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  • 1.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The Kleptomaniac Leadership and his Destructive Role on the Economic Dimension of Nation Building2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 2.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets: Volume I2021 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is much research into strategic business alliances in emerging markets, but none focuses on this form of collaboration within Europe’s emerging economies. This is a critical absence, as the European transition region is not only different from other European and Western regions but also from other regions with developing economies. Partners in the European transition region have unique cultural and social backgrounds, and consequently, unique ways of doing business. 

    Transformations of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets focuses on this important gap. This book, the first of a two-volume set, makes a unique contribution to emerging market research by investigating the transformation of alliances in Eastern and central Europe over the past forty years. It provides a conceptual framework to describe and analyse the formation, development and functional mechanisms of strategic alliances in the European transition region, ultimately offering an in-depth overview of the challenges and opportunities around strategic alliance formation in emerging European markets.  

    Transformations of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume I, is a must-read for academics and postgraduate students of development economics and business administration.

  • 3.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets: Volume II2021 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is much research into strategic business alliances in emerging markets, but none focuses on this form of collaboration within Europe’s emerging economies. This is a critical absence, as the European transition region is not only different from other European and Western regions but also from other regions with developing economies. Partners in the European transition region have unique cultural and social backgrounds, and consequently, unique ways of doing business.

    Transformations of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets focuses on this important gap. This book, the second of a two-volume set, makes a unique contribution to emerging market research by investigating the transformation of alliances in Eastern and central Europe over the past forty years. It provides a conceptual framework to describe and analyse the formation, development and functional mechanisms of strategic alliances in the European transition region, ultimately offering an in-depth overview of the challenges and opportunities around strategic alliance formation in emerging European markets.

    Transformations of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume II, is a must-read for academics and postgraduate students of development economics and business administration.

  • 4.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Acquiring Cross-Cultural Competence: Insights from International Firms in Four Countries2016In: Entrepreneurship Development in a Globalized Era / [ed] Dana-Nicoleta Lascu, 2016, Vol. 13, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms increasingly have to compete globally in order to survive. An understanding of the host country’s local culture arguably being one of the most important aspects of this survival. The greater the cultural difference, the higher the risk of miscommunication and of mismanagement. Given that cross-cultural management is acknowledged as an intrinsic part of firm establishment in foreign markets today, we set out to explore the linkages between the competence of international firms in managing cultural differences and the effectiveness of their business operations. How this ‘cross-cultural competence’ is acquired is of particular interest to this study. Swedish firms operating in Kenya, Lithuania, Poland and Russia are examined. The findings show that international firms tend not to formulate any preparatory measures to become ‘culturally competent’ prior to entering foreign markets. Learning takes place by doing. A Process Model of Acquiring Cross-Cultural Competence in Foreign Markets is constructed.

  • 5.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Learning from Failed Strategic Alliances: A European Case Study2015In: Regional and International Competiveness: Defining National and Governmental Drivers of Productivity, Efficiency, Growth and Profitability / [ed] E. Kaynak & T. D. Harcar, 2015, Vol. 24, p. 186-194Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Strategic Alliance Breakups: The Volvo-Renault Story2015In: Exploring the Possibilities for Sustainable Future Grows in Business and Technology Management / [ed] N. J. Delener, Leonora Fuxman, F. Victor Lu & Susana Rodrigues, Global Business and Technology Association , 2015, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    The Process of Firm Establishment in International Markets: A European Telecommunications Operator in Latin America2016In: 17th International Academy of African Business and Development Conference Proceedings: Governance and business policies: Towards sustainable African business development / [ed] Anita Spring; Pantaleo Rwelamila, 2016, p. 376-390Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of the process of firm establishment of foregin firms within the developing and emerging countries remains limited, while the market-specific context-driven nature of the firm establishment process has been largely overlooked in the literature. We aim to address these omissions and explore the establishment process of a Spanish multinational telecommunication firm, Telefónica, in Brazil and Chile applying the "Four Stages Firm Establishment Process Model" by Abraha (1994). We identify strategic responses crafted by Telefónica to overcome competitive challenges during its establishment process. We revise Abraha's model in view of the findings and conclude with implications for managerial practices and future research.

  • 8.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Radón, Anita
    Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sundström, Malin
    Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Reardon, James
    Monfort College of Business, University of Northern Colorado, USA.
    The effect of cosmopolitanism, national identity and ethnocentrism on Swedish purchase behavior2015In: Proceedings of the AABRI conference, Orlando Florida, January 1-3, Academic and Business Research Institute , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Radón, Anita
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Reardon, James
    Monfort College of Business, Greeley Colorado, USA.
    The effect of cosmopolitanism, national identity and ethnocentrism on Swedish purchase behavior2015In: Journal of Management and Marketing Research, ISSN 1941-3408, Vol. 18, article id 152146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scandinavian market has changed significantly over the past half-decade with several online distributors, particularly of digital files such as music, originating locally. This ineffect has significantly further increased globalization of commerce in the Nordic countries. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of more traditional models of consumer choice regarding local vs global products in this context. While the major metro areas of Scandinavia have always been largely global, this research reaches further into the central part where attitudes and globalization tends to be adopted at a slower pace

  • 10.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Major factors impacting the international market relationship and entry modes: A case of Swedish automotive industry in Mexico2007In: Studies of Sweden and Mexico: Economics, finance, trade and environment / [ed] Ignacio Perrotini Hernández; Fadi Zaher, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2007, p. 138-161Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The Destructive Impact of the Psychopathic and Narcissistic Leadership on the Diplomatic Dimension of Nation Building2016In: 17th International Academy of African Business and Development Conference Proceedings: May 2016, IAABD Annual Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 51-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This article examines the Diplomatic Dimension of Nation building in Eritrea in light of the diplomatic vision adopted in 1994 by the so called the Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ). Both secondary and primary data are used to write this article. The primary data is collected through telephone interviews, personal interviews, skype-interviews and focus-group discussions with some veteran liberation fighters, former government officials, diplomats and some Eritreans who were holding key positions in the government and who have experience and knowledge as to how the narcissists and psychopaths deal with the neighboring countries and regional as well as international cooperation and relationships. The main findings show that the leadership has committed a diplomatic, moral and ethical blunder scoring one of its main failures in the diplomatic dimension of nation building. This is due to the fact that it has applied a militarist and one man owned, designed, decided and mismanaged diplomatic relationships which is not at all co-operative, although it claims that it applies a healthy neighborly, regional and international cooperation and relationships as stipulated in the diplomatic vision. Moreover, the dysfunctional militarist and one man owned, designed, decided and miss managed relationships and diplomatic approach is not properly planned and it is poorly coordinated and terribly mismanaged. This reality has a serious negative consequence on the diplomatic, economic, social, cultural, organizational and political conditions of the country. The other finding of this study is that the reason why the failed, i.e. narcissistic and psychopathic leadership applies a militarist and one man owned diplomatic relationships model is because it clearly understands that to maintain and strengthen its political, economic, cultural, organizational and social power i.e. power of all aspects it has to have a full control of all the diplomatic, economic, financial and human resources in the country. The reason why the psychopaths spear headed by the self-appointed destructive dictator do not implement the diplomatic vision is because like all the other visions envisaged in the 1994 charter, the diplomatic vision was not designed to be implemented but to help the dictator to get enough time to create the conditions necessary to implement the hidden vision which the Eritrean people couldn’t yet design appropriate strategies to fight it adequately and to dismantle its power apparatus. The last reason for the failure of the diplomatic dimension of nation building is the lack of a competent and authentic leadership that possesses the qualities of an effective, legacy building and developmental leadership.

