where each episode consists of 3000 actions the agents can take. At the beginning of each episode, 4 agents become sick. The agent’s goal is to reach a goal on the opposite edge without getting sick. The agents were trained using reinforcement learning to achieve this behavior. The 6 different agent models are trained in the experiment scenario. Each model have been trained with a unique combination on how fast the virus spread and how much they should prioritize not getting sick. In the experiment, each combination ran 300 episodes each in an experiment environment. During the experiment information of each episode was logged, such as distance, collision and agents reaching the goal. The result of the experiments indicates that the spread rate of the virus made agents prioritize not getting sick rather than reaching the goal. They did this by having a longer distance between each other on average.

  • 46.
    Benitez, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Holm, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Språklära och spel2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Spel som undervisningsmetod har under de närmsta åren varit ett väldiskuterat ämne. Den här studien ämnade att forska vidare i ämnet genom att göra en kvalitativ undersökning. Undersökningen ämnade lära ut ord och fraser på ett främmande språk via både en spelartefakt och en gloslista, samt att ställa dessa metoder mot varandra för att se vilken metod som var mer effektiv för inlärning. Artefakten bestod av en kort Visual Novel som lärde ut åtta thailändska ord, och gloslistans examinerande del bestod av att dra streck mellan åtta (olika från artefakten) thailändska ord och dess svenska översättningar. Studiens resultat stämde överens med tidigare forskning i att spel som inlärningsmetod bland annat gav bättre resultat och prestation på test, samt ökad motivation hos deltagarna. I de semistrukturerade intervjuer som hölls efteråt visades att en majoritet av deltagarna föredrog inlärning via spel, samt att artefakten var en mer positiv upplevelse än gloslistan då bilder, ljud och snabb återkoppling gjorde det enklare för deltagarna i denna undersökning att lära sig ord på ett främmande språk via en artefakt. Framtida forskning välkomnas för att bidra mer data till detta område och vidare resultat inom ämnet.

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  • 47.
    Berg, Albin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Jämförelse av CNN modeller för objektidentifiering och automatisk markering2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En svårighet med att använda Artificiell Intelligens, är resurserna som krävs för att utföra beräkningarna under en acceptabel tidsram, men också med en bra träffsäkerhet. Målet med denna uppsats är att jämföra olika modeller av convolutional neural networks, mellan träffsäkerhet och hastighet, för att hitta den modell som är mest effektiv. Dessutom evalueras den mest effektiva modellen genom en webblösning, som kan markera bilder med text.

    Resultatet visar att varje modell har olika fördelar i hastighet och träffsäkerhet, men att VGG16 har nära till bäst resultat utan de problem som andra modeller har.

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  • 48.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Games in Formal Educational Settings: Obstacles for the development and use of learning games2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From the perspective of educators, games are viewed as a medium in which the younger generation both thrive and excel. Students navigate game environments with ease and regularly solve problems, engage in advanced collaborative efforts, and communicate complex concepts and strategies to one another during their private gaming sessions at home. Games invite the player to form an understanding of intricate systems and mechanics based on participation and experimentation rather than mere observation, and on these merits games are often prophesized as a medium that will significantly change the face of education as we know it. However, while teacher interest in using games is increasing, wide-spread and successful examples of games being implemented in formal educational contexts (e.g. schools and university courses) remain rare.

    This thesis aims to examine why this is the case and identifies some of the more prevalent obstacles educators and developers both face when embarking on learning game projects as users and creators. In order to examine the situation from both of these perspectives, the research takes a mixed-method approach that entails extensive literature studies coupled with several studies with both educators and developers. Interviews were conducted in order to investigate attitudes and experiences, and more direct researcher participation and case studies were used to examine the processes of implementing and developing learning games as they were carried out. The studied cases and literature have revealed obstacles that indicate that “traditional” entertainment game development is incommensurable with learning game development, and that the use of games in formal educational settings introduces heavy demands on the recipient organization’s infrastructure, culture, and working processes.

    The conclusion of this research is that learning games embody a unique mixture of utility and game experience, and the formal context which they are to be used in significantly influence the process of developing and using them. Learning games can’t be understood if they’re solely seen as a teaching utility or solely as a game experience and to make them viable both educators and developers need to change their internal processes, their own perceptions of games and teaching, as well as the way they collaborate and communicate with each other. There are also several obstacles that are outside individual institutions and developers’ control, for example the practicalities of the economic constraints that both developers and educators work under that put the sustainability of pursuing learning games for formal education as a business into question. However, the continuous incremental improvements on the infrastructure of educational institutions (e.g. availability of technology and teachers’ familiarity with technology) can likely alleviate many of the obstacles currently inhibiting the impact learning games can potentially have in formal education.

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  • 49.
    Berger, Jesper B.
    et al.
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany.
    Rose, Jeremy
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark / Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Nine Challenges for e-Government Action Researchers2015In: International Journal of Electronic Government Research, ISSN 1548-3886, E-ISSN 1548-3894, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 57-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action research is widespread in many of the background disciplines that underpin the e-Government field andis beginning to take root as a legitimate e-Government research method. Canonical Action Research (CAR)is the most widely used form of action research; however it relies on premises that can be problematic in thee-Government context. This article details some of those underlying assumptions, and shows the difficulties that result when applied to a relatively typical e-Government case study: the implementation of an advanced email system in Danish public administration. The empirical experience calls many of the standard premises into question, and these are categorised. The authors summarize the resulting experience as nine challenges for action researchers working in the e-Government field, and investigate some possible responses.

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  • 50.
    Berggren, Ludvig
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Dramaturgi i ljudanläggning: En undersökning om övergångar mellan musik och ljudlandskap i Action/Äventyrsspel2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur övergångar mellan miljöljud och musik påverkar spelupplevelsen i dataspel. Studien avgränsar till specifikt utforskande av äventyrsspel. I denna studie används termen soundscape som en översättning av ljudlandskap. Fokus är inte på den konstnärliga grenen som till exempel Truax komponerar i även om delar av den soundscape genren diskuteras.

    I bakgrundskapitlet presenteras relevant forskning genom teoretiska utgångspunkter för definitionen av soundscape och miljöljud. Därefter görs en kartläggning av tidigare forskning som behandlar musik i dataspel, med fokus på soundscapeaspekterna.

    I kapitel 3 diskuteras frågeställningen, metoden och etiska frågor. Frågeställningen som diskuteras handlar om hur en dramaturgi kan skapas i dataspel genom musik som övergår till miljöljud med hjälp av teknikerna abrupt cut, crossfading och fragmentering.

    Metodvalet i denna undersökning är en kvantitativ undersökning, som kommer att genomföras i form av en enkät med frågor relaterade till hur övergångar från musik till miljöljud kan ha dramatisk effekt. Dessa besvaras i samband med att respondenter har fått lyssna på en komposition där 3 olika övergångar från musik till miljöljud används. 

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