Högskolan i Skövde

his.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 64
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • apa-cv
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Bellogín, Alejandro
    et al.
    Iniversidad Autńoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Said, Alan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Retrieval and Recommender Systems2019In: Data Science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 79-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives a brief introduction to what artificial intelligence is. We begin discussing some of the alternative definitions for artificial intelligence and introduce the four major areas of the field. Then, in subsequent sections we present these areas. They are problem solving and search, knowledge representation and knowledge-based systems, machine learning, and distributed artificial intelligence. The chapter follows with a discussion on some ethical dilemma we find in relation to artificial intelligence. A summary closes this chapter.

  • 2.
    Blease, Charlotte
    et al.
    General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Salmi, Liz
    General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Rexhepi, Hanife
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Hägglund, Maria
    Department of Women's and Children's Studies, Uppsala Universitet, Sweden.
    DesRoches, Catherine M.
    General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA ; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Patients, clinicians and open notes: information blocking as a case of epistemic injustice2022In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 785-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, including patients are legally entitled to request copies of their clinical notes. However, this process remains time-consuming and burdensome, and it remains unclear how much of the medical record must be made available. Online access to notes offers a way to overcome these challenges and in around 10 countries worldwide, via secure web-based portals, many patients are now able to read at least some of the narrative reports written by clinicians (’open notes’). However, even in countries that have implemented the practice many clinicians have resisted the idea remaining doubtful of the value of opening notes, and anticipating patients will be confused or anxious by what they read. Against this scepticism, a growing body of qualitative and quantitative research reveals that patients derive multiple benefits from reading their notes. We address the contrasting perceptions of this practice innovation, and claim that the divergent views of patients and clinicians can be explained as a case of epistemic injustice. Using a range of evidence, we argue that patients are vulnerable to (oftentimes, non-intentional) epistemic injustice. Nonetheless, we conclude that the marginalisation of patients’ access to their health information exemplifies a form of epistemic exclusion, one with practical and ethical consequences including for patient safety.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Bingdahl, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Dom kom för våra hjärnor: En studie om zombier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Zombiens rötter ligger i myter men den har gått igenom en rad förändringar och håller nu platsen som en av världens mest igenkännbara monster. Efter 1932 har zombier inom media används för reflektion kring mänsklighetens farhågor och teman som krig och sjukdom har präglat zombiens narrativ i årtionden. Denna rapport ger en överblick över zombiens utveckling och undersöker vad för associationer och tankar zombien väcker som figur inom olika katastrofmiljövisualiseringar hos betraktare.

    Tre artefakter som representerar zombier i olika katastrofmiljöer har producerats för studien, de har använts i intervjuer där deltagarna fått bygga egna narrativ kring dem. Zombien inom en nutida miljö var den som deltagarna ansågs vara mest naturlig för zombien att vistas i men deltagarna visade störst intresse inför zombien i den dystopiska Cyberpunk-miljön. Ytterligare studier av zombien behövs för att tydligare kartlägga folks attityder gentemot zombien och hur relevant den kan fortsätta hålla sig.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Kristoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Spelartyper och ljudperception: Kan man med hjälp av olika mixar med distinktiva särdrag i ett spels ljudbild förändra en spelartyps prestationsförmåga?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie ämnar att ta reda på om det finns något samband mellan olika spelartyper och olika ljudbilder som representeras av mixar med olika distinktiva särdrag. Undersökningen har skett genom att deltagare fått spela ett kompetativt spel mot artificiella spelare ett flertal omgångar. De senare omgångarna presenteras med en ny ljudbild som tydligt skiljer sig från omgångarna innan. Via en kvantitativ studie med kvalitativa drag så har ett resultat framtagits som redovisar svar på studiens frågeställning. Studien har fokuserat kring hur reaktionsförmågan och den allmänna prestationen hos specifika spelartyper påverkas av de olika mixningarna. Genom studiens resultat så kan man i möjliga framtida arbeten kunna frambringa ett ramverk för hur man med hjälp av realtidsmixning kan förändra en spelares prestation i ett spel.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Falk, Terése
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Gestförmedling av Animerad Karaktär: Problemlösning genom Instruktuva Gester2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker hur karaktärsanimationer kan användas som gränssnittsfunktion i både underhållande och lärande spel. Bakgrund behandlar gränssnittsdesign, karaktärsanimation i relation till instruktionsdesign samt förutsättningar för inlärning enligt kognitionsteori. Frågeställningen som undersökningen ämnar att besvarar utreder om en spelare kan lösa enklare spatiala uppgifter som förmedlas genom gestindikation från en 3D-animerad karaktär. Artefakten består av ett kort spel där karaktärsindikation hänvisar till ett objekt i scenen med nivåer från vag till tydlig indikation där respondenten ska lyckas klicka på rätt objekt. Av 28 respondenter var det 22 personer som löste uppgiften och 6 respondenter inte lyckades att lösa uppgiften. Resultaten från undersökningen visar på att det är möjligt för en spelare att lösa enklare spatiala uppgifter på en bredd mellan subtil indikation till mycket tydligt indikation från en icke spelbar karaktär. Framtida studier kan ämnas att vidare utreda hur olika nivåer av subtil till tydlig gestindikation kan vägleda en spelare.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Fasthén, Patrick
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Diachronic Identity: Temporal Plasticity of Functional Organisms2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eliminative materialism is a view that has been sparsely acknowledged and often overlooked when it comes to providing us with a criterion of what it takes for you and me to persist over time. This owes much to its counterintuitive belief in the non-existence of folk-psychological notions, such as persons. Against a backdrop of philosophical and scientific inquiry, this paper amounts to providing such a criterion in the form of f-organisms, taking a different route based on emergent descriptions, instead of conventional reductive explanations. The temporal plasticity (change over time) of such f-organisms display stable persistence conditions despite their constant state of reconstruction. What informs the question of identity in such a paradigm is dealt with accordingly, and the notion of the self is put in a context in which it can no longer be said to be the self we are familiar with – a context in which the center fails to hold. The imperative question for any of such criteria will be to accommodate the concept of identity as unconstrained and far away from uncertainty as possible. The main theme will thus be to reassess the general notion of diachronic identity to include our identity over time, and make explicit the various implications for such a view.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Bachelor Degree Project in Philosophy
  • 7.
    Flamm, Gabriel
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Karaktärsanimation till avataren i spelet Dreamlords the Reawakening: Hur funktionella och dekorativa animationer samspelar i ett MMORTS2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en reflexiv text och presenterar hur funktionella animationer, skapad med animationsprincipen Straight Ahead Action, samspelar med dekorativa animationer, skapad med en modifierad upplaga av animationsprincipen Pose to Pose, och hur de båda formerna av animation förmedlar samma karaktär hos en avatar i spelet Dreamlord the Reawakening (Lockpick Entertainment, 2008). Animationerna representerar det kvinnliga och det manliga könet i sitt utförande, förhåller sig till givna riktlinjer om animationslängd och begränsad yta de kan utspela sig på samt fungerar med en rad olika uppsättningar av vapen och rustningar.

