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  • 1.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Lazar, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Balansen mellan tillit och kontroll: En studie av sektionschefer inom Arbetsförmedlingen och hur de balanserar tillit och kontroll i sitt arbete2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish public administration has for long carried the brand of the management philosophy New Public Management, which is often associated with, among other things, result oriented planning and control. In recent years, a new administration philosophy has been introduced, trust-based governance and leadership, as a complement to address some of the weaknesses with the aforementioned New Public Management. These two administration philosophies constitute the background of this study and consequently the rationale behind why the two governing ideals, trust and control, are being examined within the Swedish Public Employment Service. 

    Purpose: The study aims to develop an understanding of the significance that the governing ideals, trust and control, have on both section managers and employees within the agency. This is done by exploring and analyzing how and why section managers within the Swedish Public Employment Service work to balance both governing ideals in relation to their employees. 

    Question: How and why do section managers within the Swedish Public Employment Service work to balance both governing ideals, trust and control in relation to their employees? 

    Method: To carry out this study, a qualitative method was used. The studies' empirical results consist of eight semi-structured interviews with section managers from the Swedish Public Employment Service. 

    Results and conclusion: The results of this study show that the studied section managers within the Swedish Public Employment Service balance trust and control by acting as a filter for their employees. This is done by masking the communication of the controls to the employees. Furthermore, the section managers realize the effects and impact that an increased focus on control has on employees, and they are therefore critical of the comprehensive control mechanisms that exist within the organization.

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Monica
    et al.
    Department of Work Science, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Department of Work Science, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Determining wages in Europe's SMEs: how relevant are the trade unions?2007In: Transfer - European Review of Labour and Research, ISSN 1024-2589, E-ISSN 1996-7284, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 55-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses wage setting in SMEs in eight European countries, how wage setting in small firms differs from that in larger firms and how trade unions address the issue. The context is the increased decentralisation of wage setting. Wage setting is analysed at four different levels: the workplace, the regional, the industry and the national level. The main finding is that trade unions’ ability to secure higher wages for workers in SMEs depends not upon workplace organisation, but upon well functioning industrial relations institutions. That is, if workers in SMEs earn less than employees inlarger companies, this is due not to the size of the company but to the absence of a comprehensive collective bargaining system that encompasses SMEs.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment. Faculty of Theology, Diaconia and Leadership Studies, VID Specialized University, Oslo, Norway.
    Eriksson, Nomie
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Clinicians' psychological empowerment to engage in management as part of their daily work2022In: Journal of Health Organization & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 272-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the article is to analyze how physicians and nurses, as the two major health care professions, experience psychological empowerment for managerial work. Design/methodology/approach: The study was designed as a qualitative interview study at four primary care centers (PCCs) in Sweden. In total, 47 interviews were conducted, mainly with physicians and nurses. The first inductive analysis led us to the concept of psychological empowerment, which was used in the next deductive step of the analysis. Findings: The study showed that both professions experienced self-determination for managerial work, but that nurses were more dependent on structural empowerment. Nurses experienced that they had competence for managerial work, whereas physicians were more ignorant of such competence. Nurses used managerial work to create impact on the conditions for their clinical work, whereas physicians experienced impact independently. Both nurses and physicians experienced managerial work as meaningful, but less meaningful than nurses and physicians' clinical work. Practical implications: For an effective health care system, structural changes in terms of positions, roles, and responsibilities can be an important route for especially nurses' psychological empowerment. Originality/value: The qualitative method provided a complementary understanding of psychological empowerment on how psychological empowerment interacted with other factors. One such aspect was nurses' higher dependence on structural empowerment, but the most important aspect was that both physicians and nurses experienced that managerial work was less meaningful than clinical work. This implies that psychological empowerment for managerial work may only make a difference if psychological empowerment does not compete with physicians' and nurses' clinical work. 

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  • 4.
    Dahl, Henning
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Persson, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Situationsanpassat ledarskap under covid-19-pandemin: En kvalitativ studie om hur förändringen vid övergång från kontorsarbete till distansarbete påverkat chefens ledarskap i team2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background In 2020, the world was affected by the COVID-19-pandemic. As a result, many companies were recommended to work remotely (FHM, 2020). This has meant that teams have transitioned to becoming virtual teams and office work has transitioned to teleworking. Managers' leadership has faced challenges in being able to handle the new situation and to exercise leadership remotely. The situation has led managers to change their leadership to resemble situational leadership.

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to create an understanding of how a manager's leadership has changed over time, but mainly changes that occurred when Covid-19 hit the world. The study examines how leaders exercise their leadership in virtual teams at a distance. It has also highlighted employees' views on the change in the manager's leadership.

    Method The study is based on a qualitative method with interviews and surveys. The interviews were conducted with nine different managers from different companies and industries. The surveys were conducted by 32 employees to complete the interviews.

    Result Based on the empirical results, the researchers were able to see to the study that the transition to teleworking has been very different for managers. The managers had had to adapt their leadership to the situation they were in. The managers had all been put to the test in their leadership to adapt to the new situation and the environment, which was mainly the difference that the managers experienced is the contact with their employees.

    Conclusions In conclusion, leadership has been more supportive than governing. Because all organizations look different, they have faced different challenges depending on their situation. The study shows that more supportive behaviour has been used in general. It has been shown on a few occasions that a governing leadership style has been useful, but it is not possible to say which leadership style is best suited for teams that transition to virtual teams during a pandemic because all organizations face different situations and challenges.

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  • 5.
    Doroshenko, Alina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Arbetsmiljö inom hälso- och sjukvården: Arbetsmiljöfaktorer som ofta orsakar utbrändhet hos de anställda2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to analyze the factors that contribute to burnout in those who works in health care. Method: The following work consists of literature study. Analysis: Several scientific cross-sectional articles from different countries were used with the aim of investigating which work environment factors often occur and cause the burnout among physicians, nurses and assisted nurses. Result: During the result, it was reported the burnout is caused by many factors such as stressful working days, young age, lack of work experience, family status, number of children, close cooperation with many patients, little contact med colleagues, high demands and ingratitude from the patients, problems with finances, lack of rest and individual´s health problems. Using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory used in articles, fatigue syndrome was clearly defined, and its factors carefully analyzed. Discussion: In the discussion two different Burnout Inventory – surveys were described with the support of articles. In addition, the characteristics of a survey were discussed, with was supported by Bryman (2008); and articles, used in the analysis, were presented to ensure their credibility.