  • 12.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The leadership hypocrisy of four million parties and its insurmountable consequences on the political dimension of nation building: An Illustration of the so called “Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) Central Office in Eritrea”2014In: 15th annual IAABD international conference, International Academy of African Business and Development , 2014, p. 1-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The main results of this article are (i) the PFDJ and in particular Isayas has committed a political blunder  in the political dimension of nation building by refusing to implement the constitution, (ii) the PFDJ militarized political ideology is a poisonous tool applied to secure the political power of the dictator, (iii) the political vision was not developed to be implemented but to consolidate the raw political power’ of the ‘raw dictator’ in the raw and secretive underground party by liquidating all democratic elements, (iii) the dictator is incompetent to lead the task successfully, and (iv) the other cause for the failure is the lack of an authentic leader who possesses the qualities of a developmental and legacy-building leaders.

  • 13.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    A Longitudinal Study of Strategic Alliances in Eastern and Central Europe: The Case of ACCEL Share Company (ASC) and two Local Firms in Lithuania2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Hyder, Seyed Akhmal
    University of Gävle.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle.
    The Journey of Strategic Alliances2017In: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference of the EuropeanInternational Business Academy / [ed] Lucia Piscitello, Stefano Elia, 2017, p. 54-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the journey to and from strategic alliances and if alliances lead to the creation of new Alliances, how existing networks are managed and strengthened and to identify the factors which impact and determine the journey to and from strategic alliances. One of the findings of this chapter is that, in the pre-strategic alliance phase firms can have direct and indirect relationships which can lead to the formation of strategic alliances under certain circumstances, whereas in just the opposite circumstances those relationships might not lead to alliances formation. The other finding is that one of the main factors which determines the journey of strategic alliances is the degree of internationalization of the firm and the market. It is also found out that the journey of alliances can be different in the different groups of Central Europe countries depending on the pace or degree of adaptation of those countries, i.e. whether they are fast-, or medium or slow adapting countries.

  • 15.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Le Hieu, Hoc
    Faculty of Economics and Management, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    School of Business and Quality, HMBSU, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
    How Developed-Country Firms Make Standardization/Transfer and Adaptations Decisions in Relation to their Developing-Host-Country Operations?2019In: Journal of East-West Business, ISSN 1066-9868, E-ISSN 1528-6959, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 107-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors influencing firms’ standardization and adaptations decisions tend to be treated as static isolated entities in the extant literature. Further, the focus is predominantly on Western MNCs and product development or marketing functions with manufacturing firms and the emerging/developing country perspective underrepresented. We explore factors, as well as their interrelations that determine standardization and adaptations decisions when a developed country manufacturing firm establishes operations in a developing country. Purposefully, Italian manufacturing firms with operations in Vietnam are examined. We identify functions, processes, and practices that are standardized/transferred and those that are adapted. A theoretical model is developed based on the findings.

  • 16.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    HBMSU, School of Business, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
    A model for understanding the process of firm establishment in foreign loosely-structured emerging markets2018In: Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, ISSN 1549-9324, E-ISSN 1747-6763, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 327-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of the process of firm establishment in foreign markets is relatively limited especially in relation to host-developing and host-emerging markets. The market-specific and context-driven nature of the firm establishment process is largely overlooked in the literature. Against this background, we aim to chart the establishment process of a Spanish telecommunication firm, Telefonica, in Brazil and Chile by applying the 'four stage firm establishment process model in foreign markets' (Abraha, 1994). We identify strategic responses crafted by Telefonica to overcome the challenges during its establishment process. We revise Abraha's model in view of the findings and conclude with implications for managerial practices.

  • 17.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Determinants of the international strategic alliance process and alliance failure: learning from the Volvo-Renault break-up2017In: International Journal of Strategic Business Alliances, ISSN 1756-6444, E-ISSN 1756-6452, Vol. 6, no 1/2, p. 86-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the scholarly focus has shifted from strategic alliance formation to alliance performance and thus alliance outcome, the process that leads to a particular outcome: alliance success or alliance failure remains indeterminate. Given their high failure rate, this study aims to identify factors that contribute to an alliance failure to better understand the strategic alliance management process to help alliances survive. Purposefully, the Volvo-Renault alliance break-up is investigated. A Process Model for International Strategic Alliance Lifecycle is developed. The findings establish that post-formation, the strategic alliance process necessitates managing interactions among: partners’ objectives; partners’ resource contribution; access to partner’s network; and alliance performance. However, for an alliance to sustain, learning and assessment must be an integral part. Learning and assessment are critical strategic inputs that serve as ‘binding forces’, and as an ‘alert mechanism’ whereby timely corrective managerial actions are triggered in favor of an alliance sustainability and vice versa.

  • 18.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    King AbdulAziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Managing Cultural Differences in International Business Operations: A Perspective from Europe2014In: Proceedings of 6th Annual American Business Research Conference 9 -10 June 2014, Sheraton LaGuardia East Hotel, New York, USA, World Business Institute Australia , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the advantages of globalization are numerous, (including economies of scale in research and development, production, marketing, access to large and many markets, access to new ideas, technologies, competencies, resources), globalization also brings with it new challenges. Cultural differences arguably being one of the most important of these challenges. Literature suggests that cultural differences and the firms’ ability to deal with them have a significant impact on firms’ operations as well as performance. Against this background, this study explores the relationship between cultural differences and the effectiveness of international business operations. The data is drawn from a sample of North European firms operating in diverse foreign markets. The findings show that for the European firms in our sample the learning, in the main, tended to take place 'by doing' over time. The paper concludes with managerial implications.