    Hos avataren i spelet Dreamlords the Reawakening finns det animationer som syftar till att indikera för spelaren vad som händer med spelarens avatar på skärmen och är direkt kopplat till den funktion i spelet animationen representerar. Det finns dessutom animationer vars syfte är att förtydliga och underhålla samtliga spelare när två spelare spelar mot varandra.

    Denna reflexiva text behandlar den metod som använts vid skapande av animationerna, bestående av ett förarbete, ett iterativt huvudarbete och slutligen en utvärdering. Arbetet som utförts har sammanställts till ett verk och en analys av verket har genererat flertalet resultat.

    Syftet med denna text var att identifiera och analysera två typer av animation i spelet Dreamlords the Reawakening för att ge en djupare kunskap av de problem som uppstår och den problemlösning som krävs för att skapa dynamiska animationer för det två typerna av animation till ett MMORTS-spel.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Hallin, Nathalie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    FROM GUILT TO REGRET: The impact of neuroscientific evidence upon our ideas of libertarian free will and moral responsibility2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I will investigate some different opinions about how or whether we should change our views concerning moral responsibility if neuroscience shows that contra-causal free will is implausible and also argue that holding people morally responsible is not the best method of making people act morally. A common approach is to argue that we can hold people responsible in a non-absolute sense and many argue that this has practical benefits (i.e. that people would act more morally). I evaluate different alternatives and conclude that there are different beliefs and opinions that cause disagreement in this question. I argue that moral responsibility is implausible without the existence of contra-causal free will (because it is then just a question of luck what actions you will perform) and that it is more practical to shift our focus to other ways of changing people and not blaming them.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Hammarberg, Maxine
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kognitiv kontroll, självreglering och impulsivitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitiv kontroll är förmågan att flexibelt anpassa sitt beteende till en eller flera specifika inre motiverande handlingar. Kognitiv kontroll möjliggör denna fokusering för de krav som informationsprocessen kräver. Kognitiv kontroll samt självreglering handlar bland annat om en så kallad top-down informationsprocess i ett globalt neuralt nätverk som pågår i den mänskliga hjärnan. Vi människor utövar denna kognitiva kontroll varje dag i vårat vardagliga liv utan vidare reflektioner. Detta sker genom flera informationsprocesser samtidigt och det är därför svårt att finna en enhetlig integrerad förklaring till de underliggande neurala mekanismerna. Syftet med arbetet är att förklara vad kognitiv kontroll, självreglering och impulsivitet innebär. Kopplingen mellan dessa två kognitiva kapaciteter föreskrivs i denna uppsats gällande de neurala mekanismerna och även kopplingen mellan kognitiv kontroll och självreglering i form av prestationer av både kontrollerade experiment och det vardagliga livet. Medan impulsivitet kopplat till kognitiv kontroll och självreglering är konsekvensen av när de neurala och kognitiva processerna brister i någon mening. Studier relaterat till kognitiv kontroll, inhibering och impulsbeteende använder sig bland annat av functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) för att studera och undersöka detta kognitiva fenomen. Idag beskrivs impulsivitet samt bristande kontroll möjligen som ett maladaptivt beteende med hjälp av bland annat fMRI. Ytterligare fMRI studier har även visat på att kognitiv kontroll samt bristande kognitiv kontroll möjligen kan handla om en minskad eller ökad aktivering i nucleus accumbens, insulan och anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Forskare inom ämnet har försökt att grundligt undersöka detta neurala nätverk genom flera olika perspektiv och därav presenterar uppsatsen några olika exempel av dessa ingångar för att möjliggöra ett brett perspektiv av denna komplexa mentala kapacitet. Resultaten inom ämnet visar än idag på en komplex multifaciterad natur av de underliggande neurala korrelaten.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Hiley, Basil J.
    et al.
    University of London, UK.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can quantum mechanics solve the hard problem of consciousness?2022In: Consciousness and Quantum Mechanics / [ed] Shan Gao, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022, p. 415-459Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how and why physical processes give rise to consciousness (Chalmers 1995). Regardless of many attempts to solve the problem, there is still no commonly agreed solution. It is thus very likely that some radically new ideas are required if we are to make any progress. In this paper we turn to quantum theory to find out whether it has anything to offer in our attempts to understand the place of mind and conscious experience in nature. In particular we will be focusing on the ontological interpretation of quantum theory proposed by Bohm and Hiley (1987, 1993), its further development by Hiley (Hiley and Callaghan 2012; Hiley, Dennis and de Gosson 2021), and its philosophical interpretation by Pylkkänen (2007, 2020). The ontological interpretation makes the radical proposal that quantum reality includes a new type of potential energy which contains active information. This proposal, if correct, constitutes a major change in our notion of matter. We are used to having in physics only mechanical concepts, such as position, momentum and force. Our intuition that it is not possible to understand how and why physical processes can give rise to consciousness is partly the result of our assuming that physical processes (including neurophysiological processes) are always mechanical. If, however, we are willing to change our view of physical reality by allowing non-mechanical, organic and holistic concepts such as active information to play a fundamental role, this, we argue, makes it possible to understand the relationship between physical and mental processes in a new way. It might even be a step toward solving the hard problem.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University .
    Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 15th SweCog Conference2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an article published in Nature: Human Behavior, Nunez et al. (2019) asks What happened to cognitive science? The authors review bibliometric and socio-institutional aspects of the field and argues that the transition from a multi-disciplinary program to a mature inter-disciplinary coherent field has failed. Looking at the Swedish environment, we can nothing but agree. Many of us identifying ourselves as researchers in cognitive science are working at departments primarily focused at other disciplines, teaching within other objects and publishing in journals and conferences adjacent to the field. The diversity of cognitive science is also present in the number of directions that has has evolved over the years. The embodied approaches that many of us align with are not evolving towards a coherent view, but is today found under numerous labels such as situated cognition, distributed cognition, extended cognition, and enactive cognition. The so called 4E perspectives on the field have now ventured beyond the four, and is today more often referred to as the multi-E framework.