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  • 6.
    Ekblom, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    LEDARSKAP I BYGGBRANSCHEN: - Från ett medarbetarperspektiv 2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det saknas forskning inom området ledarskap för den skandinaviska byggsektorn i allmänhet. Den här studien tar sin utgångspunkt i medarbetarens syn på ledarskapet i ett större byggprojekt hos ett av nordens ledande bygg- och anläggningsföretag. Studien är gjord som en kvalitativ undersökning och sex intervjuer genomfördes med representativa medarbetare från organisationen. Respondenterna var en blandad grupp, några tillsvidare anställda hos PEAB, andra tillfälligt inhyrda. Frågorna berörde de anställdas upplevelse av det utövade ledarskap som de själva exponerats för från sina närmaste ledare. Ledarna i fråga var de närmaste överordnade som de anställda har kontakt med på daglig bas. Men även frågor om organisationskultur, arbetsglädje och trivsel undersöks. Svaren från respondenterna transkriberades och kodades för att analys skulle kunna ske. Med symbolisk interaktionism som yttre ramverk analyseras svaren även med socialutbytesteori, rättviseteori, gruppteori och situationsanpassat ledarskap. Utifrån en rad teman presenteras resultat, analys och diskussion. Studien visar på en komplex bild av medarbetarens syn och tankar på sin arbetsplats, kommunikationen som sker där, relationen till andra anställda samt hur man ser på sina ledare. Studien Generellt framkommer att man är nöjd med sin arbetsplats och det utövade ledarskapet. Man när en konservativ syn på termen ledare/chef men talar egentligen om en ledare. Man tycker att det finns en förståelse för att alla är mänskliga och kan göra fel från ledarna och det uppskattas, men viss irritation och missnöje finns. Det råder en gruppindelning på arbetsplatsensom kan vara farlig att se bort ifrån.

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    Ledarskap i byggbranschen
  • 7.
    Fransson, Susanne
    et al.
    Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Göteborg University, Department of Work Science, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Some Notes on Workplace Equality Renewal in the Swedish Labour Market2006In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 606-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001, Swedish authorities imposed a new obligation upon all firms with ten or more employees to undertake annual wage surveys, ‘workplace equality audits’ in which it is possible to ascertain, remedy and prevent unwarranted wage differentials and other unfair employment terms between men and women. An important implication of the new system, called ‘workplace equality renewal’ (självsanering), is that, at the level of the firm all Swedish employers must explain what they mean by work of ‘equal value’ as opposed to ‘different value’. This article discusses the practical pros and cons of the new system, and considers how the surveys can be used in research into the present state of gendered work division. A main finding is that the introduction of this new legislation in the long run might change the Swedish industrial relations system as well as the preconditions for many companies’ human resource management policies. Yet, neither the governmental agencies involved nor the parties’ confederate organizations have been able to clarify what the issue is really about to the single, small business employer or to the local trade union branches. Many employers find any interference, whatever it may be, threatening and trade unions have not realized the potentialities of the system from an employee perspective, potentialities connected to the fact that companies are now more or less forced to make transparent their wage policies at large.

  • 8.
    Gawron, Malgorzata
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Larsson, Sabina
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Distansarbetets påverkan på  gemenskap och samarbete mellan medarbetare: En kvalitativ studie av medarbetare inom offentlig verksamhet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: On the 16th of January 2020, a new coronavirus was discovered in the Chinese city of Wuhan. At that time, the risk of the disease reaching Sweden was assessed as very low. Due to the pandemic, teleworking has experienced rapid growth, leading to changes in working methods where the emergence of digital technology has facilitated the development of teleworking. Digitization contributes to the fact that most employees can work anytime and anywhere they want. Teleworking is characterized by spatial and temporal flexibility. Several factors affect employees' community spirit and cooperation and in the present study the focus will be on how teleworking affects employees' community spirit and cooperation.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the employees perception of telework and specifically the impact of telework on employees' community spirit and cooperation during the Covid-19 pandemic. In the present study, the public sector is examined.

    Method: To give a descriptive picture of the chosen area the study is based on a qualitative approach. The study is based on qualitative interviews with employees belonging to municipal services.

    Conclusion: The study shows that the community spirit is still just as good for the reason that the employees had a good cohesion even before the pandemic. The employees have maintained good community spirit and they experience the feeling of belonging and well-being as they can still meet each other by using digital tools. The communication has maintained despite the fact that the employees now meet virtually. Employees experience a decrease of close contact and social interaction, which can lead to them experiencing social isolation, as the natural closeness to each other was more natural in the workplace. The cooperation has maintained through the transition to digital form, however, the study shows that the cooperation has not improved. Digital workplace meetings have been introduced and now take place at approximately the same frequency as before, which means that the workplace meetings have been preserved despite teleworking. By that means, they continue to carry out joint activities despite teleworking, which can lead to a reduction in the risk of employees experiencing social isolation.

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  • 9.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Det blandade samhället ger blandade känslor2022In: Denna sköna nya värld: Arbetsliv och arbetsmarknad i digitaliseringens tid / [ed] Åke Magnusson, Göteborg: Folkuniversitetets Akademiska Press , 2022, p. 77-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Gill-McLure, Whyeda
    et al.
    Management Research Centre, Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Reconstructing resistance and renewal in public service unionism in the twenty-first century: lessons from a century of war and peace2018In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue uses the occasion of the centenary of the Whitley Commission Reports to illuminate the contemporary crisis in public service industrial relations from a historical perspective. In all six countries studiedBritain, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the USApublic service employment is labour intensive and quantitatively significant in the overall economy. Public services have also been major targets of neoliberal reforms, starting in the UK and the USA at the turn of the 1980s and in the other countries about a decade later. In addition, the relatively high union density and the political dimension of public services and public union strategies have been major targets of new public management and more latterly austerity. However, the regressive period has had a differential impact in different countries. In the liberal market economies of the UK and the USA, the neoliberal turn has destabilised traditional patterns of public sector industrial relations to greatest effect. While in the more coordinated market economies, traditional arrangements and values have been more resistant to austerity and neoliberal reforms. We attempt to shed light on these differential impacts through a critical analysis of the historical evolution of public sector industrial relations in each country.