  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Karlsson, Jan Ch.
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Tankar om arbetslivet2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Abrha, Luwam
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Al Badri, Shahd
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Revisorns oberoende: En studie om hot mot oberoendet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Auditing has a socially beneficial function because, among other things, it aims to ensure that there are no irregularities in the accountancy underlying the decision-making process. An auditor performs the audit and a prerequisite for this to be undertaken in a correct manner is that the auditor is independent in his or her assessments. In 2002, a law was introduced in Sweden based on a standard denoted “analysmodellen”. The purpose of introducing this model was to ensure the auditor's independence. The model is based on self-examination in which the auditor has to test his or her independence by taking into account five different types of situations that pose a threat to independence as well as a general legal clause.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to create an understanding of how “analysmodellen” is perceived by auditors as well as to describe how auditors act to counteract threats to their independence.

    Method: The study is conducted using a qualitative method; more specifically semi-structured interviews. The reason is that this method is applicable when the purpose is to create an understanding as well as a description of the process under consideration. Achieving the purpose requires a deep understanding of auditors' perceptions of ”analysmodellen” and what steps they take to counteract threats to independence.

    Theoretical starting point: The theories used in the study are institutional theory and the theory of sensemaking, this in order to analyze similarities and differences in perceptions and actions. Institutional theory has been used to analyze similarities at the organizational level. Sensemaking has been used to analyze similarities as well as differences at the individual level.

    Conclusion: The study shows that “analysmodellen” is perceived in a similar way by the auditors. The auditors consider it as a sufficient tool for dealing with the issues of independence. There were no significant differences in the way auditors acted to counter threats to independence. However, the study shows that there are minor differences that primarily can be explained by the fact that the auditors' personal experiences differ.

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  • 21.
    Ademi, Valdrin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Malsiu, Qendrim
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Utmaningarna med distansarbetet på chefers ledarskap: En kvalitativ studie om utmaningar distansarbetet fört med sig på chefers coachande ledarskap, motivation och kommunikation2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: What challenges has teleworking brought to managers' coaching leadership, motivation & communication?

    Aim: The aim of the study is to create an understanding of how the managers in the chosen municipality have handled the challenges that telework has brought. The challenges of motivation, communication and coaching leadership should be highlighted.

    Theoretical contribution: This research report has been based on various theoretical contributions regarding leadership, coaching leadership, remote leadership, motivation and communication. The clarification of these concepts has been the basis of the theoretical frame of reference for the study. The concepts are taken from previous relevant research within the chosen subject.

    Method: In this study, an abductive research approach was used. A qualitative study was conducted with interviews. Eight respondents who have a managerial position within a municipal unit in Sweden were the respondents of the study. The literature study was compiled by collecting theory from previous research.

    Results: The challenges that teleworking brought to managers is that it led to active and more present leadership. The challenges of communication were both positive and negative and overcame each other. On the motivation, the challenges were mostly negative as it became more difficult to motivate the employees as a result of the distance work.

    Analysis: The study's analysis is based on explaining and clarifying the connection between the empirical work and the theoretical contribution. The analysis part has contributed to an account of how the remote relationship has had an impact on managers' leadership based on theoretical factors such as motivation and communication. 

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  • 22.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Kucera, Ida
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    How do B2B use social media to build trust?: An exploratory study in what aspects create, maintain and destroy interorganizational trust2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media usage in the B2B sector is increasing at a slower rate than B2C and the research literature sends a unanimous message; B2B firms would benefit in multiple ways using social media as a tool when establishing and entertaining business relationships. The concept of trust is proved to be of great importance in the construction of these relationships. With guidance of this thesis’ practical contribution,the model The Hourglass of Trust, displaying three categories of trust; creation, maintenance and destruction, this thesis will simultaneously highlight the theoretical contribution: aspects affecting trust, as well as the managerial contribution: aid B2B insocial media strategy planning for improved opportunities to build better business relationships on social media.

    A key finding and theoretical contribution, is the activity of switching channels from social media to other marketing channels such as email. Some B2B marketers use social media only as a storefront, a one-way promotion tool to create trust in order to reach an audience, create leads, stimulate interest or in the initial contact with another firm and then switch to the usage of other channels like email once the relationship has moved past the trust creation category. This finding is of particular interest since Sweden is a country built upon social trust and has a high social media penetration which may beviewed as counter intuitive when social media is used as a one-way-communication channel such as a storefront. B2B marketers in the empirical findings view social mediain a more positive light than earlier research, stating it is a powerful tool for building long-term business relationships.

    A second key finding is that personal values are associated with trust creation and trust maintenance in B2B, turning the spotlight from inter-organizational to interpersonal trust.

    Future research is encouraged to explore the reason for the switching of channels in B2B SMEs in Sweden as well as further explore the concept of trust in a B2B social media context testing the proposed model, The Hourglass of Trust (Fig. 2).

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  • 23.
    Afghahi, Avin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Nickoie Monfared, Reyhaneh
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Investeringsbedömning- och processer: En kvalitativ studie om investeringsbedömning- och processer vid digitaliseringsinvesteringar i en kommun2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: A qualitative study of investment appraisal and processes in digitizing investments in a municipality. 

    Background and problem: Investing in digitalisation contributes to municipalities being more active and efficient in their work. However, making sensible judgments can be challenging because of the difficulty of predicting the future. This emphasizes the importance of the decision-making process, where relevant investment proposals are addressed and evaluated, to ensure that the right resources are available at appropriate times and in sufficient quantities.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate investment evaluation (appraisal) for digitization investments in municipal operations by outlining how digitization investments are carried out and which criteria are important in investment evaluation. Furthermore, which strategies for digitization investments exist inside the municipality must be determined.

    Method: The thesis has been written through qualitative research and a case study of a medium-sized municipality, with the aim of examining investment appraisal and processes for digitalization investments in the municipality. The empirical data was gathered through semi-structured interviews with digital strategists in the health and care sectors, as well as controllers in the municipality who work with investments.

    Conclusion: Digitalisation investments are initiated because of a need in order to achieve higher quality and efficiency in the business, but also to deliver better and simpler service to inhabitants. It can be stated that there is a strong connection between the municipality's digitization investments and digitization target images. The purpose of all investments that the municipality makes is to achieve quality and utility. Regardless of the type and size of the investments, quality and utility are criteria that must be taken into account and are intended to be achieved at the end of the investment process.

  • 24.
    Agardsson, Alida
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Blomquist, Alice
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Engström, Emmalisa
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Kvinnliga ledares navigering genom glaslabyrinten: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga ledares upplevelser av att leda i den svenska bygg- och anläggningsbranschen2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Följande examensarbete ämnar undersöka och förmedla en djupare bild av kvinnliga ledares upplevelse av att leda i den svenska bygg- och anläggningsbranschen. Uppsatsen är en kvalitativ studie där åtta kvinnliga ledare djup-intervjuats om deras personliga upplevelser gällande de utmaningar som de navigerat sig genom under sitt avancemang i arbetslivet. Dessa utmaningar är i denna studie uppdelade i fem kategorier för att skapa en tydlighet för läsaren genom uppsatsen. Syftet är att generera en större förståelse för de utmaningar som kvinnliga ledare förhåller sig till, vilket i sin tur kan bidra till att utvecklingen går framåt inom branschen. Samt att undersöka om tidigare forskning kring de metaforer som används för att beskriva dessa utmaningar går att tillämpa på kvinnornas upplevelser av bygg- och anläggningsbranschen. Urvalet till studien omfattar åtta kvinnliga ledare med befattningar som platschef och arbetsledare, där majoriteten av den grupp som de leder består av män. Resultatet av studien visade att tidigare forskning gällande teorin om glaslabyrinten passar in på upplevelserna kvinnorna hade från sina karriärsliv, och andra föregående metaforer anses mindre relevanta i sammanhanget.