    While we agree with Nunez et al. that we remain a multi-disciplinary, multi-perspective, and multi-method group of researchers who may share an interest for the science of the mind, rather than a coherent approach or perspective, we disagree that this entails a failure for the enterprise of cognitive science. We dare to say that the Sweish Cognitive Science Society has embraced the multi-perspectives idea by adopting an inclusive approach in the selection of research and methods presented at our conferences. We hope that SweCog will remain a forum for inclusive discussions, working against discipline conformism and isolation, in a time where both public and scientific debate is increasingly shattered.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12. Hooshyar Yousefi, Bahram
    Special Discussion with Abdolhamid NoghrehKar: «The Challenge of Identity»2015In: Designer Magazine, ISSN 2008-9538, no 11, p. 40-43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Jafarneiad, Laleh
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Genus, en social konstruktion?: En socialpsykologisk studie som behandlar om och hur interaktioner påverkas av genusordningen iden icke-verbala kommunikationen underanställningsintervjuer.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa studie har som syfte att skapa en förståelse för om och i så fall hurden icke-verbala kommunikationen (Dimbleby & Burton) och den insocialiseradegenusordningen (Connell, 2003) påverkar interaktioner vid anställningsintervjuer tillchefsposition. Studien utgår ifrån ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv (Gergen,2007) som anser att individer skapas och insocialiseras i mötet med andra. Studien harobservationer som metod för att försöka få förståelse för genusordningen och denicke-verbala kommunikationen i interaktionerna under anställningsintervjuer. Vidareupprättades en observationsmatris utifrån icke-verbalt beteende, samt manligt ochkvinnligt hexis. Resultatet från observationerna inbegriper både de enskildaindividernas icke-verbala kommunikation och den gemensamma interaktionen somuppstår under anställningsintervjun. Fokus i analysen ligger i interaktionerna mellanindividerna, eftersom det är mellan individerna som den icke-verbalakommunikationen kan fångas och utifrån detta tolkar, förstår och förklarar jag om ochhur den insocialiserade genusordningen påverkar den icke-verbala kommunikationen iinteraktionerna. Genom analysen har jag kommit fram till att både den icke-verbalakommunikationen och genus har en viss påverkan för hur interaktionerna skapas underanställningsintervjuer.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Johansson, Henning
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Framväxten av korrespondensläran: Swedenborgs esoteriska doktrins filosofihistoriska grund2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    The purpose of this paper is to exam the philosophical development of Emanuel Swedenborg's doctrine of correspondence and to note some of the more important parallels between Swedenborg's doctrine and the three contemporary most debated theories concerning the mind-body problem. These three theories was pre-established harmony, its opponent physical influx and finally occasionalism. Especially occasionalism has close connections to Descartes' dualism, but neither pre-established harmony or physical influxus, which in some ways can be dated before Descartes, would have looked the same, if it were not for the Cartesian way of thinking. Also Swedenborg initially inherited major influences from Descartes and that is the first approach in this paper. From there on the paper follows the development of the doctrine of correspondence and the parallels according Swedenborg's more contemporary philosophical writers, until Swedenborg gets to a point where he underwent a profound spiritual crisis and turned his focus on an all together theological approach.

     

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 15.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    et al.
    Department of Cognitive Science, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hautamäki, Antti
    Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Conceptualization for intended action: A dynamic model2023In: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, p. 1-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concepts are the building blocks of higher-order cognition and consciousness. Building on Conceptual Spaces Theory (CST) and proceeding from the assumption that concepts are inherently dynamic, this paper provides historical context to and significantly elaborates the previously offered Iterative Subdivision Model (ISDM) with the goal of pushing it toward empirical testability. The paper describes how agents in continuous interaction with their environment adopt an intentional orientation, estimate the utility of the concept(s) applicable to action in the current context, engage in practical action, and adopt any new concepts that emerge: a largely pre-intellectual cycle that repeats essentially without interruption over the conceptual agent’s lifetime. This paper elaborates utility optimization by establishing three constraints on concept formation/evaluation – non-redundancy, distinctiveness, and proportionality – embedding them in a quasi-mathematical model intended for development into a formal logic. The notion of a distinctor – a quality dimension of the conceptual space in focus at any given time, used for making what we call a difference distinction – is key. The primary contribution of the revised ISDM is the way it relates concepts to action via utility optimization/actualization and the way it describes the emergence of quality dimensions through trial-by-action (trial and error), something previous presentations of CST have failed to address.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Kronander, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Språkförmågan med andra ögon2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom kognitionsvetenskapen växer det på flera håll fram konkurrenter till det synsätt på språklig kognition som förespråkats främst av lingvisten Noam Chomsky. Han har argumenterat för att barns förmåga till att snabbt förvärva språks grammatiska komplexitet, beror på att all världens språk delar en underliggande universell grammatik som finns inkodad i människohjärnan från födseln. Enligt denna syn betraktas grammatik som ett abstrakt regelstyrt system, slutet och utan direkt påverkan från omgivningen. Efterföljande forskning har kommit att visa på många svårigheter för denna hypotes, varvid alternativa ansatser har trätt fram. Som ett resultat försöker många forskare numera istället förklara färdigheter i grammatik som en förlängning av kognitiva och kommunikativa förmågor. Uppsatsen ger en kort bakgrund om Chomskys idéer och hur han resonerade sig fram till sin hypotes. Via en rad olika överväganden utifrån empiriska observationer och experiment, och på området nyutvecklad teori, söks därmed andra förklaringsvägar. Uppsatsen undersöker ett antal implikationer och hur de påverkar forskningen kring språkförmågan.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Kärrström, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of mindfulness related to stress: How mindfulness promotes wellbeing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness practice is used to treat mental and physical symptoms. The problem is that research on the long-term effects and the neural changes involved, correlated with well-being, are inconsistent. The purpose of this review is to create a deeper understanding of mindfulness and its neural correlates related to stress. In mindfulness, one can use focused attention meditation (FA), involving anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal areas, thalamus, visual cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and amygdala. In open monitoring meditation (OM), ACC, PFC, insula, somatosensory cortex, limbic areas and amygdala are involved. In exposure to a high amount of stress, the grey matter volume decreases in the hippocampus, PFC, and amygdala. Research has also shown that 19 000 hours of mindfulness practice increases activation in areas involved in FA and OM. This increased activation might also enhance the subject’s ability to control emotions. After 44 000 hours of meditation, areas involved in FA showed less activation which might imply that more hours of mindfulness practice involve less cognitive activity and a calmer state of mind. Regardless of hours spent on meditating, a decreased activation in the amygdala and ACC occurs, which correlates with less response towards negative stimuli. The neural changes involved in mindfulness practice was related to less experienced stress and enhanced psychological well-being. For future research, an investigation of the interaction between attentional networks and stress would be of relevance.