  • 11.
    Gummesson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Kringlund, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Kan transformativt ledarskap vara ett effektivt sätt att behålla medarbetare?: En kvantitativ studie om transformativt ledarskap och affektivt engagemang2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One challenge that today's organizations face is to retain their competent employees and make them feel committed. Managers' attitudes affect the relationship with employees, which means that choosing a leadership style can affect employees' performance. Transformative leadership can strengthen the relationships between the manager and colleagues among themselves, which can affect the emotional connection that the employee has to the organization.

    Purpose: The study aims to investigate whether there is a positive relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment. This is done to find an effective way to retain employees. The hope is that the study will contribute to a strengthened picture of previous research by investigating a new industry.

    Method: To be able to answer the purpose, a quantitative method was used. A total of 41 respondents from four different organizations participated in a survey.

    Conclusion: The results of the study were able to demonstrate that there is a positive relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment. Thus, the study may reinforce previous research's reasoning that transformative leadership can be contributing to improving affective commitment even from the context examined.

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  • 12.
    Gustavsson, Clara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Cronstam, Jennifer
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Distansledarskapets påverkan på arbetsutformningen och bankanställdas motivation2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A rapid change to working remotely has taken place as a consequence of the covid-19 pandemic. Business have faced several challenges when communication and relations have had to be managed digitally. Leadership is an important role in the development of a business and thus the following study looks at how increased distance leadership affects the design of work and thus bank employees´ motivation. The study focuses on the banking sector, where it is investigated based on Hackman and Oldham´s “Job characteristic model” which characteristics of a task affect the motivation in a distance leadership.

    Purpose: The purpose is to investigate how increased distance work has affected the work design and motivation of bank employees.

    Method: A qualitative and quantitative method has been used in the study's data collection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three bank managers who have extensive experience in the banking industry. A questionnaire has also been sent out to employees to capture their perspective. Two more interviews were conducted with employees to gain a deeper insight into their view of distance work.

    Conclusion: In the case of distance leadership, it is important that the manager has a good structure with clear guidelines for what applies. The loss of social interaction weighs heaviest and since the spontaneous dialogues disappear during a distance work are communication and feedback two important factors. There are those who have appreciated distance work more than others, but everyone agrees that an effective work takes place because it creates benefits in the private life.

  • 13.
    Hadzovic, Melissa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Isacson, Ebba
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Vägen till chefspositionen: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga chefers upplevelser av framgångsfaktorer och hinder som påverkat deras väg till chefspositionen2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a qualitative study where the writers intended to find out women's personal experiences of their career path through in-depth interviews with six female managers in senior management positions. The purpose of the studies was therefore to create a deeper understanding of women managers' experiences of success factors in their career advancement, in the private sector. That is, what has been decisive for their advancement but also their experiences of any obstacles that have appeared along the way. The aim of the study is also to investigate whether the female managers' experiences are in line with previous research and theories that claim that it is more difficult for women to advance in their careers. In-depth interviews provide a deep understanding of each woman's experience of her career and how they view their own career and what factors have been decisive for them. In this way, the writers in this study wanted to contribute with knowledge about what it is like as a woman to advance in the private sector, in a Swedish context. The results showed that the female managers' experiences are consistent with previous research and studies. However, the female managers do not consider themselves to have experienced any obstacles in their career path, although the writers interpreted that they nevertheless encountered some obstacles.

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  • 14.
    Isaksson, Jacob
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Gjikokaj, Gentonis
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Attraktivt arbete: Attraktivt arbete för sjuksköterskor inom kommunal sektor2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When the pandemic broke out about two years ago, many sectors of the labor market were hit hard. One of the sectors hardest hit was healthcare. Healthcare has faced several challenges as the number of patients and the shortage of nurses has increased. This has placed high demands on all employers in healthcare to be able to recruit new staff and most importantly to retain existing staff. In order to be able to attract new staff and retain existing staff, it is required that employers find key elements in what employees consider to be attractive work.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the perception of nurses regarding their believes on what makes their profession attractive within the municipal (government) sector. By using the “model for attractive work” (Åteg, et al., 2004), the purpose is to describe and analyze characteristics that are considered attractive work for nurses in the municipal sector. The study is conducted in the municipal sector's home health care.

    Method: The study is based on a qualitative method with a deductive research approach. Empirical data is collected that are based on an employee perspective to give the study an increased credibility. There were a total of eight semi-structured interviews with nurses within the homecare sector in a smaller municipal in the western region of Sweden.

    Conclusion: The results of the study show that there are several characteristics that the nurses in the present study considered to contribute to attractive work. Relationships with colleagues, stimulation and variety of tasks are the characteristics that are most important when it comes to attractive work. Salary is also something that is prioritized, however, the relationship with colleagues weighs higher. This does not exclude that the other dimensions that the study addresses are unimportant, but the four above are highly valued. The relationship with colleagues is important insofar as the nurses have someone to discuss with and gain new knowledge from. The stimulus within the work was important and to achieve this, internal training could contribute to an increased stimulus. Variety of tasks was also one of the most important dimensions and contributes strongly to the attractive work, this was also something that the administrative tasks could contribute by reducing the administrative work.

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  • 15.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Anställdas upplevelser av användning av en mobil hälsoapplikation: En kvalitativ studie baserad på en digital intervention2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Digitization has increased rapidly in recent years, which places demands on flexibility and adaptability. Mental illness such as anxiety, depression and fatigue have in recent years become the most common cause of sick leave in Sweden and this often leads to long sick leave. Employees’ health can be promoted by companies by offering various health-specific programs, activities and measures and by forming a well-functioning work organization that is beneficial to productivity, well-being and health.

    Purpose: To investigate employees' experiences of using a mobile health application, GOOZO, as inspired by gamification, to promote work-related health.

    Method: An exploratory case study with an inductive approach. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with HR staff and employees at an organization that has implemented a digital health and personnel strategic tool. Analysis of the data has been done with a qualitative content analysis.

    Result: Four categories with associated subcategories have emerged. These are individual motives for use, social co-operation, the employee's commitment and the application’s functionality.