    Inledningsvis uttryckte flertalet av intervjupersonerna att de inte upplevde några svårigheter att leda i branschen. Under intervjuerna uppdagades dock flera faktorer som kvinnorna tidigare inte upplevt som utmaningar, men som författarna till studien tolkar som svårigheter de fått förhålla sig till. Detta uppfattar författarna till uppsatsen vara en del av en copingstrategi för att hantera den rådande kulturen och således bli accepterad och respekterad av sina medarbetare. Dock framkom det i studien att den svenska bygg- och anläggningsbranschen på senare tid haft en positiv utveckling, men för att ytterligare förbättringar ska kunna genomföras behöver dessa utmaningar fortsätta att uppmärksammas i samhället.

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  • 25.
    Agovic, Haris
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Den offentliga sektorn och dess employer branding: En studie med fokus på högskolestudenters perspektiv på den offentliga sektorn som en potentiell arbetsgivare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s generation shift in the labor market will entail new recruitment needs for all workplaces. In the public sector, it is necessary to recruit up to half a million employees by 2020. At present, there is already a shortage of employees in the public sector and may need to adapt their employer branding strategy to attract new potential employees. New potential employees who will enter the labor market in the near future are college students. Since the public sector has limitations on competing through higher wages, instead it is required to make investments in symbolic attributes such as organizational culture and values.

    The purpose is to examine from the perspective of college students, how the public sector can use employer branding and its brand attributes to attract new potential employees. This is achieved through a qualitative study in which ten college students are interviewed. This method was used to capture respondents’ perception and experience of the public sector as a potential employer.

    The study has contributed that the public sector should evaluate its employer branding and the characteristics that are promised and whether these are really kept. Failure to do so also impairs social identification that once created attraction and this creates an initiative for bad rumors. Furthermore, important attributes have been identified such as values, organizational culture, working conditions, career development, but also that salary has become among the most important attributes. College students’ attitude towards the public sector is based on both their own experiences, family or friends’ experiences and social media. It is therefore important that what is promised is actually kept because rumors among an individual’s social circle/social media can affect the attraction of new potential employees.

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  • 26.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    COVID-19-induced financial anxiety and state of the subjective well-being among the Bangladeshi middle class: the effects of demographic conditions2022In: International Journal of Happiness and Development, ISSN 2049-2790, E-ISSN 2049-2804, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 142-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In poverty-stricken countries, the middle or working-class usually falls out of focus in fiscal policy discussions, especially during crisis situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, in which governments seek to keep trade moving through grants and subsidies and work to sustain the poor. The current research aims to determine if the pandemic has had an impact on the subjective well-being (SWB) and financial anxiety (FAS)  for a middle-class Bangladeshi sample, according to four critical demographic factors: gender, income, residency (capital or outside the capital), and job security. At the height of the pandemic (July 14–24, 2020), 129 respondents completed a self-reported survey questionnaire. The results indicate that although people appear to be happy in general, they are worried about their relationships. Women score lower on total well-being than men, as do those with household incomes below the average. People living outside the capital score marginally higher; people with well-secured jobs denote their higher well-being too. Furthermore, the FAS results indicate higher levels of anxiety among people with lower incomes and unsecured jobs. Therefore, the COVID-19 experience might inform future fiscal policies, including potential efforts to introduce universal job security insurance and financial counseling to employees after the pandemic. 

  • 27.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    The effect of demographic characteristics on considerations of future consequences and compulsive buying and their interlinks2022In: International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, ISSN 1753-6219, E-ISSN 1753-6227, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 279-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the impacts of demographic variables (gender, age, and income) on consideration of future consequences (CFCs) and compulsive buying tendencies (CBT). It also investigates if and to what extent the demographic characteristics might influence the effect of CFC on CBT. Data for this study were collected from 394 adult respondents using a self-administered survey. The structural equation model in AMOS reveals that consideration of future (CFC-F) has a significant negative effect on CBT, whereas consideration of immediate (CFC-I) has no significant effect. In addition, the multi-group analysis found that the influence of CFC on CBT does not change across genders, yet it varies with income and age differences. These novel insights into consumer behaviour have implications for both research and practice.

  • 28.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Gong, Wen
    School of Business, Howard University, USA.
    What Drives High Penetration Rates of Social Media?: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis across Countries2022In: Journal of Business and Management, ISSN 1535-668X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 101-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study examines the drivers of country-level high Social Media Penetration (SMP) rate by considering the concurrent causation of cultural and socio-economic conditions.

    Method – Ninety-four countries across continents were analyzed using the set-theoretic configurational approach fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA 3.0).

    Findings – Results reveal that the adult literacy rate is the necessary condition and found four causal combinations for high SMP.

    Limitations – Limitations related to using secondary data at a single point and including only two socio-economic conditions in the design are recognized.

    Contributions to literature- This study is believed to be among the first to use QCA for testing and providing evidence of SMP as an outcome of cultural and social-economic conditions. It contributes to theory by advancing our knowledge of what combination of cultural and social-economic factors would result in high or low SMP.

    Practical Implications- This study provides managerial implications for both digital marketers and social media technology designers and suppliers. With the increasing connectedness in this digital age, global marketers should be more mindful and respectful of the expectations of their customers around the world and shape their decision-making processes accordingly. Social media can be a very effective tool to help global marketers learn about other cultures, overcome adjustment challenges, and establish as well as maintain relationships. All these can accelerate the integration into the host culture during their adaptation (Sawyer and Chen, 2012). Our study provides greater insights of what combination of cultural and social-economic conditions may facilitate or inhibit the adoption of their platforms. Our findings can also help social media managers in their global targeting initiatives. Customized social media programs can be designed to target a specific cluster of countries according to usage patterns based on technological capability and social norms.

    Social implications- More and more reports have been published to attest to the economic and social impact of social media. Despite the rapid growing influence on our societies, social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change (Yeung, 2018). Our study offers insight for social policy making by identifying multiple paths to enhance social media’s penetration as decision makers increasingly realize its potential and long-term benefits resulted from continued use of social media analytics.