  • 18.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Perceiving agents: Pluralism, interaction, and existence2024Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Perception is a vast subject to study. One way to approach and study it might therefore be to break down the concept into smaller pieces. Specific modes of sensation, mechanisms, phenomena, or contexts might be selected as the proxy or starting point for addressing perception as a whole. Another approach would be to widen the concept, and attempt to study perception through the larger context of which it is a part. I have, in this thesis, attempted the latter strategy, by emphasising an existential perspective, and examine the role and nature of perception through that lens.

    The larger perspective of broadening the scope does not specifically allow for better answers, but rather different kinds of answers, providing complementary ways of exploring what it means to be an artificial or natural agent, and what consequences that can have for the access to, as well as representation, processing, and communication of information. A broader stance can also facilitate exploration of questions regarding larger perspectives, such as the relation between individual agents, as well as their place in larger structures such as societies and cyber-physical systems.

    In this thesis I use existential phenomenology to frame the concept of perception, while drawing from theories in biology and psychology. My work has a particular focus on human-robot interaction, a field of study at a fascinating intersection of humans designing, using, and communicating with something human-made, partially human-like, yet distinctly non-human. The work is also applied to some aspects of the traffic domain which, given the increasing interest in self-driving vehicles, is partially another instance of complex and naturalistic human-robot interaction.

    Ultimately, I argue for a pluralistic and pragmatic approach to the understanding of perception, and its related concepts. To understand a system of agents as they interact, it is not only necessary to acknowledge their respective circumstances, but take serious the idea that none of the agents’ constructed worlds are more or less real, they might only be more or less relevant in relation to specific contexts, perspectives, or needs. Such an approach is particularly relevant when addressing the complexities of the increasingly urgent sustainability challenges.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Thill, Serge
    Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Multiple Roles of Multimodality Among Interacting Agents2023In: ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, E-ISSN 2573-9522, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term ‘multimodality’ has come to take on several somewhat different meanings depending on the underlying theoretical paradigms and traditions, and the purpose and context of use. The term is closely related to embodiment, which in turn is also used in several different ways. In this paper, we elaborate on this connection and propose that a pragmatic and pluralistic stance is appropriate for multimodality. We further propose a distinction between first and second order effects of multimodality; what is achieved by multiple modalities in isolation and the opportunities that emerge when several modalities are entangled. This highlights questions regarding ways to cluster or interchange different modalities, for example through redundancy or degeneracy. Apart from discussing multimodality with respect to an individual agent, we further look to more distributed agents and situations where social aspects become relevant.