    Conclusion: Using a digital application to promote work-related health can be a good way to draw attention to the importance of health. Gamification is also an incentive to increase the social coherence at the workplace, as activities with a competition focus can engage employees. The results of the study contribute to meeting the global Goals 3, 8 and 10 of the UN Agenda 2030.

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  • 16.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Sehlin, Felicia
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Det nya digitala teamledarskapet: Performance management i en lärande organisation2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One of the biggest changes of our time is digitalization. Digital innovation has been crucial and opened opportunities for communication and collaboration with companies around the world. Virtual teams have become a big part of today's work situation. Digitalization has created greater challenges for leaders to engage and motivate employees. To promote each individual's talent, creative ideas, driving force and performance, there is a framework, called performance management, that promotes this type of labor. An important aspect of performance management is also considered to be “learning”. As far as is practically possible, learning and work should be integrated.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of digitalization on digital team leadership, performance management and organizational learning.

    Method: The study uses both qualitative and quantitative data but mainly has a qualitative focus where a multiple case study at four companies made it possible to achieve the purpose. In the thesis, they are referred to as Company A, B, C and D. There, a triangulation was carried out which consisted of interviews with people in leading positions, an employee survey at all companies was implemented and collection of documentation from the companies and their websites.

    Conclusion: In the survey, Company A, B, C and D have become examples of how the impact of digitalization looked for different companies and industries in terms of digital team leadership, work with performance management and organizational learning. The study showed that digitalization has greatly affected digital team leadership. On the other hand, the impact of digitalization in terms of work with performance management was not very significant as all companies have been working with digital tools and systems before. In terms of organizational learning, the study finally shows that digitalization has had an impact on the process of becoming a learning organization.

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  • 17.
    Karlsson, Daniella
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Augustin, Ellinore
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hur kan en mer motiverande arbetsplats uppnås för butikspersonal?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study highlights the problem and the special work environment faced by retail as a workplace. Uncomfortable working hours, the presence of customers and stressful environments are some of the peculiar features familiar to those who work in retail, features that might be what attracts people to the industry in the first place.

    The purpose of the study is to gain in-depth knowledge of what factors in the workplace that drives motivation and specific motivation in the retail sector. In addition to which factors contribute to motivation, it also identifies what essential factors there are to form a functioning workplace. Based on Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory, these different factors are identified to create a greater understanding of the interaction in the workplace.

    Two main issues have been the driving force in the design of the current study. These were how applicable Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is in retail and its current context in Sweden and how a more motivating workplace can be achieved for store staff.

    In order to be able to answer the questions, previous studies in the subject have been studied and interviews conducted. The interviews were conducted with both owners / store managers and employees at each workplace. Theory and empirics have then been analysed.

    The results of the study show that some factors from Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory are still current, some have changed and that some additional ones have been added. This has resulted in a modified model of Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory.

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  • 18.
    Karlsson, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Sato, Yukiko
    Cygames Research Cygames, Inc. Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kurabayashi, Shuichi
    Cygames Research Cygames, Inc. Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.
    Investigating the Elusive Role of Level Design2020In: 2020 IEEE Conference on Games, IEEE, 2020, p. 584-587Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While level design is a concept commonly used in western game companies, it is veiled in a lack of clear conceptualization. Many research papers on the subject describe the role of level designer as elusive, and there is a great variation in the descriptions used in job listings for the role. This paper aims to identify a set of characteristics for the field of level design, by reviewing literature and analyzing responsibilities and requirements in job listings. To obtain more inclusive and cross-cultural results, interviews were also conducted with Japanese game developers to explain the concept of level design in their industry. By combining the qualitative data from interviews and literature analysis, with the quantitative data from job listings (n=33), the research highlights common denominators for the role of level design, but also demonstrate cultural differences and discrepancies between academia and industry. Thus suggesting gaps in current research as well as culturally. The findings aim to elucidate directions for future research, and promote focus towards the needs of the industry.

  • 19.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Avslutande reflektioner kring socialpsykologiska aspekter på välbefinnande2009In: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 195-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Välbefinnande2009In: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 23-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Rättvist ledarskap2009In: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 37-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Müller, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Tübingen, Germany.
    Ramos-Vielba, Irene
    University of Tübingen, Germany.
    Schmidt, Werner
    University of Tübingen, Germany.
    Thörnquist, Annette
    University of Tübingen, Germany.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Public sector labour relations in four European countries compared: Long-term convergence and short-term divergences?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the impact of the 2007/2008 financial and economic crisis on the public sector and its labour relations in Spain, the UK, Sweden and Germany. The analysis of the contextual background - general and societal economic developments as well as industrial relations - in which such transformations happened embeds the comparison of the four country case studies. Our findings show that the crisis and austerity policies furthered some short-term divergent developments of the public sectors in the countries considered but long-term convergence can be also expected. Some theoretical conclusions from these mixed developments in the aftermath of the crisis are drawn.

  • 24.
    Nyberg, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Gadzo, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    HRs roll i organisationsförändringar: En kvalitativ studie om HRs roll vid organisationsförändringar till aktivitetsbaserade kontor2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    A transition to an activity-based office from cell-offices has become a popular office design in Swedish municipalities. The activity-based office can be considered a functional solution for knowledge-intensive organizations and the remodelling can be explained as an organizational change. Some of the most common reasons for organizational change failing are due to the inadequate use of human resources. HR's expert knowledge of human resources can therefore play an important role in organizational changes to activity-based offices.

    PURPOSE

    The study's purpose is to describe the roles HR takes in organizational change to activity[1]based offices.

    METHOD

    The study was conducted using a qualitative method through semi-structured interviews with eight respondents in five Swedish municipalities.

    CONCLUSION

    Organizational changes to activity-based offices can be seen as a cyclical process of change where the transformative change, which consists of the redevelopment, also consists of evolutionary change processes that in turn affect the human resources. This interpretation means that HR's roles in an organizational change to activity-based offices have been identified in the phases of change unfreeze, change and refreeze. The work with human resources is characterized by continuous improvement work and can thus be understood as an evolutionary process of change without a specific end. Based on HR's expert knowledge of human resources, the study's results thus show that HR employees in the studied municipalities act as change leaders in the evolutionary change processes that an activity-based office entails rather than linked to the transformative.