    Originality- This study is believed to be among the first to use QCA for testing and providing evidence of SMP as an outcome of cultural and social-economic conditions. It identifies four complex antecedent paths that are responsible for high SMP, allowing for a more comprehensive explanation of our outcome of interest.

  • 29.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Limbu, Yam B.
    Feliciano School of Business, Montclair State University, Montclair, USA.
    Dimensions of materialism and credit card usage: an application and extension of the theory of planned behavior in Bangladesh2018In: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 23, no 3–4, p. 200-209Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Limbu, Yam B.
    Feliciano School of Business, Montclair State University, United States.
    Al Mamun, Md.
    Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Facebook usage intensity and compulsive buying tendency: The mediating role of envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion and the moderating role of depression2021In: International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, ISSN 1741-1025, E-ISSN 1741-1033, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 69-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While Facebook usage intensity (FBUI) and compulsive buying tendency (CBT) have individually received increased research attention, very little is known about the mechanisms through which FBUI affects CBT. This study proposes and tests a multiple mediation model in which the effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by personality characteristics (envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion). The study also explores the moderating effect of depression on these mediated relationships. The results of a self-administered survey of 393 Bangladeshi adults support the proposed moderated mediation model. The effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by envy and self-esteem independently. The FBUI indirectly affects CBT through serial mediators: 1) envy and self-esteem; 2) envy and self-promotion. These serial mediating effects are moderated by depression. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. 

  • 31.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Limbu, Yam
    Feliciano School of Business, Montclair State University, USA.
    Pham, Long
    School of Management, University of Louisiana at Monroe, USA / Department of Economics and Management, Thuyloi University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Ha Van
    Faculty of Business Administration, Banking Academy, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Understanding Vietnamese Consumer Intention to Use Online Retailer Websites: Application of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model2020In: International Journal of E-Adoption (IJEA), ISSN 1937-9633, E-ISSN 1937-9641, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the applicability of an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) that incorporates trust, perceived risk, and self-enhancement as antecedents to the TAM constructs. Data collected from 299 Vietnamese online consumers, through a self-administered survey, were entered into a structural equation model using AMOS 23 to establish causality. The results partially confirm the applicability of TAM to the online shopping intentions of Vietnamese consumers, though contrary to expectations, perceived ease of use does not predict behavioral intentions. Trust and self-enchantment fit well with the TAM; the inclusion of perceived risk as an antecedent is questionable. The findings offer new opportunities for explaining TAM theory in light of Schwartz’s value dimensions. This article thus concludes with a discussion of the research contributions and implications.

  • 32.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Organising for Sustainable Development Research Environment.
    Noboa, Fabrizio
    USFQ Business School, Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Ecuador.
    Driving performance in exporter-importer exchange relationships: The efficacy of interorganizational trust as a response to exchange risks2023In: Cogent Business and Management, E-ISSN 2331-1975, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 2256953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the transaction cost analysis perspective, this study examines how three types of exchange risks influence performance in exporter-importer exchange relationships. These risks include cultural distance, which gives rise to behavioral uncertainty and its associated measurement problem; market turbulence, a dimension of environmental uncertainty that gives rise to an adaptation problem; and transaction-specific assets, representing a safeguarding problem. The conceptual model assesses how an informal governance mechanism, inter-organizational trust, responds to these three exchange risks and, in doing so, fosters relational and export performance. Based on a structural equation model conducted in PLS, our findings indicate that cultural distance relates positively to inter-organizational trust, and market turbulence positively relates to exporter-specific assets. Exporter-specific assets and inter-organizational trust were found to have a reciprocal relationship. This research also confirms the mediating role of relational performance concerning the effects of exporter-specific assets and inter-organizational trust on financial export performance. 

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  • 33.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Noboa, Fabrizio
    USFQ Business School, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador.
    Interconnectedness of trust-commitment-export performance dimensions: a model of the contingent effect of calculative commitment2022In: Cogent Business & Management, ISSN 2331-1975, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 2088461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research on relationship marketing aims to revisit and reposition different foci of trust, commitment, and performance perception in the export/import relationships and explore the interconnectedness effects. We have collected self-reported survey questionnaire responses from 142 non-oil exporters in Ecuador. The data were analyzed with SmartlPls 3.0 software. We found that calculative commitment negatively moderates inter-organizational trust and affective commitment relationships. The other significant findings include the indirect relationship (mediating effect) of affective commitment to financial export performance through relationship export performance. With these novel contributions, we also identify some expected relationships- as both interpersonal and inter-organizational trust positively affects affective commitment, and relationship export performance significantly predicts financial export performance. Cross-sectional data collection and responses from one side of the export-import dyad are one of this research’s limitations. However, they are not uncommon in export marketing literature. Giving a justified position of different dimensions of trust and commitment in the export-import equation is the novelty of this scholarship. Clarifying the affective commitment and export performance relationship is another contribution of this research. Nevertheless, the dimensional views of trust and commitment re-established some known assumptions in a less researched country setting should also be considered a contribution.

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  • 34.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Pappas, Ilias O.
    Department of Information Systems, University of Agder (UiA), Kristiansand, Norway.
    Revisiting the Trust–Commitment and Export Performance Link: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) Approach2020In: Re-imagining Diffusion and Adoption of Information Technology and Systems: A Continuing Conversation: IFIP WG 8.6 International Conference on Transfer and Diffusion of IT, TDIT 2020, Tiruchirappalli, India, December 18–19, 2020, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Sujeet K. Sharma, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Bhimaraya Metri, Nripendra P. Rana, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 556-568Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research revisits the role of different foci of trust (interpersonal and inter-organizational), commitment (affective and calculative) and relationship lengths (inter-organizational and interpersonal) then on export relationship performance. 142 Ecuadorian non-oil exporters completed a self-administered questionnaire. This study applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and the findings help to re-establish the need for both trust dimensions and affective commitment in exporter–importer relationships. This research found three possible configurations of achieving high export relationship performance. The managerial implications noted that export managers should nurture trust and affective commitment to ensure improved relationship performance. This research is one of the very few studies to investigate the role of commitment and trust by taking a complexity theoretical turn. Exploring the causation of the relationship lengths on relationship performance also represents a novel contribution.

  • 35.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Pham, Long
    School of Management, University of Louisiana at Monroe, USA.
    Online Retailer Reputation, Satisfaction, and Trust as Catalysts in the Consumer Perceptions of Ethics on Online Retailers and Repurchase Intention2021In: International Journal of E-Adoption (IJEA), ISSN 1937-9633, E-ISSN 1937-9641, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 1-18, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the effect of consumer perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers (CPEOR) on repurchase intention through reputation, satisfaction, and trust. The authors performed structural equation model analysis with SmartPLS on a sample of 458 responses collected from Vietnamese consumers. They found that CPEOR has a significant positive effect on reputation, satisfaction, and trust. As expected, trust and satisfaction directly predict repurchase intention; however, reputation does not directly follow this pattern. Instead, two prosocial constructs, namely trust and satisfaction, channel the effect of reputation on repurchase intention. Contrary to the conventional understanding that a favourable reputation will predict higher consumer trust, they found a negative correlation between these two factors. The managerial and theoretical contributions of the research and direction for future research are highlighted.