    In robotics, understanding the various uses and interpretations of these terms can prevent miscommunication when designing robots, as well as increase awareness of the underlying theoretical concepts. Given the complexity of the different ways in which multimodality is relevant in social robotics, this can provide the basis for negotiating appropriate meanings of the term at a case by case basis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Lamb, Maurice J.
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Chemero, Anthony P.
    Department of Philosophy and Psychology, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Interaction-dominant dynamics and extended embodiment2013In: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 88-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Liljebjer, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Mental Visualisering i Ledarskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine the link between mental visualization and leadership. As times change so will also the role for a good leader change. I will first examine what distinguishes such a leadership and which qualities characterize a good leader. Futhermore, I will examine the possible problems  that might occur with using modern neuroscience techniques to identify the characteristics that are considered relevant for a good leadership. One such feature that I will examine closer is mental visualization. Where and how is this property active in the brain? Finally, I will try to answer how or if,  visualization is a critical characteristic of good leadership.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Löf, Kasper
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Investigating the Neural Correlates of Perceived Social Isolation: Is Perceived Social Isolation Confined to the Social Brain?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Loneliness, or the perceived discrepancy of ones relationships in terms of quality, is known as Perceived Social Isolation (PSI). Studies have shown that PSI is both increasing and is correlated with health risks. Specifically, PSI is not only related with risks of mortality but is also linked with variations in the brain. Having few social contacts, or being Objectively Socially Isolated (OSI) does not qualify as PSI. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of PSI, as distinguished from OSI. The true role of PSI is still unknown, however, arguments can be made that PSI serves an important role in survival. The social brain, which allows for social cognition is used as a basis for understanding PSI in this thesis. In this thesis, I found that individuals suffering from PSI have increased attention towards social threat, and a preference to engage in positive social stimuli. Further, PSI affects both social cognition and the social brain. However, regional brain activity was not confined to the social brain. The results showed that PSI may be related to both affective and attentional networks of the brain. PSI also affects activity in the ventral striatum. Further, PSI is related to varied regional brain size. I argue that PSI can be reduced by mainly fixing maladaptive cognitive patterns.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Nilsson, Kenny
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wittgenstein´s “Private Language Argument” According to Kripke2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wittgenstein was a very important philosopher of the early twentieth century. One of his most important points was that which has been known as the Private Language Argument. This argument was given a new interpretation by Saul Kripke in 1982, which stirred up much debate. This essay investigates Kripke´s so called “skeptical challenge” and his “skeptical solution” to that challenge. To further enlighten the subject this essay also discusses a critique to Kripke´s interpretation, provided by the main critics, Baker and Hacker (1984). The conclusion of the essay is that Kripke´s theory takes up some interesting and important issues, although there are some serious flaws in Kripke´s solution that needs to be addressed if the solution is to be taken seriously.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    A cognitive semiotic perspective on the nature and limitations of concepts and conceptual frameworks2016In: Meaning, Mind and Communication: Explorations in Cognitive Semiotics / [ed] Jordan Zlatev, Göran Sonesson, Piotr Konderak, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016, p. 47-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Known under the potentially misleading rubric of “knowledge representation” in cognitive science, theories of concepts represent both a subfield within philosophy of mind and an application area for cognitive semiotics. They describe the properties of conceptual thought, typically through a listing of those properties: minimally taken to include systematicity, productivity, compositionality, intentionality, and endogenous control. Beyond that point, most things are up for grabs. Debate rages over such questions as whether concepts are representations or abilities; likewise unclear is whether they are essentially public or largely private, discrete or continuous, stable or dynamic, transparent or translucent or opaque. Cognitive semiotics helps clarify discussion over an inevitably abstract area in a number of key ways: through its grounding in semiotics, showing how concepts both are entwined with language (intrinsically public) and pull apart from it; through its roots in phenomenology, showing how concepts both are and are not representations; through its focus on meaning as a dynamic process, showing how concepts’ relative stability belies an underlying dynamics; through its deep resonance with enactive philosophy, showing how concepts impose seemingly sharp boundaries onto underlying continuities; through its bold refusal to shy away from apparent contradictions and paradox, revealing how concepts both reveal the world and simultaneously hide it from us. As a concrete example, I discuss the conceptual nature of metaphor from a cognitive semiotic perspective. I show how – given the problematic nature of so-called literal meaning – the crucial distinction is not between literal and metaphorical meanings, but between tertiary/novel meanings and primary/secondary ones: between meanings that call attention to themselves and those that do not, where only the former are appropriately termed “metaphors”. The lesson is not that all meaning is metaphorical but rather that the line between metaphor and non-metaphor is pragmatic rather than absolute, conceptual rather than ontological.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Consciousness, semiosis, and the unbinding problem2017In: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395, Vol. 54, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any wider discussion of semiosis must address not only how semiosis came about, in terms of evolutionary pressures and requisite cognitive infrastructure, but also – as importantly, and too easily forgotten – how human beings experience and have experienced it, and how that experience reflects (at the same time shaping) its development. Much discussion has focused on resolving how inputs from external sensory modalities combine with internal brain processes to produce unified consciousness: the so-called binding problem. One might wish to distinguish between the coming together of conscious experience in terms of underlying mechanics and the seemingly unavoidable reality that human beings experience a consciousness that is, from the onset, phenomenally unified. The unbinding problem is shown to be potentially just as important to telling the story.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Intelligence, super-intelligence, superintelligence++, and ChatGPT: Searching for Substance amidst the Hype2023In: Proceedings of the AISB Convention 2023: Swansea University 13/14 April 2023 / [ed] Berndt Müller, The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour , 2023, p. 15-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ChatGPT has been ubiquitous in the news lately: university lecturers bemoaning their inability ever to mark essays again, journalists gushing about how ChatGPT has "soared past" the Turing test in its pursuit of greater challenges. At a time when world-renowned philosophers are sounding alarms about super-intelligent AI, it's a good time to look at the reality in contrast to the hype. Tho position taken by this paper is that, for all the wonders of what ChatGPT can do, it is more like Joseph Weizenbaum's simple-minded Eliza than it is different. A careful discussion of what ChatGPT can and cannot do leads into a fruitful discussion of the nature of intelligence itself and what, if anything, is meant by talk of super-intelligence and super-intelligence++. 