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  • 25.
    Nyman, Ronja
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Representation, Inclusivity, and Equality in Information Technology: A study on the future of IT2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IT has been a male-dominated area for a long time with a clear underrepresentation of women. Stories from when the field was created paint a picture of a very one-sided mentality type of field where women’s own perspective and ideas are often ignored and that their perspectives carry no importance for IT and society.

    The purpose of the thesis is therefore to study how the field of networking- and system administration can become more inclusive for women. This was done with five semi-structured interviews with women who (in one way or another) work as network- and system administrators. The study itself is qualitative and has been coded inductively to let the women’s experiences and thoughts steer the presentation of data.

    The results of the study show that, despite its placement on the gender equality scale, Sweden still has a lot to accomplish within the IT-field in order for it to become inclusive for women. This report also shows that there are consequences of this underrepresentation on design of IT-related things, systems, and equipment. These results also show that the IT-field needs to become more inclusive because the field misses out on a lot of important competence, but also that women’s inclusion in IT can have a positive influence on the economy as well. Further results show that companies, according to the participants of the study, must become better at recruiting, representation, and listening to women’s opinions.

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  • 26.
    Ramadani, Shkodran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Persson, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Digitala Kunskaper: Efterfrågan av digitala kunskaper för första linjens chefer och dess påverkan på ledarskapsarbete inom bank- och finanssektorn2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The banking and finance sector is an industry that has faced enormous pressure from digitalisation. Banks have no longer been able to rely on traditional working methods and have therefore switched to digital tools to streamline their way of working. With the transition, the question has also been raised regarding the requirements for digital knowledge that exist among first-line managers and the impact that digitalisation has had on their leadership.

    Question: What digital knowledge does the digital development of today's first-line managers in banking and finance require and how digital aids have affected the leadership of first-line managers in relation to task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership?

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate first-line managers' demand for digital knowledge and its impact on leadership work in the banking and finance sector.

    Method: This study is of a qualitative nature based on an interpretive perspective. The empirical data is collected through seven semi-structured interviews with informants from seven different companies in the banking and finance sector.

    Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that digitalisation has changed the leadership of organizations in the banking and finance sector. Digitization has created flexibility and efficiency for first-line managers. The result of this indicates that digital knowledge is important for leadership. According to the study, having the ability to handle digital tools as a leader is considered to lead to a more task-oriented leadership, this is because the empirical result indicates that digital tools are the new "colleague". Despite this, it is incredibly important that there is a focus on relationship-oriented leadership to promote physical relationships that create motivation in the workplace according to the study.

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  • 27.
    Rodin, Lika
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    ‘Developmental talk’ as confession: The role of trade unions in workplace governance2016In: Ephemera: Theory & Politics in Organization, ISSN 1473-2866, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 53-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing market deregulation, workplace relationships, identities, and functions are gradually transforming. This study problematizes the role of trade union organizations, looking at the phenomenon of performance appraisal interviews or so-called ‘developmental talks’ in the Swedish context. The critical tradition in organizational research and Michel Foucault’s notion of ‘technologies of governance’ (examination and confession) are utilized to scrutinize discourses produced by a trade union’s training video on developmental talk. As I will demonstrate, the trade union appears in the educational materials as an expert-therapist, assisting the worker in the development of a specific identity type — a ‘disciplined entrepreneurial self’ — that fits neoliberal demands addressed to labour. The paper emphasizes the legitimation of normalizing power by means of the video narration and it’s special concern for a particular category of employees, namely workers with non-Swedish background. The study ends with a discussion on a possibility of resistance to the regularity and normalizing effects of the video discourse.

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  • 28.
    Rodin, Lika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Rodin, Andre
    Department of Social Work, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brunke, Susanne
    Komvux Adult Education, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Language training and well-being for qualified migrants in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, ISSN 1747-9894, E-ISSN 2042-8650, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 220-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of “Korta Vägen” (The short cut), a targeted language program for qualified migrants in Sweden, in self-maintaining, well-being and perspectives for socio-economic integration for foreigners with academic diploma.

    Design/methodology/approach

    In-class observations, individual semi-structured interviews, focus-group interviews and written essays were used for data collection. A thematic analysis was applied as a method of data analysis. Amartya Sen’s capability approach constituted a theoretical framework of the research discussion.

    Findings

    Korta Vägen provides various resources for the participants, some of which (language training and internship) can become real advantages for employment. Others (IT, interview training and CV writing) are less translatable into concrete outcomes. The study suggests that satisfaction with the program is modulated by commitment to one’s professional identity, initial language proficiency, scope of cultural knowledge, the participants’ goals and the flexibility of the training offered. The acculturation frame of the program does not necessarily correspond with the objective need of many participants for quick entry into the labor market.

    Originality/value

    Insights into the social-psychological aspects of targeted language training as a measure for socio-economic integration can serve to enhance educational and institutional policies and professional practice.

  • 29.
    Schmidt, Werner
    et al.
    Forschungsinstitut für Arbeit, Technik und Kultur (FATK), Germany.
    Müller, Andrea
    Forschungsinstitut für Arbeit, Technik und Kultur (FATK), Germany.
    Ramos-Vielba, Irene
    Forschungsinstitut für Arbeit, Technik und Kultur (FATK), Germany ; INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Thörnquist, Annette
    Forschungsinstitut für Arbeit, Technik und Kultur (FATK), Germany.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future. Forschungsinstitut für Arbeit, Technik und Kultur (FATK), Germany.
    Austerity and public sector trade union power: Before and after the crisis2019In: European journal of industrial relations, ISSN 0959-6801, E-ISSN 1461-7129, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 129-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a power resources approach to examine the effects of the 2008-2009 financial and economic crisis on public sector trade union power in Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK, comparing structural, organizational, institutional, societal and political power resources before and after the crisis. Unions' power resources have (at least temporarily) weakened in Spain, with a similar but less pronounced trend in the UK; whereas in Sweden and Germany, one can detect ambiguous but slightly positive signals, which reflect neither the crisis nor opposition to austerity. As well as structural, organizational and institutional power resources, societal and political resources are decisive for public sector trade unions.

  • 30.
    Schmidt, Werner
    et al.
    FATK, Tübinger Forschungsinstitut für Arbeit, Technik und Kultur, Germany.
    Müller, Andrea
    FATK, Tübinger Forschungsinstitut für Arbeit, Technik und Kultur, Germany.
    Ramos-Vielba, Irene
    FATK, Tübinger Forschungsinstitut für Arbeit, Technik und Kultur, Germany.
    Thörnquist, Annette
    FATK, Tübinger Forschungsinstitut für Arbeit, Technik und Kultur, Germany.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Finanzmarktkrise und Arbeitsbeziehungen im öffentlichen Sektor: Deutschland, Grossbritannien, Schweden und Spanien2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Schuller, Bernd-Joachim
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The Development of Human Resources in Europe with Focus on the Baltic Countries2009In: Management of Organizations: Systematic Research, ISSN 1392-1142, no 51, p. 111-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the situation and future development of human resources in Europe. It is discussed whether economic growth and growth of living standard in the future against the background of demographic changes is possible.

  • 32.
    Sirris, Stephen
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Theology, Religion and Society, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Organising for Sustainable Development Research Environment.
    Collegiality as institutional work: Collegial meeting practices among Norwegian pastors2023In: Journal of Professions and Organization, ISSN 2051-8803, E-ISSN 2051-8811, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 243-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collegiality is considered a hallmark of professionalism and involves specialization, equality, and leadership based on profession. Traditionally, within a profession, collegiality is treated as given and dealt with intra-professionally. This article, in contrast, studies collegiality as institutional work within the organizational context. We analyse how professionals and managers in a highly professionalized and institutionalized organization perform collegiality as institutional work. Interview and observational data shed light on collegiality in the practices of pastors in the Church of Norway. The findings highlight collegiality as a cultural ideal and a process of work beyond a mere governance structure. Collegial meetings constitute structural work that signals the intersection of conceptual work (theology) and operational work (daily challenges), facilitated by relational work. This article shows how collegiality constitutes institutional work that not only maintains the pastor profession as an institution but also gradually adapts it in response to external demands and strengthened management.

  • 33.
    Stark, Irma Arnautovic
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Fredén, Josefine
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Vi vill göra rätt men vi fuskar också!: En kvalitativ studie om hur LAS tillämpas i det dagliga arbetet i den privata och offentliga sektorn2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    HRM handles all decisions that affect the relationship between humans and the organization by designing strategies for the utilization of human capital in order to achieve the organizational goals. The utilization of human resources is regulated by various laws where the Employment Protection Act is central. Furthermore, the Employment Protection Act is semi-dispositive meaning that it leaves room for interpretation of the law and negotiation of term on the labor market through collective agreements. Previous research has shown that the law is stiff and difficult to apply. This has led to an investigation about modernizing the law and adapting it to today’s labor market and the investigation was completed in June 2020. Due to the fact that the law is about to change it is important to understand how the Employment Protection Act is applied in the daily work.

    Aim

    The purpose of the thesis is to create an understanding of how the Employment Protection Act is applied in the daily work of both private and public enterprises. We want to highlight the factors that affect the application of the law of the Employment Protection Act in organizations daily work and how the organizations relate to the upcoming changes in the law. The understanding of how the Employment Protection Act is applied in daily work generates new knowledge that can be useful for everyone working with HR issues and for future changes in employment laws.

    Methodology

    The study has a qualitative approach that has elements of triangulation where data collection has been done with the help of interviews and questionnaires. Interviews were conducted with three organizations from the private sector and three from the public sector.

    Conclusion

    The study shows that there are factors affecting how the Employment Protection Act is applied in the daily work and that there are similarities and differences between the sectors. The clearest similarity has been that everyone wants to do the right thing, but they also cheat. Furthermore, the study shows that the sectors tend to mostly have a reactive approach to the upcoming changes in the Employment Protection Act.

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  • 34.
    Stokke, Torgeir Aarvaag
    et al.
    Fafo, Oslo, Norway.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden.
    Strikes and Collective Bargaining in the Nordic Countries2001In: European journal of industrial relations, ISSN 0959-6801, E-ISSN 1461-7129, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 245-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the different strike profiles in the Nordic countries, with particular stress on the role of collective bargaining. First, it compares working days lost during the past couple of decades in a broad sample of European countries. Denmark, Norway and Sweden are identified as belonging to a `middle' group, while Finland is an outlier. Second, it analyses the number of strikes, which shows enormous differences between the Nordic countries. Possible methodological explanations are considered, but mostly rejected; instead, the causes are located in the historical development of collective bargaining, and in details concerning the peace obligation and local bargaining practices. The recent dramatic fall in working days lost in most other European countries is found also in Finland and Sweden, but not in Denmark and Norway. The research emphasizes factors such as unemployment, workplace reforms and local bargaining. The conclusions are also related to previous findings from the comparative analysis of industrial conflict.

  • 35.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Tools and artefacts: the effect of knowing 'where-from' on their present use2006In: 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society in Cooperation with the 5th International Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: CogSci/ICCS 2006, Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2006, p. 2241-2246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on how past knowledge of tools/artefacts affect their present use. The discussion is based on Wartofsky’s (1979) primary, secondary, and tertiary artefacts, and Engeström’s (1990) subsequent activity theoretical elaboration. While Engeström identifies two different kinds of internal (mental) secondary artefacts, this paper identifies an additional kind of tertiary artefact – ‘where-from’ artefact – that consists of experience based knowledge of the past. The conception of where-from, contributes to understanding, for instance, why people handle objects the way they do. This artefact, identified in a workplace study, also plays an important role in the process of learning through apprenticeship, since what novices are provided, in terms of instructions etc., partly depends on the more knowledgeable person’s past experiences.

  • 36.
    Svensson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Ståhlberg, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hur chefer arbetar med kompetensutveckling under en föränderlig tid: En kvalitativ fallstudie2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is a qualitative case study with the intention of exploring the subject’s competence and skills development within a smaller section in the study object Västra Götalandsregionen´s administration Regionservice. Covid-19 has affected several aspects within organizations as many have been forced to adapt to teleworking. The purpose of this study has been to investigate, analyse and develop a deeper understanding of how managers within the study object have worked with employee’s skills development during teleworking. Managers have described their work with skills development through in-depth interviews. The purpose of the study has also been to examine how managers have worked with skills development before the pandemic with the purpose of developing knowledge of how managers work has been affected and changed by teleworking. The results showed that 5 increased digitization and the use of digital tools promoted managers' work with employee’s skills development in teleworking. As a result, skills development has become more flexible and timesaving, and the proportion of education has increased. Further results show that managers' work with competence development was affected and changed when the work environment was moved from the workplace to the home. Before the pandemic competence development was carried out physically in the workplace, during teleworking it was carried out digitally, which promoted competence development in general within the study object.

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  • 37.
    Svärd, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Mindfulness och stress: En empirisk studie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har undersökt om en avskalad version av metoden Mindfulness-Baserad Stress Reduktion-låg dos (MBSR-ld), kan sänka stressnivåer och negativa känslor samt öka positiva känslor hos anställda på en arbetsplats. Som mätinstrument har Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) och Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) använts. PANAS har mätt deltagarnas upplevda positiva och negativa känslor och PSS har mätt deltagarnas upplevda nivåer av stress. De båda mätinstrumenten användes före och efter tre veckors utförande av en avskalad version av MBSR-ld. Totalt deltog 28 personer från en IT-arbetsplats, varav 14 personer deltog i en experimentgrupp (Män = 12; Kvinnor = 2) och 14 i en kontrollgrupp (Män = 13; Kvinnor = 1). Inget signifikant resultat påträffades i ökning av positiva känslor eller i sänkning av negativa känslor och stressnivåer. Eftersom tidigare studier påvisar att meditation kan sänka stressnivåer och negativa känslor samt höja positiva känslor, föreslår studien att mer forskning behövs inom området för att fortsätta utforska om mindfulness är en bra metod att använda sig av på arbetsplatser, eller inte.

  • 38.
    Thorén, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Touam, Abdou
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Mellanchefen - klämd mellan krav och förväntningar: En kvalitativ studie om mellanchefers komplexa arbetssituation2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of middle managers in organizations has proven to be filled with challenges. A middle manager's responsibilities are, among other things to report to senior managers, and to communicate decisions to employees while maintaining relationships at various levels within the organization. Middle managers are often portrayed in a negative way in earlier research. Majority of the studies show high stress levels and a negative psychosocial environment among middle managers.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute with increased knowledge about how middle managers at the operational level in retail and café operations experience their work situation. The study focuses on middle managers' complex role as both employer representative and employee representative. To answer the study's research questions, the empirical data has been collected through semi-structured interviews. Unlike a lot of the previous research, the results in this study did not show that middle managers' work situation is characterized by high stress levels and a poor psychosocial work environment. This apart from one respondent who works in a stressful environment.

    The study’s results presented three prominent challenges that middle managers face as a result of being situated between different hierarchies: (1) To keep the subordinated and the higher managers content, (2) To connect the communication chain of the organization and (3) To distinguish between the formal and informal managerial role. The results in the study also show that middle managers often use coping strategies to manage challenging situations. Particularly with the respect to showing social support from colleagues with the same role, taking a problem-focused approach during sudden unexpected events and emotion-focused coping during times when expressing dissatisfaction is needed.

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  • 39.
    Thörnquist, Annette
    et al.
    Research Institute for Work, Technology and Culture, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Do public sector industrial relations challenge the Swedish model?2018In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 87-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses recent developments in public sector labour relations in Sweden from a historical, gender and power relations perspective. The main question is whether these trends challenge the established Swedish industrial relations system. Our point of departure - yet chronologically also the point of arrival - is the Swedish Municipal Workers' Union, Kommunal's, exit from the coordinated wage setting model within the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen, LO) in 2015/2016. The immediate reason was that Kommunal, representing one-third of the LO members, including many low-paid women, turned down the LO's proposal on a general wage increase for low-wage groups. Instead, Kommunal urged to upgrade wages for a specific member group, the auxiliary nurses. This broke an almost uninterrupted 20-year-long period of labour market cooperation and coordination that was introduced in 1997 through the so-called Industry Agreement (Industriavtalet). This agreement was launched in the wake of the deep financial crisis in the early 1990s, and the neoliberal move towards a complete decentralization of pay negotiations. How should this move by Kommunal be interpreted? Why, and when, has the centralized system become a straitjacket for Kommunal, when for decades it seemingly was a precondition for both private and public union strength?

  • 40.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Bogus Self-employment in the European Union2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Department of Work Science, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Family-friendly labour market policies and careers in Sweden—and the lack of them2006In: British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, ISSN 0306-9885, E-ISSN 1469-3534, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 309-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the origin and development of family-friendly policies and careers in Sweden. The starting-point for the discussion is that what ‘family-friendly’ is can never be separated from the gendered labour market. Drawing on Lotte Bailyn's analysis of gender ‘equity’, the article argues that the Swedish labour market has no doubt become much more ‘family-friendly’ over the decades, through family-friendly reforms, but the move has definitely lost pace, maybe even been slightly reversed, in the 1990s and 2000s. Seemingly, political and social reforms cannot reach much further without a radical change in people's views of labour division at home, i.e. in the private sphere.

  • 42.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Globalization and International Labor Solidarity: Introduction to a Theme2014In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is cross-national trade union cooperation and labor solidarity a forgotten item on Nordic working life researchers’ agenda? And if so, why? Is not the matter more crucial today than ever, considering the challenges from globalization? True, there have not been too many studies in the field by Nordic scholars, and also true, the field is in great need of research considering the great labor market changes both nationally and globally over the last few decades. In order to find a remedy for this lack, a special workshop was dedicated to the subject at the Nordic Working Life Conference in Elsinore, April 2012. The response among the Nordic academics was not exactly overwhelming, but there were several highly interesting papers, bringing up new aspects or shedding new light on old ones. Some of the papers are now compiled in this special issue of Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies. All of them are individual texts and can be read separately. This introduction is just an attempt to put the articles into their common context, that is, to outline the framework within which they belong by highlighting some items they share.

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  • 43.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden.
    The Decentralization of Industrial Relations: The Swedish Case in Comparative Perspective1999In: European journal of industrial relations, ISSN 0959-6801, E-ISSN 1461-7129, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 71-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    In many countries there has been a move towards more decentralized labour market systems in the 1980s and 1990s. This process has been particularly notable in Sweden. This study analyses the origins of the Swedish decentralization from a historical and comparative perspective. The main emphasis is on ideological motives, linked to a shifting balance of power. The more decentralized Swedish industrial relations become, the greater the likelihood that the power relations between the two main parties change in the employers' favour. Even if internationally determined changes in the organization of work are important, changes in industrial relations still seem to be very much a question of a struggle between the different interests of employers and employees.

  • 44.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The Nordic Labour Market Model (In japanese)2017In: 北欧福祉国家モデルは持続可能か? The Nordic Welfare Model - Still Sustainable?: Five Exceptions and Policy Cooperation / [ed] Klaus Petersen, Stein Kuhnle, Pauli Kettunen, Yoko Otsuka, Akio Kamiko, Kyoto: Minerva Shobou, 2017, 1, p. 296-326Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Andersson Bäck, Monica
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hamark, Jesper
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Suède: brève histoire du syndicalisme et défis actuels2016In: Syndicats et dialogue social: Les modèles occidentaux à l'épreuve / [ed] Dominique Andolfatto & Sylvie Contrepois, Bruxelles: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016, p. 263-283Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Fransson, Susanne
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Women and Wildcats: Unofficial Women’s Strikes in Sweden in the 1970s and 1980s2015In: Workers of the World: International Journal on Strikes and Social Conflict, ISSN 2182-8938, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 64-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    While the strike propensity in manufacturing declined in the 1980s and 1990s, it remained high or even increased in services, health care, education and so on. Thegrowing portion of tertiary sector employment has further moved the searchlight from men to women, as the demographic transformation in work has promoted a feminization of strikes. However, what if we go back in history, to when strikes and industrial conflict was still mainly a men’s concern? Did women go on strike at all, and if so, how did their strikes differ from the overall pattern? The 1970s was the decade of “resurgence of class conflict” in Western societies, including Sweden, with an outstanding upsurge of strikes in many countries. There is an affluence of studies of both the 1970s strike-waves and single strikes in this rebellious decade, but few of them deal with female-dominated strikes. This article explores women’s strikes in Sweden in the 1970s and 1980s with special attention to the treatment in the Labour Court, since the article finds a remarkable difference in legal outcome between “male” and “female” strikes.

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  • 47.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Kilstam, Jonna
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Aligning Corporate Social Responsibility with the United Nations' Sustainability Goals: Trickier than it Seems? A Study of Social Entrepreneurship in Sweden2021In: Economics, ISSN 1864-6042, E-ISSN 1864-6042, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 161-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the profound mismatch between the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and fundamentals for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The common survival of human life, society, and the global order as we know it, and the need for companies to make profit is not easy. The intractability of the problem is often underestimated in public as well as scientific debate. This article discusses the problem and possible ways to cope with it through 'social entrepreneurship' illustrated here by a study of nine firms in Sweden. The study draws on an amalgamation of Schumpeterian theory about "creative destruction"and the concept of "Emerging Davids vs. Greening Goliaths." 

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    fulltext
  • 48.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    et al.
    Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society, (REMESO), ISV, Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Sweden.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society, (REMESO), ISV, Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Sweden.
    When tender turns tough: posted workers and the tendering regime in the Swedish construction industry2012In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 525-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outcome of the so-called Laval case and related judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has led to a debate about the future of the European social model. Although several analyses have focused on the downside of the judgments, in particular on the risk of ‘wage dumping’, one important but overlooked aspect is the connection to tendering regimes. This lacuna is crucial to labour recruitment practices in the construction industry because of the important role of public authorities as buyers of large construction services within the European Union. The research question is whether rigidity in how public authorities are required to tender contracts strengthens downward pressure on wages and induces a deterioration in working conditions. Case study material from Sweden is used in the context of extensive previous research and preliminary findings from an ongoing research project. Because of the short time span since the rulings of the ECJ there is only anecdotal evidence for establishing a mutually reinforcing connection between the system for awarding tenders in Swedish construction and the wider impacts of Laval on the labour market. Nevertheless, new evidence suggests that labour recruitment and human resource management practices are being shaped by a tendering regime governed by requirements of ‘cost flexibility’.

  • 49.
    Toll, Peter
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Emanuelsson, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Effektiv onboarding + medarbetares arbetsprestation = sant?: En kvantitativ studie om onboardingprocessens relation till medarbetares upplevda arbetsprestation2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The onboarding process is one of the first steps a new employee goes through and affects how they are socialized and introduced into the organization. It is something that all organizations work with, there are however great variations as to how the organizations choose to implement them strategically. Research has shown that an effective onboarding process can contribute with beneficial effects such as for example job performance. There is however only a limited amount of research that cover the relation between onboarding and individual work performance in the Swedish work force.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an increased understanding within the subject of onboarding. Further intentions include to descriptively examine and map out the relation between an effective onboarding and employees’ individual work performance.

    Method: This grad paper uses a quantitative method in the shape of a survey. The survey was distributed to Swedish employees’ white-collar workers who have been employed two years or less. Acquired data was then analyzed from the theoretical standpoints of the Four C's that measures the effectiveness of an onboarding process as well as Individual Work Performance Questionnaire, measuring the individual work performance. The results were produced by using Pearsons r as well as a regression analysis.

    Conclusion: This study showed a strong correlation and a high affectivity between onboarding and individual work performance. An effective onboarding contributes to employees performing better. Further analysis showed that when individual work performance was divided into its three dimensions – Task Performance, Contextual Performance and Counterproductive Work Behavior – they all showed high correlations between 0,360 and 0,674. The total correlation between onboarding and individual work performance amounted to 0,739.

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  • 50.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fudge, Judy
    University of Kent, UK.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Migrant precarity and future challenges to labour standards in Sweden2014In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 695-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fears of a ‘race to the bottom’ in labour standards may have been overstated. Nevertheless, using Sweden as a case study, it is argued that the diminished capacity of trade unions to defend labour standards following the Laval judgement of the European Court of Justice, together with a decline in trade union density, a limited remit of enforcement authorities and recent changes to the Swedish labour migration regime, may have detrimental impacts on labour standards, particularly in low-skill low-wage occupations. In combination, these developments are creating new spaces for migrant precariousness within the context of a formerly well-regulated Swedish labour market model.

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