  • 36.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Skallerud, Kåre
    UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Effect of distance and communication climate on export performance: The mediating role of relationship quality2013In: Journal of Global Marketing, ISSN 0891-1762, E-ISSN 1528-6975, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 284-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors explore how distance and the communication climate perceived by exporters influence export performance both directly and as mediated by relationship quality. The ready-made garments industry in Bangladesh yielded 185 responses. A mediation model was tested using structural equation modeling, applying partial least squares techniques. The results show that distance is negatively related to communication climate and relationship quality; relationship quality mediates the distance–export performance relationship, whereas communication climate is positively associated with relationship quality and export performance, and a full mediating role of relationship quality is found in the communication climate–export performance relationship. A strong positive relationship between relationship quality and export performance is also identified. The managerial implication of the study includes that with better relationship strength, it is possible to neutralize the negative impact of distance on export performance. The implications and limitations are also discussed.

  • 37.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    Tromsø University Business School, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Skallerud, Kåre
    Tromsø University Business School, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    The link between export relationship quality, performance and expectation of continuing the relationship: A South Asia exporters’ perspective2015In: International Journal of Emerging Markets, ISSN 1746-8809, E-ISSN 1746-8817, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 16-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is threefold: to investigate how relationship quality affects export performance; to see if and to what extent export performance affects exporter satisfaction; and to determine whether exporter satisfaction ultimately affects the expectation of continuing the export-import relationship in an emerging market. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reports the findings of a survey of 185 respondents from the ready-made garments industry in Bangladesh chosen from a convenience sample. The responding exporters were located in Dhaka city or nearby areas. The data were analyzed using the partial least squares technique. Findings - The results support four out of five hypotheses, indicating that there is a significant relationship between exporter relationship quality and financial and strategic export performance. Additionally, a positive relationship between financial export performance and exporter satisfaction and between exporter satisfaction and the expectation of continuing the relationship are shown. No significant relationship between strategic export performance and exporter satisfaction is found. Practical implications - The findings have practical implications for managers and policy-makers interested in developing effective strategies for building and maintaining high quality export-import relationships, especially in the context of an emerging market. Originality/value - In order to accomplish the research goal, the main constructs from two influential streams of literature - social exchange theory and the disconfirmation of expectation theory - are utilized. This is new in the context of an emerging economy perspective.

  • 38.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Stump, Rodney L.
    College of Business and Economics, Towson University, MD, USA.
    Noboa, Fabrizio
    USFQ Business School, Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Quito, Ecuador.
    What Drives Importer Opportunism?: Learning from a Developing Country in Latin America2021In: Journal of Global Marketing, ISSN 0891-1762, E-ISSN 1528-6975, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 146-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research integrates transaction cost and relational exchange theories to depict a more nuanced explanation of exporter-importer exchange relationships when exporters operate from a developing country. Our study examines whether exporters’ investments in specific assets directly influence perceived importer opportunism, or whether these perceptions are driven by the mediating effects of interpersonal and inter-organizational trust and power. Contrary to the general transaction cost argument, we did not find any direct effect of exporter specific assets on perceived importer opportunism. Instead, we found that perceived importer power and exporter inter-organizational trust jointly mediate the exporter specific assets – perceived importer opportunism relationship. By incorporating a dimensional view of trust, we help to resolve conflicting theoretical specifications and empirical results found in the extant literature.

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  • 39.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Stump, Rodney L.
    Towson University, Towson, MD, USA.
    Skallerud, Kåre
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    The Mediating Effect of Relationship Quality on the Transaction Cost-Export Performance Link: Bangladeshi Exporters' Perspectives2015In: Journal of Relationship Marketing, ISSN 1533-2667, E-ISSN 1533-2675, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 152-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how relationship quality might mediate the link between transaction cost variables and export performance. In the proposed conceptual model, relationship-specific assets and uncertainty affect export performance both directly and through relationship quality; survey data from 185 exporting organizations in Bangladesh provide the test of this model. This article thus proposes that transaction cost economics and relational exchange theories are complementary rather than competing theories. These conclusions arise because this study accounts for not only the direct effect of asset specificity and uncertainty on export performance but also their indirect effects through relationship quality, which have not been empirically tested or clarified previously.

  • 40.
    Ahlander, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Wilsson Nordberg, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Chefers upplevelser av ett tvingande distansledarskap under pandemin: En kvalitativ studie av mellanchefer inom offentlig verksamhet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problems: Changes are constantly taking place in organizations for various reasons and as a consequence of covid-19, teleworking has recently increased rapidly, as many workplaces were forced to switch to this to limit the spread of infection. New directives came quickly and the conditions could change from day to day. The work at a distance resulted in increased digitization and the leadership on site had in many cases had to be managed remotely and from one's own home via a mobile phone or computer. Several factors affect leaders' communication and relationships with their employees, and in the present study, the focus will be on how teleworking as a change has affected employees and workgroups from a leadership perspective. We have conducted a qualitative study that examined the new conditions and how they affected communication and relationships. For the study, we conducted nine semi-structured interviews with leaders in the culture and leisure unit in different municipalities who before covid-19 did not work that much at a distance. Our study is about how leaders experienced this time and if they saw any impact on relationships and communication with employees, they have had to adapt to new ways of working and found new structures.

    Purpose and method:The purpose of the study has been to increase the understanding of the perceived change and the perceived opportunities and difficulties that have come with keeping relationships and communication digital. LMX is the theory that describes the importance of the relationship between leader and employee. The theory is used to provide a theoretical basis for the material that the study presents. As the purpose of the study is to provide an in-depth description of the selected problem area, the study is based on a qualitative method. The study is based on nine semi-structured interviews with leaders who work in municipal activities who give their perceived thoughts on the subject. The interviews were conducted in the form of video interviews with all respondents concerning the recommendations on social distancing.

    Results and conclusion: The results of the study show, based on the empirical material and theory, that relationships that previously worked well to a large extent continue to work well even at a distance leadership. Communication has been able to be developed with digital help and there have been substitutes for physical meetings via digital platforms. The most important conclusion of the study is that a lot of time may be spent on the relationships with employees that have not worked fully, the relationships that are demanding from the start will not be less demanding in a compelling change.