  • 27.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    On the essentially dynamic nature of concepts: Constant if incremental motion in conceptual spaces2019In: Conceptual Spaces: Elaborations and Expectations / [ed] Mauri Kaipainen, Frank Zenker, Antti Hautamäki, Peter Gärdenfors, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 83-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concepts are the means by which we structure our understanding of the world and consequently the primary means by which we encounter it. It is commonly assumed that one of the essential characteristics of concepts – regardless of referent – is their stability, tending toward stasis;and, indeed, it can be hard to see how concepts can otherwise be systematic and productive, inthe way they are conventionally taken to be. Even the question has been raised whether conceptscan change; on some prominent accounts, they cannot. The Unified Conceptual Space Theory(UCST) – an extension of Conceptual Spaces Theory – makes the controversial claim that conceptsnot only are subject to change over an iterative lifecycle but that, at an underlying level, they are in a state of continuous motion; indeed, they must be to function as they do. Mere openness to change is not enough. Even the most seemingly fixed of concepts – mathematical concepts are the paradigm example – can be seen to evolve and continually be evolving as our understanding of mathematics evolves. UCST suggests that concepts possess an intrinsic tension that appears topresent a contradiction: to be able to apply in more or less the same way across unboundedly many contexts (systematicity) and to be able to combine coherently with other concepts (productivity),they must be relatively stable; and yet, since each new application context is, in some nontrivial way, different from every previous context in ways that do not fit within neat conceptual boundaries,they must adapt each time to fit. In a physical world we have reason to view as ultimately one of fluidity, of processes and motion rather than stable entities, concepts should probably have a similar nature.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    The Overselling of Super-intelligence: Or, Why Skynet (Probably!) Isn’t Taking Over Any Time Soon2021In: Proceedings of the 16th SweCog Conference / [ed] Erik Billing; Andreas Kalckert, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2021, p. 35-37Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Understanding empathy: Metaphysical starting assumptions in the modeling of empathy and emotions2017In: Proceedings of AISB Annual Convention 2017: Society with AI / [ed] Joanna Bryson, Marina De Vos, Julian Padget, Bath, UK: The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour (AISB) , 2017, p. 263-267Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has three main purposes: to set out the relationship between empathy and related phenomena, including emotional contagion; to explain how metaphysical starting assumptions regarding the nature of empathy predispose one toward one or another account of these phenomena and toward different interpretations of the same empirical data -- often radically different; and to use recent discussions of empathy in the phenomenological and enactive communities (in particular their rejection of theory of mind accounts) to put forward a radical proposal. In the paradigmatic cases, one feels that one is feeling (at least some substantive portion of) what another person is feeling: “I feel your pain”. But there are certain intense experiences along with certain related but less intense ones where there is, I claim, a single joint experience among two or more individuals. One could call these experiences “extreme” empathy. This is how phenomenologists should, I think, cash out the frequent claim that in many circumstances, one agent “directly” experiences the emotional state of another without requiring the mediation of anything like theory of mind.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Will the real artist stand up?: Computational creativity as mirror to the human soul2021In: AISB Convention 2021: Communication and Conversations, The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour , 2021, p. 72-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that a too-expansive view on creativity is unhelpful at best and deeply misleading at worst. As with “representation”, the word “creativity” comes value-laden in ways that researchers cannot lightly get away from, if they can escape at all; simply claiming that one is using the word in a technical sense is not a solution. Neither should one take an overly narrow view that takes advantage of a priori arguments to deny creativity to classes of agents or putative agents solely by their membership in those classes. The paper proceeds by offering a definition of creativity meant to prejudice neither human being nor artefact; then setting out the conditions for a putative creative agent to be a creative agent, concluding that no existing artefactual agents appear to fall into this category; finally, addressing the question of why computers, computer programs, robots, and related artefacts have nevertheless had a profound – indeed, transformational – effect on human creativity, taking creativity to places that neither human beings nor artefacts could have gone on their own. It ends with a discussion of the person I see as one of the key early voices on computational creativity. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Parthemore, Joel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Whitby, Blay
    University of Sussex, UK.
    Artefactual ethics as opportunity for rethinking “natural” ethics2022In: Proceedings of the 17th SweCog Conference: Örebro 2022, 16-17 June / [ed] Hadi Banaee; Erik Billing, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2022, , p. 32p. 28-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper serves as introduction to a significantly longer paper in progress. It argues that, within the ethics community, the wider philosophical establishment and society in general, people have been far too lax about what to accept as morally “right” behaviour – far too quick to let themselves and, all too often, each other off the hook. By drawing comparisons to artefactual behaviour and the objections people raise to calling that behaviour the morally acceptable behaviour of authentic moral agents, this paper lays out a framework by which human ethics and meta-ethics can more fruitfully be approached. An earlier paper of ours (Parthemore and Whitby, 2014) argued that, for an action to be morally right, one must have a convergence of the right motivations, the right means, and the right consequences. The underlying insight is that deontological, virtue-ethics-based, and consequentialist accounts all have their necessary role to play, but each tends to get too focused on itself and its merits to the loss of the bigger picture; while utilitarian accounts, as perhaps the most prominent division within consequentialism, face the further problem of failing to allow for those occasions where the needs of the few, or the one, outweigh the needs of the many, as Ursula K. LeGuin (1973) so devastatingly addressed. Although the requirement to align motivations, means, and consequences may seem impossibly onerous, it need not be, provided one is prepared to allow that moral behaviour is far more difficult to achieve, either for artefacts or human beings, than it might seem at first glance. Mistakes will be made. Perhaps it matters more to take responsibility for those mistakes than to assure oneself, despite reasonable argument to the contrary, that one has avoided them. It is time to hold artefactual and natural agent alike to a higher standard

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Parthemore, Joel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Whitby, Blay
    University of Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Artefactual ethics as opportunity to rethink “natural” ethics2023In: Proceedings of the AISB Convention 2023: Swansea University 13/14 April 2023 / [ed] Berndt Müller, The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour , 2023, p. 107-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that, within the ethics community, the wider philosophical establishment and society in general, people have been far too quick to let themselves and, all too often, each other off the hook, at the same time as setting impossibly high standards for artefactual moral agents to meet, such that the artefactual agents should be guaranteed to make no mistakes. If artefacts are ever to be considered candidates for moral agency, then they should be held to no higher (and, at the same time, not significantly lower) a standard than what human beings can achieve. Meanwhile, the prospects of artefactual moral agency invite the opportunity for human moral agents to reconsider the standards they set for themselves and hold themselves to a higher standard. 

  • 33.
    Parvin, Nassim
    et al.
    School of Literature, Media, and Communication, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, US.
    Rouse, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Feminist Philosophical Toys: Playful Companions and Live Theorization2024In: Hypatia, ISSN 0887-5367, E-ISSN 1527-2001, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the matters of philosophy? How do they shape how philosophy is practiced, what kinds of knowledge it produces, and who counts as a philosopher? The dominant matters of Western philosophy, or its epistemic companions, are books and journal articles even when dialogic and oral traditions are acknowledged or referenced. In this paper, we argue that alternatives would be necessary if philosophy were to be a more capacious and welcoming discipline. We introduce Feminist Philosophical Toys as one such alternative that challenges what counts as serious philosophy by being seriously playful. The toys foreground the oral and the dialogic while reflecting on and committing to engaging materiality, record-keeping, and record-making. In doing so, the toys challenge the dominant form of philosophy and its mechanics of knowledge-making as they offer an alternative way of doing philosophy that can be transformative for the next generation of feminist scholarship. The dialogic, embodied, and communal interaction with paper, with theory, and with others is meant as a practice of live theorization, opening philosophy to a new groundedness and accessibility, centered in the ethos of feminist epistemology, while at the same time pushing against fetishization of matter.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Persson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Putnam's Moral Realism2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Moral realism is the view that there are such things as moral facts. Moral realists have attempted to combat the skeptical problem of relativism, which is that the truth of an ethical value judgment is often, or always, subjective, that is, relative to the parties it involves. This essay presents, discusses, and criticizes Hilary Putnam’s attempt at maintaining moral realism while at the same time maintaining a degree of epistemological relativism. Putnam’s positive account originates in moral epistemology, at the heart of which lies truth, as idealized rational acceptability or truth under ideal conditions. The bridge between moral epistemology and normative ethics stems from Putnam’s disintegration of facts and values. His theory is finalized in the construction of a normative moral theory, in which the central notion is incessant self-criticism in order to maintain rationality. After presenting Putnam’s core thesis, the criticism raised by Richard Rorty, is deliberated upon. Rorty is critical of Putnam’s attempt at holding on to objectivity, because he does not understand how objective knowledge can be both relative to a conceptual scheme, and at the same time objective. The conclusion is that Putnam is unable to maintain his notion of truth as idealized rational acceptability and is forced into epistemological relativism. Putnam’s normative ethics has characteristics in common with virtue ethics, and is of much interest regardless of whether it can be grounded epistemologically or not.

    Download full text (pdf)
    philessay_complete_bp
  • 35.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    Garcia, Denilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

  • 36.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A quantum cure for panphobia2020In: The Routledge Handbook of Panpsychism / [ed] William Seager, New York: Routledge, 2020, 1, p. 285-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Panpsychism is often thought to be an obviously mistaken doctrine, because it is considered to be completely inconceivable how the elementary particles of physics could possibly have proto-mental properties. This paper points out that quantum theory implies that elementary particles are far more subtle and strange than most contemporary physicalist philosophers assume. The paper discusses Louis de Broglie’s and David Bohm’s famous “pilot wave” theory which under Bohm’s later interpretation suggests that, say, an electron is a particle guided by a field carrying active information, the latter of which can be seen as a primitive mind-like quality.

  • 37.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. The Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can Bohmian Quantum Information Help us to Understand Consciousness?2016In: Quantum Interaction: 9th International Conference, QI 2015, Filzbach, Switzerland, July 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, Emmanuel Pothos, Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 76-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores whether David Bohm’ s proposal about quantum theoretical active information, and the mind-matter scheme he developed on the basis of it, can help us to explain consciousness (Bohm and Hiley 1987, 1993; Bohm 1989, 1990 ; Pylkkänen 2007 ). Here it is important to acknowledge that other researchers in philosophy of mind and consciousness studies have also made use of the concept of information in their theories of mind and consciousness. For example, Dretske (1981 ) and Barwise and Seligman (1997 ) have explored the possibility that information in the sense of factual semantic contents (i.e. information as meaningful data that represents facts correctly or incorrectly) can be grounded in environmental information (i.e.information as mere correlation, e.g. the way tree rings carry information about age). For Dretske this was an important part of his attempts to give a naturalistic account of sensory experiences, qualia and consciousness. During recent years the notion of information has been used to explain consciousness most notably by David Chalmers (1996 ), as well as by Giulio Tononi and his co-workers (Tononi and Koch 2014 ; Oizumi, Albantakis and Tononi 2014 ). The strategy of this paper will be to first describe Bohm’ s mind-matter scheme, and then to briefl y consider Chalmers’  and Tononi et al.’ s ideas in the light of this scheme.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can quantum analogies help us to understand the process of thought?2014In: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 61-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Cognition, the implicate order and rainforest realism2012In: Futura, ISSN 0785-5494, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 74-83Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, Finland & Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Consciousness in the light of quantum theory2016In: Consciousness: Integrating Eastern and Western Perspectives / [ed] Prem Saran Satsangi, Stuart Hameroff, Vishal Sani, Pami Dua, New Delhi: New Age Books , 2016, p. 23-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the theme “quantum approaches to consciousness” by considering the work of one of the pioneers in the field. The physicist David Bohm (1917-1992) not only made important contributions to quantum physics, but also had a long-term interest in interpreting the results of quantum physics and relativity in order to develop a general world view.  His idea was further that living and mental processes could be understood in a new, scientifically and philosophically more coherent way in the context of such a new world view. This paper gives a brief overview of different – and sometimes contradictory - aspects of Bohm’s research programme, and evaluates how they can be used to give an account of topics of interest in contemporary consciousness studies, such as analogies between thought and quantum processes, the problem of mental causation, the mind-body problem and the problem of time consciousness. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki.
    Fundamental Physics and the Mind – Is There a Connection?2015In: Quantum Interaction 2014: 8th International Conference, QI 2014, Filzbach, Switzerland, June 30 - July 3, 2014. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher; Claudia Bergomi; Thomas Filk; Kirsty Kitto, Springer International Publishing Switzerland , 2015, 1, p. 3-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the field of quantum cognition (Pothos and Busemeyer 2013; Wang et al. 2013) suggest a puzzling connection between fundamental physics and the mind. Many researchers see quantum ideas and formalisms merely as useful pragmatic tools, and do not look for deeper underlying explanations for why they work. However, others are tempted to seek for an intelligible explanation for why quantum ideas work to model cognition. This paper first draws attention to how the physicist David Bohm already in 1951 suggested that thought and quantum processes are analogous, adding that this could be explained if some neural processes underlying thought involved non-negligible quantum effects. The paper next points out that the idea that there is a connection between fundamental physics and the mind is not unique to quantum theory, but was there already when Newtonian physics was assumed to be fundamental physics, advocated most notably by Kant. Kant emphasized the unique intelligibility of a Newtonian notion of experience, and this historical background prompts us to ask in the final part of the paper whether we can really make sense of any quantum-like experience (whether experience of the empirical phenomena in the external worldor the inner worldof psychological phenomena). It is proposed that intelligibility is a relative notion and that, regardless of initial difficulties, quantum approaches to cognition and consciousness are likely to provide valuable new ways of understanding the mind.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Henry Stapp Vs. David Bohm on Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics2019In: Activitas Nervosa Superior: Journal for Neuroscience and Cognitive Research, ISSN 1802-9698, Vol. 61, no 1-2, p. 48-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper briefly discusses some of David Bohm’s views on mind and matter and suggests that they allow for a stronger possibility for conscious free will to influence quantum dynamics than Henry Stapp’s approach.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Department of Philosophy, History and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Is the Brain Analogous to a Quantum Measuring Apparatus?2022In: Metaphors and Analogies in Sciences and Humanities: Words and Worlds / [ed] Shyam Wuppuluri; A. C. Grayling, Cham: Springer, 2022, 1, p. 215-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have suggested since the early days of quantum theory that there are strong analogies between quantum phenomena and mental phenomena and these have developed into a vibrant new field of quantum cognition during recent decades. After revisiting some early analogies by Niels Bohr and David Bohm, this paper focuses upon Bohm and Hiley’s ontological interpretation of quantum theory which suggests further analogies between quantum phenomena and biological and psychological phenomena, including the proposal that the human brain operates in some ways like a quantum measuring apparatus. After discussing these analogies I will also consider, from a quantum perspective, Hintikka’s suggestion that Kant’s notion of things in themselves can be better understood by making an analogy between our knowledge-seeking activities and an elaborate measuring apparatus.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Is there room in quantum ontology for a genuine causal role of consciousness?2017In: The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science: Applications and Grand Challenges / [ed] Emmanuel Haven and Andrei Khrennikov, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 293-317Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western philosophy and science have a strongly dualistic tradition regarding the mental and physical aspects of reality, which makes it difficult to understand their possible causal relations. In recent debates in cognitive neuroscience it has been common to claim on the basis of neural experiments that conscious experiences are causally inefficacious. At the same time there is much evidence that consciousness does play an important role in guiding behavior. The author explores whether a new way of understanding the causal role of mental states and consciousness could be provided by the ontological interpretation of the quantum theory (Bohm and Hiley, Phys. Rep. 144:323–348, 1987; Bohm and Hiley, The undivided universe: An ontological interpretation of quantum theory. Routledge: London, 1993). This interpretation radically changes our notion of matter by suggesting that a new type of active information plays a causal role at the quantum level of reality. The author thus considers to what extent the alleged causal powers of consciousness involve information, and then moves on to consider whether information in (conscious) mental states can be connected to the information at the level of quantum physics. In this way he sketches how quantum theory might help to throw light upon one of the grand challenges facing the social sciences and the humanities, namely the question of whether consciousness plays any genuine causal role in the physical world.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Helsingfors Universitet, Finland.
    Kan medvetandet påverka materia?2021In: Fri vilja och mänskligt ansvar: Illusion eller verklighet? / [ed] Alf Linderman; Hans Liljenström, Stockholm: Fri tanke , 2021, p. 195-205Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis är mitt förslag således att medvetandets natur är relaterad till fundamentala teorier inom fysiken, särskilt kvantteorin (jämför Hameroff och Penrose, 2014). Detta innebär inte att medvetandet kan reduceras till kvantteori, men att kvantteori kan spela en viktig roll när vi letar efter en plats för medvetandet i vår naturuppfattning. Annars finns risken att vi får nöja oss med en materialism där medvetandet saknar plats och roll, eller en dualism där medvetandet är ett epifenomen utan några kausala krafter (se Pylkkänen, 2007, 2017).