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  • 41.
    Ahlberg Lööf, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Johansson, Gustav
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Från traditionella till virtuella arbetsarrangemang: En kvalitativ studie om utbytesrelationer mellan ledare och följare på distans2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of leader and follower exchange-relationships when work is conducted remotely, as well as the creation and development of such relationships. The study focuses on remote work in the form of full-time and hybrid solutions, which have become more common for many organizations. The theoretical framework of the study includes theories about remote work, leader-member-exchange, and followership. To conduct the study the authors used a qualitative research method with multiple case studies and semi-structured interviews. The respondents of the study consisted of four leaders and four followers. 

    The results of the study indicate that reduced physical contact and interaction in remote work pose challenges to leaders and followers in their previous abilities to create and develop qualitative exchange relationships. Furthermore, leaders and followers establish exchange relationships through daily conversations and meetings via digital platforms. These relationships develop through common factors such as social identity, self-categorization, social categorization, human capital, social capital and personal attributes. Similarities in these factors contribute favorably to the creation of high-quality exchange relationships between leaders and followers. Remote work has brought forth new factors critical to developing high-quality exchange relationships, and both leaders and followers have different perspectives on remote work. Leaders find it challenging to lead and support their followers, while followers on the other hand don't think that their job tasks have been significantly affected.

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  • 42.
    Ahlberg, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Andersson, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Kriskommunikation på sociala medier: Småföretag i Sverige inom modeinriktad detaljhandel under Covid-192021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small businesses are currently one of the industries struggling most with their survival in the current crisis. With the help of social media that can be the most effective platforms in a crisis, small businesses can spread information and create a more personal relationship with their customers (Alves et al., 2020). During a crisis, it is incredibly important that communication takes place on an ongoing basis as new customers are needed for the store to survive in the coming period. The pandemic has contributed to the fact that many small businesses are expected to close, but it is too early to see any clear effects of this (Fairlie, 2020). Awareness of the importance of crisis communication creates more community and participation among employees in the organization (Heide et al., 2012; Reynolds et al., 2007). Crisis communication has become more important than ever and a necessity for small businesses, and therefore the authors believe that a study of small business approaches in how they work with crisis communication on their social media is timely given the pandemic.The purpose of the study is to investigate how small businesses work with crisis communication on social media. The authors have chosen to examine respondents who work in fashion-oriented small companies to obtain clear factors that Covid-19 has contributed. The theoretical frame of reference is based on Covid-19 and social media. Previous research on small businesses and crisis communication shows a knowledge gap, which the study must some extent fill. The study is conducted with interviews through the qualitative survey method. For collected empirical data, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with five store managers. The respondents were selected by three criteria, that they must be a small business, be influenced by Covid-19 and finally use social media. Through an analysis, a result has emerged, with the help of collected data and the theoretical frame of reference. The results of the study show that all interviewed small businesses are affected by the crisis, but that they do not possess sufficient competence for the work with crisis communication on social media, which previous research emphasizes as crucial.

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  • 43.
    Ahlinder, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Ströberg, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Lojalitet inom e-handeln: Ur ett konsumentperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Konkurrensen har ökat online och fler e-handelsföretag behöver hitta sätt att få lojala konsumenter genom att designa webbplatsens olika delar. Konsumentbeteendet har ändrats, konsumenter har blivit mer kunniga då de kan söka mer information och har fler alternativ att välja bland. Fler klädbutiker öppnar upp online och antalet fysiska butiker riskerar att försvinna allt mer. Tidigare studier visar på att det är viktigt att veta hur kvinnor och män beter sig när de handlar kläder online då det är ett viktigt marknadssegment. Frågeställningen formuleras utifrån problembakgrunden.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva lojalitet inom e-handeln, hur den påverkas av konsumenters, kvinnor och mäns, upplevelse av webbplatsdimensioner.

    Metod: Genom en kvalitativ metod samlades det empiriska materialet in genom intervjuer med konsumenter. 12 intervjuer genomfördes med sex kvinnor och sex män som handlar kläder online.

    Slutsats: Uppsatsen visar att lojalitet påverkas direkt av webbplatsdimensionerna informationskvalitet och navigeringskvalitet. Dessa två dimensioner påverkar konsumenternas val av e-handelsföretag och tillit som skapas till företaget. Övriga dimensioner, till exempel estetik och informationsinnehåll, påverkar lojaliteten indirekt enskilt eller direkt tillsammans genom påverkan av tillfredsställelse. Kvinnor och mäns köpprocess skiljer sig till viss del, kvinnor och män spenderar båda tid i informationssökningsfasen, men män spenderar även tid i att utvärdera alternativ. Kvinnor påvisar mer falsk lojalitet och män är mer lojala, samt latent lojala.

    Nyckelord: Lojalitet, e-lojalitet, konsumentbeteende, webbplatsdimensioner och e-handel.

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  • 44.
    Ahlström, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Myrén, Martina
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Obligatoriskt krav på hållbarhetsredovisning: Faktorer till utmaningar som kan uppstå i företags praktiska arbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Annual Account Act (1995:1554) introduced a change (2016:947) which implies that larger Swedish companies are forced to establish a sustainability report. In a previous survey it appears that nine out of ten companies experience the new legal requirement as challenging. This study therefore contributes with knowledge of which these challenges could be and what they may depend on. The purpose of the study is to observe what factors that are the reasons why companies perceive implementation of law (2016:947) as challenging. By this, the study can contribute to understand the practical work in the preparation of sustainability reports. It can be useful for companies that switch from voluntary to statutory sustainability reporting or companies that establish a sustainability report for the first time in a connection with a legal requirement.

    To achieve the aim, the study has been based on a qualitative research method in the form of interviews. There have been eight interviews with sustainability managers in companies within the fashion industry as well as the sports-and leisure industry. In order to gain empirical knowledge about the practical work, a qualitative method was considered most appropriate because it was desired that the informants provided practical examples. The result of the study can be explained by using the implementation theory where the properties understand, can and will are presented. In order to pay attention to difficulties with implementation, the study will investigate whether the companies process these three properties. When implementing a decision, it is essential to know what properties companies have in order to understand the effects of the control. In implementation theory, it appears that it is most problematic if there is no willingness to implement. The result from the study shows that there is challenges within the companies that can be linked to the properties understandand can. The property will appear in this study unable to connect to the challenges in the companies.

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  • 45.
    Ahmed, Rachel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Touma, Martina
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Esho, Sandro
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Tillit inom organisationen: En kvalitativ studie om ledarskapets roll i främjandet av tillit bland medarbetare2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: This study discusses the significance of organizational trust with a focus on the leader's role, which is crucial in fostering trust among employees. Trust is alsolinked to cooperative conflict management and change-oriented leadership to maintain high quality and effectiveness. Trust also influences collaborative behavior, a sense of community, employee engagement, and loyalty. Therefore, middle managers should strive to promote trust among their employees for the overall success of the organization.

    Purpose and method: The primary purpose of this study is to describe and analyze how middle managers work to promote trust among employees. The study is based on the theory of situational leadership, balancing task-oriented, relationship-oriented, and change-oriented leadership. The method used is a qualitative empirical approach through interviews with seven active middle managers in various municipalities across Sweden.

    Results: All respondents practiced situational leadership, and six respondents could relate to change-oriented leadership. Three of the respondents balanced task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership. However, four respondents prioritized the relationship over the task, which deviates from the theory of change-oriented leadership. All respondents agreed that communication and vulnerable leadership are important in building trust. All respondents actively worked with the employee engagement wheel and emphasized the importance of conflict management. However, the results showed deviations in the respondents' conflict management strategies compared to what is recommended in the literature.

    Conclusion: The approach supported by three respondents not only contributes to building trust but also to achieving the organization's goals. Middle managers should actively work on communication while also making themselves vulnerable to create trust. To further maintain and strengthen trust, active work with the employee engagement wheel is required. However, equally important are conflict management strategies in promoting trust among employees.

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  • 46.
    Ahnstrand, Philip
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Järnström, Kevin
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hur chefer i en statlig myndighet arbetat under distansarbete i en digital miljö: en oförutsedd påtvingad förändring2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2020 the world was hit by a pandemic, which led to many restrictions in Sweden that meant that several companies were forced to move their business operations from the physical workplace to a digital one. In telework, the possibility of communication is made more difficult and it has emerged that there is a great need for a functioning communication between managers and employees in the digital environment. Factors such as body language and tone of voice are something that is often lost in the digital meeting, which managers need to take into account during teleworking. The manager's role and the consequences of the manager's actions and decisions are strengthened during times of crisis, such as a pandemic.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to describe how managers in a government agency worked during the teleworking in the digital environment and how it affected their opportunities for communication.

    Methodology: The chosen research methodology for this study is a qualitative method through a semi-structured interview. A thematic analysis was carried out with a targeted content analysis, which means that there were predetermined themes before the analysis was carried out.

    Findings: The conclusion presents what was positive, negative and other comments about the impact of telework on managers' leadership and opportunities for communication, as well as which challenges were most common. A concluding chapter also provides practical guidance on how we recommend that managers should work in telework.

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  • 47.
    Aisenberg Ferenhof, Helio
    et al.
    Department of Production Engineering and System, Complexo de Ensino Superior de Santa Catarina (CESUSC) and Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Hesamamiri, Roozbeh
    Iran University of Science & Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran.
    The impact of social media on knowledge management2016In: IFKAD 2016 - 11th International Forum on Knowledge Asset Dynamics: Towards a New Architecture of Knowledge: Big Data, Culture and Creativity Proceedings / [ed] J. C. Spender, Giovanni Schiuma, Joerg Rainer Noennig, Institute of Knowledge Asset Management (IKAM) , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to review extant research on the impact of social media on knowledge management (KM) to establish the current body of knowledge and, on this basis, to suggest some promising avenues for future research.

    The study consists of a systematic literature review of eighteen refereed empirical articles on social media and knowledge management. In order to get access to the articles, we used different scientific databases such as Scopus and ProQuest. As keywords, we decided to use multiple keyword combinations. After having read the abstracts of the articles identified, we ended up with a final set of eighteen articles, which represented the basis for analysis. The systematic approach helped us to make sure that the majority of relevant papers would be covered. 

    To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no systematic literature review on social media and knowledge management has previously been published or presented.

    The topic seems to be a promising field for systematic and intensive research and offers a variety of future research avenues.

  • 48.
    Aisenberg Ferenhof, Helio
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, Brazil.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Selig, Paulo M.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, Brazil.
    Knowledge Waste & Knowledge Loss: What is it All About?2016In: Navus Revista de Gestão e Tecnologia, ISSN 2237-4558, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 38-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are interested in developing an understanding of the concepts of knowledge waste and knowledge loss. The latter can in the worst case lead to "a decreased capacity for effective action or decision making in a specific organizational context" (DeLong, 2004, p. 21). Whereas knowledge waste means that companies are not using the full capacity of existing knowledge. As outlined by Ferenhof (2011) it is any failure in the process of knowledge conversion. These definitions imply differences between the concepts, the literature however suggests that many authors uses them interchangeably. Is that correct? Are the concepts important, of relevance? The present article's aim is to highlight the importance of having better insights into the concepts. The authors believe that both theory and corporate practice will benefit from an improved understanding.

  • 49.
    Aisenberg Ferenhof, Helio
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Selig, Paulo Mauricio
    Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil.
    Knowledge waste in organizations: A review of previous studies2015In: Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 1679-8171, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 160-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are interested in the knowledge that is “wasted” in organizations, that is existing relevant knowledge that is overlooked in the process of knowledge conversion. Given the competitive pressure firms are facing in today´s business environment, a waste of knowledge is not only costly but also dangerous. This means that we consider knowledge from a knowledge at risk perspective. Having this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to review research on knowledge waste in organizations to establish our current body of knowledge regarding this topic. The study consists of a systematic review of 51 peer-reviewed articles addressing knowledge waste in organizations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no systematic literature review on this topic has previously been published or presented. The topic seems to be a promising field for intensive research and offers a variety of future research avenues. In view of practitioners, the study´s finding may enable an increased awareness towards the areas where existing knowledge is at the mercy of “waste”. This can assist practitioners to better cope with risks related to this waste and, therefore, better exploit the (limited) knowledge base available.

  • 50.
    Aisenberg Ferenhof, Helio
    et al.
    Production Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Zaniboni Bialecki, Mariana
    Production Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Selig, Paulo Mauricio
    Engineering & Knowledge Management Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Intellectual capital dimensions: state of the art in 20142015In: Journal of Intellectual Capital, ISSN 1469-1930, E-ISSN 1758-7468, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 58-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review extant literature to identify models intended to measure/classify intellectual capital (IC) to establish the current body of knowledge that has been built since the review by Marr et al. (2004).

    Design/methodology/approach – The study consists of a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles on IC classification. The review was conducted for the period 2004-2014 in order to reach the aim. To ensure that all major models are included, important works developed prior to 2004 were captured as well.

    Findings – The review resulted in 83 additional models indicating continued research activities with regard to the topic. These models were merged with prior IC models and mapped on a timeline. The timeline clarifies that 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 represent the years of greatest research activity (outcomes). Additionally, the analysis of the list of IC frameworks resulted in the development of an IC Meta model. It synthesizes research activities in the field and highlights the main IC dimensions and sub-dimensions.

    Research limitations/implications – This study may not have enabled a complete coverage of all existing peer-reviewed articles in the field of IC classification. Yet, it seems reasonable to assume that the review process covered a large proportion of studies available.

    Originality/value – By aggregating and consolidating the IC frameworks covered, the study does not only provide an IC Meta model, but also promising directions for future research.

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