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theories of Consciousness2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, p. 216-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a brief historical introduction to quantum theory, and shows that the theory opens up some radically new ways of thinking about the place of mind and consciousness in nature. Quantum theory is all about learning, on the basis of scientific experiments, to question the "obvious" truths about the nature of the physical world and to come up with more coherent alternatives. The chapter considers the famous two-slit experiment. It explores what the different interpretations of quantum theory say about situations like the two-slit experiment, and also considers what kind of theories of mind and consciousness some interpretations have inspired. The attempt to explain mind and consciousness in terms of the quantum theory involves heavy speculation. The advances in quantum biology, while not giving direct support to quantum brain theory, perhaps make a biologically grounded quantum theory of consciousness seem less inconceivable.

  • 47.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum theory, active information and the mind-matter problem2015In: Contextuality from Quantum Physics to Psychology / [ed] E. Dzhafarov, S. Jordan, R. Zhang and V. Cervantes, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2015, p. 325-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bohm and Hiley suggest that a certain new type of active information plays a key objective role in quantum processes. This paper discusses the implications of this suggestion to our understanding of the relation between the mental and the physical aspects of reality.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theory and the Place of Mind in the Causal Order of Things2019In: Quanta and Mind: Essays on the Connection between Quantum Mechanics and the Consciousness / [ed] J. Acacio de Barros, Carlos Montemayor, Springer, 2019, p. 163-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The received view in physicalist philosophy of mind assumes that causation can only take place at the physical domain and that the physical domain is causally closed. It is often thought that this leaves no room for mental states qua mental to have a causal influence upon the physical domain, leading to epiphenomenalism and the problem of mental causation. However, in recent philosophy of causation there has been growing interest in a line of thought that can be called causal antifundamentalism: causal notions cannot play a role in physics, because the fundamental laws of physics are radically different from causal laws. Causal anti-fundamentalism seems to challenge the received view in physicalist philosophy of mind and thus raises the possibility of there being genuine mental causation after all. This paper argues that while causal anti-fundamentalism provides a possible route to mental causation, we have reasons to think that it is incorrect. Does this mean that we have to accept the received view and give up the hope of genuine mental causation? I will suggest that the ontological interpretation of quantum theory provides us both with a view about the nature of causality in fundamental physics, as well as a view how genuine mental causation can be compatible with our fundamental (quantum) physical ontology.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Still or sparkling?: Past, Present and Future in Bohm’s Implicate Order Approach2023In: Past. Future. Philosophy.: Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Finland Colloquium 2022 / [ed] Eero Kaila; Henri Pettersson; Jani Sinokki, Helsinki: The Philosophical Society of Finland , 2023, p. 107-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Past, Present and Future in Bohm’s Implicate Order Approach
  • 50.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The crisis of intelligibility in physics and the prospects of a new form of scientific rationality2017In: On the Human Condition: Philosophical Essays in Honour of the Centennial Anniversary of Georg Henrik von Wright / [ed] Ilkka Niiniluoto & Thomas Wallgren, Helsinki: The Philosophical Society of Finland , 2017, p. 373-399Chapter in book (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 64
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • apa-cv
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf