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  • 1.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Limbu, Yam B.
    Feliciano School of Business, Montclair State University, USA.
    Mamun, Md. Al
    Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Facebook usage intensity and compulsive buying tendency: the mediating role of envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion and the moderating role of depression2019In: International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, ISSN 1741-1025, E-ISSN 1741-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While Facebook usage intensity (FBUI) and compulsive buying tendency (CBT) have individually received increased research attention, very little is known about the mechanisms through which FBUI affects CBT. This study proposes and tests a multiple mediation model in which the effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by personality characteristics (envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion). The study also explores the moderating effect of depression on these mediated relationships. The results of a self-administered survey of 393 Bangladeshi adults support the proposed moderated mediation model. The effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by envy and self-esteem independently. The FBUI indirectly affects CBT through serial mediators: i) envy and self-esteem and ii) envy and self-promotion. These serial mediating effects are moderated by depression. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 2.
    Aronsson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kan tacksamhet främja moraliskt beteende?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har undersökt om tacksamhet kan påverka vårt moraliska beteende, genom att se över studier som gjorts inom psykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mestadels på hur det kognitiva resonerandet påverkar ens moral. På senare tid har forskningen allt mer betonat specifika emotioners avgörande roll för om man agerar efter moraliska normer eller inte. Dessa emotioner benämns som moraliska emotioner. En av dessa moraliska emotioner är tacksamhet. Tacksamhet har i studier visats fungera som en moralisk barometer, stärka välgörares fortsatta moraliska beteende samt fungera som ett moraliskt motiv. Den neurala grunden för tacksamhet är ännu relativt outforskad. Emotioners generella påverkan på moraliskt beteende samt positiva emotioners tendenser till agerande (eng: action tendencies) kan dock ses som ett steg till ökad förståelse om hur tacksamheten påverkar vårt moraliska beteende.

  • 3.
    Asplund Fromholz, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anspänning, oro och stress är tre begrepp som har studerats länge, vilket har gett upphov till flertalet modeller, teorier och domäner där dessa begrepp har studerats och fortfarande studeras. I denna uppsats så kommer dessa tre begrepp bland annat att redogöras för var för sig med koppling till mätmetoder, idrott och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva hur idrottsprestationer kan påverkas av anspänning, oro och stress för att utifrån det kunna redogöra för evidensbaserade metoder som kan appliceras för att främja en idrottsprestation. Först kommer anspänning att redogöras för, anspänning följs sedan av oro som i sin tur följs av stress som sista begrepp. Avslutningsvis så behandlas även problematik och möjligheter för dessa begrepp inom forskningsfältet och dess tillämpningsområden.

  • 4.
    Backström, Linus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Establishing a biopsychosocial model for conspiracy theory ideation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide the grounds for a biopsychosocial understanding of the underpinnings of conspiracy theorist ideation by studying research articles from different scientific disciplines. Cross-disciplinary concurring results are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of how conspiracy theories have been used during the 20th century. Also discussed is how this is used in political discourse in the populist climate of today, with the rise of radical right-wing movements, the justification of “alternative facts” from higher governmental ranks, and religious fundamentalism, making it a societal issue of possible big magnitude. Neurological similarities was found between religiousness and proneness to conspiracy theory ideation, and the articles concerning neural correlates therefore stem from research on religious individuals due to the lack of neuro-biopsychological research on actual conspiracy theorists. Since conspiracy theory ideation has shown the ability to cause negative consequences it is also advised that governmental agencies and society as a whole revise its stance on populism and the spread of flawed information, in order to maintain an open society. Also presented are a few ideas on how to begin countering the rise of populism.

  • 5.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Neurovetenskaplig psykiatri2018In: Psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, no 2, p. 47-49Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Borgström, Juliana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cyclical Women: Menstrual Cycle Effects on Mood and Neuro-Cognitive Performance2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During roughly forty years of a woman’s life-span, the fertile female human body prepares itself monthly for the possibility of pregnancy. Science has shown that the fluctuation of the sex steroids progesterone and estrogen have a crucial role in the female body's physiology, determining the menstrual cycle and its general phases. This biological dance of hormones governing the cycle influences a lot of physical, mental and cognitive aspects of life for a fertile ovulating woman. Although the question of whether these changes also affect women's cognitive performance is still unclear, some evidence has been gathered that could bring us closer to answers. Recent research findings show that this hormonal interplay might have a significant role in cognitive and psychological development - modulating brain activity, cognitive performance, higher cognition, emotional status, sensory processing, appetite and more. This thesis aims to uncover to what extent the menstrual cycle affects brain functions, neurobiology, mood, well-being and cognitive performance in menstruating cisgender women.

  • 7.
    Gusevac, Stela
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Emotion Regulation: Functional neuroimaging studies of cognitive reappraisal2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of investigating Emotion Regulation (ER) may be self-evident, given that emotions have a substantial impact on our daily lives. ER encompasses set of processes that people go through in order to cultivate their feelings that arise at the moment and produce some response. Brain-imaging studies of ER have broadly focused on examining cognitive strategies, such as reappraisal, in order to understand underlying variables that contribute to the development of this particular process of emotions. The main focus in this paper was to summarize some of the observation done by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) on neural processes underlying cognitive reappraisal. Furthermore, the paper will discuss some of these experiments that have been made through the last 15 years in the field where indications have been somewhat confusing when it comes to certain aspects of presented data, especially in comparison with other studies. Finally, a brief overview and some of the significant contributions, such as a process model of ER, to the field of ER have been presented and discussed. Cognitive reappraisal has been shown to effectively down-regulate subjective emotional experience. Even though many studies have been performed in measuring brain-activity when engaging in cognitive reappraisal, a unified and accepted agreement has yet not been found. In broader terms, brain-responses when engaging in cognitive reappraisal seem to operate in a particular manner where different parts of prefrontal and parietal cortex execute control over subcortical regions, such as amygdala.

  • 8.
    Hammarlund, Kina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Andersson, Emilie
    Home healthcare, Falköping Municipality, Falköping, Sweden.
    Tenenbaum, Hanna
    Primary healthcare, Vara, Sweden.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    We are also interested in how fathers feel: a qualitative exploration of child health center nurses' recognition of postnatal depression in fathers2015In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 15, article id 290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To become a parent is an emotionally life-changing experience. Paternal depression during the postnatal period has been associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children. The condition has predominantly been related to mothers, and the recognition of paternal postnatal depression (PND) has been paid less attention to. PND in fathers may be difficult to detect. However, nurses in pediatric services meet a lot of fathers and are in a position to detect a father who is suffering from PND. Therefore, the aim of this study was (a) to explore Child Health Center nurses' experiences of observing depression in fathers during the postnatal period; and (b) to explore hindrances of observing these fathers.

    METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Ten nurses were interviewed in 2014. A thematic data analysis was performed and data were analyzed for meaning.

    RESULTS: Paternal PND was experienced as being vague and difficult to detect. Experiences of fathers with such problems were limited, and it was hard to grasp the health status of the fathers, something which was further complicated when routines were lacking or when gender attitudes influenced the daily work of the nurses.

    CONCLUSION: This study contributes to an increased awareness of hindrances to the recognition of PND in fathers. The importance to detect all signals of paternal health status in fathers suffering from PND needs to be acknowledged. Overall, more attention needs to be paid to PND in fathers where a part of the solution for this is that they are screened just like the mothers.

  • 9.
    Hemeren, Paul E.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Detecting Cyclists at Night: visibility effects of reflector placement and different lighting conditions2017In: Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Cycling Safety Conference, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hemeren, Paul
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ekman, Kristoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Veto, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Use of Perceptual Cues to Determine the Intent of Cyclists in Traffic2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Hemeren, Paul
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ekman, Kristoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Veto, Peter
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    The Use of Visual Cues to Determine the Intent of Cyclists in Traffic2014In: 2014 IEEE International Inter-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), IEEE Press, 2014, p. 47-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to answer the following central questions: 1) How accurate are human observers at predicting the behavior of cyclists as the cyclists approached a crossing? 2) If the accuracy is reliably better than chance, what cues were used to make the predictions? 3) At what distance from the crossing did the most critical cues occur? 4) Can the cues be used in a model that can reliably predict cyclist intent? We present results that show a number of indicators that can be used in to predict the intention of a cyclist, i.e., future actions of a cyclist, e.g., “left turn” or “continue forward” etc.

    Results of empirical studies show that humans are reasonably good at this type of prediction for a majority of the situations studied. However, some situations seem to contain conflicting information. The results also suggested that human prediction of intention is to a large extent relying on a single “strong” indicator, e.g., that the cyclist makes a clear “head movement”. Several “weaker" indicators that together could be a strong “combined indicator”, or equivalently strong evidence, is likely to be missed or too complex to be handled by humans in real-time. We suggest this line of research can be used to create decision support systems that predict the behavior of cyclists in traffic.

  • 12.
    Hemeren, Paul
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ekman, Kristoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Veto, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    URBANIST: Signaler som används för att avläsa cyklisters intentioner i trafiken2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att titta på ett fåtal bestämda signaler kan man med god träffsäkerhet förutsäga cyklisters beteende, vilket tyder på att de identifierade signalerna är betydelsefulla. Vetskapen om dessa kan, bland annat, praktiskt användas för att utveckla enkla hjälpmedel – såsom medveten placering av fluorescerande eller reflekterande material på leder och/eller införande av olikfärgade hjälmsidor. Dylika kan förväntas förstärka kommunikationen av viktiga signaler. Vetskapen kan även användas för att utbilda oerfarna bilförare. Båda fallen kan i förlängningen ge en säkrare trafikmiljö för oskyddade trafikanter.

  • 13.
    Ibrahim, Lara
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Sexigt eller praktiskt: En studie om sexualiserade kläder på hjältinnor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research determines that media’s use of a sexualized woman affects the perception of her competence. This work has therefore investigated whether the perception of a game heroine, based on the Lara-phenomenon by Jansz & Martis (2007), is influenced by sexualized versus non-sexualized designs of her clothes. With the help of surveys, the study has examined 4 foreign students' media consumption to see if this had an influence on their interpretations of the heroine's qualities. The informants had to watch 2D images of a heroine in 4 different clothing conditions and assess her qualities during group interviews. The result shows that media consumption had an influence on the participants' ideals and that the qualities smart, strong and attractive were judged primarily by the heroine's adaptation to the gaming environment. 3 out of 4 participants chose to play as the character in the neutral bottom condition because the clothes showed adaptation to the gaming environment and represented a current beauty ideal. Future work should avoid exposure to the game's climate or environment to see if other reasoning occur. 

  • 14.
    Jonsson, Leksell, Isac, Andréa
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    KONTEXT OCH UPPFATTNING: Kontextens påverkan på ljud och grafik i ett Science Fiction-spel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien som utförs i denna uppsats undersöker problemformuleringen “I hur stor utsträckning påverkar förutfattad information om spelsituationen uppfattningen av ljud och grafik, samt spelarens agerande, i en Science Fiction-miljö?” med hjälp utav en kort spelprototyp som artefakt. Deltagare till studien blev presenterade med en viss typ av information beroende på vilken testgrupp de placerats i. Detta för att potentiellt stärka hur deltagaren upplever ljud och grafik i spelet. Denna studie presenterar och tar stöd från tidigare forskning gällande hur ljud uppfattas, hur grafik uppfattas och vad som definierar skräck samt Science Fiction. Resultaten från denna studie skall ge områdena som tas upp i studien mer förståelse för hur information skall hanteras och presenteras för bästa effekt. Resultaten visar antydningar på att ljud påverkas minimalt medan grafik inte påverkades alls, men denna effekt var starkast till gruppen utan den nämnda informationen. Tendenserna som visar sig i undersökningen har möjlighet att vidare undersökas i framtida arbete.

  • 15.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility predicting self-estimated academic performance2016In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established relationships between the Big Five personality factors, cognitive ability, and academic performance. A more recent personality trait, Honesty-Humility with its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) is suggested to have predictive value especially in self-promoting behaviors. The aim of the present study was to find out whether lower Honesty-Humility would predict higher self-reported academic performance, and account for additional variance, after controlling for the Big Five and cognitive ability. The participants were Swedish 17-19 year-old students (N = 154) in late secondary high school. The results revealed a significant negative correlation between Honesty-Humility and self-estimated academic performance, mainly through low scores in the facets Sincerity and Modesty, as well as an additional 7% accounted for variance. The discussion concludes that the new trait Honesty-Humility may be a welcomed addition to the understanding of how students use self-promoting strategies in contemporary school.

  • 16.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Test-dependent activations of Neuroticism and Dark Triad predicting self-estimated intelligence2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between self-estimated and observed intelligence has sparked an interest among researchers in recent years. However, studies on the relationship between how personality traits predict self-estimations of intelligence in different test-settings are still not explored. This study set up a two-way experimental within-subjects design (N = 84) to test how prior personality traits predict self-estimated intelligence, immidiately after having performed an intelligence-test. At a first occasion, an explicitly easy intelligence-test (Kajonius, 2014) under relaxed pretenses was given to a number of work psychology students, and at a second occasion two months later a difficult intelligence test (Condon & Revelle, 2014, ICAR16) with time pressure was given to the same students. No test-scores or personality traits’ results were revealed until after the study. An expected relationship between self-estimated and observed intelligence of similar strength was found in both conditions (r ~ .55). Also, the students’ prior personality tests (Big Five Inventory-44) showed that neuroticism had a negative relationship with self-estimated intelligence (r ~ -.30), similarly in both conditions. However, the self-enhancing traits of Machiavellianism and narcissism (Short Dark Triad-3) showed a significant positive relationship with self-estimated intelligence only in the easy condition (r = .30) and not in the difficult condition (r = .10). The discussion suggests that neither student exits nor adjustment effects can explain the differences in the impact of dark triad traits between the conditions. The conclusion is that the study implies that test situations can activate personality traits differently, while the accuracy of self-perceived intelligence is more constant.

  • 17.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    The Impact of Care Process on Satisfaction with Elderly Care2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is based on the growing interest in Swedish elderly care. The aim of this thesis is to investigate what generates satisfaction with elderly care among older persons. The dominant ideology in both privately and publically run elderly care is individualized care, also called person-centered care, which holds the older person’s satisfaction as one of the main quality indicators. The proportion of older people is increasing and to maintain high levels of satisfaction with elderly care will require more knowledge. Data from the National Board of Health and Welfare’s (2012) nationwide survey on seniors’ experiences with elderly care was collected. Statistical analyses of this sample formed the basis for the results of the thesis and were reported in two papers. Study I used Donabedian’s (1988) model of quality of care in terms of structure, process, and outcome, and all municipal units in Sweden were included (N = 324). The results showed that structural variables (i.e. budget, staff, and training level) have minimal or no relationships with older persons’ satisfaction with care, while process variables (i.e. experiences of respect, information, and influence) have strong relationships with satisfaction with care. Study II made use of the long-standing person versus situation- model in social psychology, and was analyzed on an individual level (N = 95,000). The results showed that care process factors (i.e. experiences of treatment, safeness, staff- and time-availability) had a stronger relationship, than individual factors (i.e. health, anxiety, and loneliness) with satisfaction with care. The results also showed that older persons with home care generally felt better treated than older persons in nursing homes, but also felt less safe. Mediational analyses, based on this comprehensive elderly data, suggest that the individual aging condition of loneliness can be countered by providing safeness and treatment, resulting in high satisfaction with care. In conclusion, satisfaction with elderly care in Sweden today can largely be explained from a psychological perspective by the older persons’ perception of the care process, not by the amount of structural resources or the conditions of the aging persons. These findings could help facilitate the future quality development in municipalities and care organizations.

  • 18.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg / Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Björkman, Therese
    Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress2018In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of thepresent study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism(MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a communitysample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, whilegrandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on thatnarcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to theexperience of stress in everyday life.

  • 19.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Older Persons’ Subjective Evaluations of Care Quality: Three studies Analyzing the National Survey of Swedish Elderly Care2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the proportion of older people in coming years is increasing, and as the organizations of home care and nursing homes grow to manage the expectations from the population, the debate on the quality of elderly care has gained a new momentum. Today, most decision-makers within elderly care in Sweden base their actions on the nation-wide annual quality report on elderly care from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Open Comparisons. This research presents findings from this national survey conducted in 2012, including a wide variety of indicators for elderly care services in all Swedish municipalities (N = 324) based on the responses from over 95,000 older persons. Study I presents that structural variables (i.e., budget resources and personnel training) overall did not correlate with older persons’ perceived quality of care, while processual variables (i.e., influence, respect, and access to information) showed moderate to strong correlations. Study II presents that overall satisfaction with care was strongly correlated with evaluation of relationship with care personnel and feelings of safeness. Study III presents an overall municipality quality-index with which comparisons between municipalities can be made, showing that the highest and the lowest ranked municipalities did not differ strongly on indicators of quality (d < 0.6). The conclusion is that there currently exists no reliable and valid measure which manages to tap quality of municipal elderly care, and that developing a new client-care centered climate scale should prove to be fruitful. Seeing how a person-centered theoretical approach is receiving support from this large national sample, implications for extending the theoretical frame of person-centeredness into psychological climate research in organizations is proposed. 

  • 20.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Rankning av Sveriges kommuners äldreomsorg i Öppna jämförelser2014In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 323-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med den ökande andelen äldre personer i Sverige har diskussionen om kvalitet i äldreomsorgen tagit ny fart. Idag är äldreomsorgsbeslut baserat på den omfattande årsrapporten, Öppna jämförelser, som rankar alla Sveriges kommuner utifrån ett antal kvalitetsindikatorer. Relevant för området sociala studier och hälsa, visar sekundäranalyser av dessa data att Öppna jämförelser gör en missvisande rankning som inte tar hänsyn till hur de äldre har svarat, och inte heller påtalar hur små skillnaderna mellan högst och lägst rankade kommuner är. Genom att använda effektstorleksmått presenteras i artikeln ett nytt och mer korrekt sätt att ranka kommuner. Vidare föreslås i denna artikel att Öppna jämförelser i sina framtida mätningar inkluderar reliabla och valida mått på brukarorienterad omsorg då detta har visat sig ha positiva effekter på äldres upplevelse av omsorgskvalitet.

  • 21.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Safeness and Treatment Mitigate the Effect of Loneliness on Satisfaction with Elderly Care2016In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 928-936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximizing satisfaction among the older persons is the goal of modern individualized elderly care and how to best achieve this is of relevance for anyone planning and providing for elderly care services. Purpose of the study: What predicts satisfaction with care among older persons can be conceived as a function of process (how care is performed), and the older person. Inspired by the long-standing person versus situation debate, the present research investigated the interplay between person- and process aspects in predicting satisfaction with elderly care. Design and method: A representative nationwide sample was analyzed, based on a questionnaire sent out to 95,000 individuals using elderly care services. Results: The results showed that person-related factors (i.e., anxiety, health, and loneliness) were significant predictors of satisfaction with care, although less strongly than process-related factors (i.e., treatment, safeness, and perceived staff- and time availability). Among the person-related factors, loneliness was the strongest predictor of satisfaction among older persons in nursing homes. Interestingly, a path analysis revealed that safeness and treatment function as mediators in linking loneliness to satisfaction. Implications: The results based on a large national sample demonstrate that the individual aging condition to a significant degree can be countered by a well-functioning care process, resulting in higher satisfaction with care among older persons. 

  • 22.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128)2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 129, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reports on the scope and size of sex differences in 30 personality facet traits, using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). The study was one of the first to utilize the open access version of the Five-Factor Model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the large public. Overall, across age-groups 19–69 years old, women scored notably higher than men in Agreeableness (d = 0.58) and Neuroticism (d = 0.40). Specifically, women scored d > 0.50 in facet traits Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy, while men only scored slightly higher (d > 0.20) than women in facet traits Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect. Sex gaps in the five trait domains were fairly constant across all age-groups, with the exception for age-group 19–29 years old. The discussion centers on how to interpret effects sizes in sex differences in personality traits, and tentative consequences. 

  • 23.
    Karlsson, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Stress: From a biological, social, and psychological perspective2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years stress has been a term lacking one clear and specific definition. In general, the term stress has been used mostly as an explanation of a response or reaction to a stressor. A stressor can be of both physiological and behavioral character. The experience of stress can occur both due to a real or a perceived stressor. In this literature review, the concept of stress is viewed with insights from biological, psychological, and social perspectives. The stress response is described biologically with the central nervous system (CNS), the brain, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Social and psychological stress are concepts related to how stress is perceived by the mind and due to social surroundings which is described in relation to social support, self-efficacy, the locus of control and cognitive appraisal. Dealing with stress can be done through coping which refers to the individual capacity to handle a stressor and has generally been divided into two categories, active/passive coping and problem-focused/emotion-focused coping. Depending on the individual resources to cope with a stressor and the ability to decrease the stress response when needed, the long-term effects of stress can therefore vary between individuals. It has been found that positive coping (known as reducing stress) can increase the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume and decrease anxiety and depression. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus, and the amygdala are closely linked to the ACC and affect emotions, learning, and memory related to the stress response.

  • 24.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Avslutande reflektioner kring socialpsykologiska aspekter på välbefinnande2009In: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 195-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Välbefinnande2009In: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 23-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Division of Gerontology, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    User-oriented elderly care: A validation study in two different settings using observational data2015In: Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, ISSN 1471-7794, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 140-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - User-oriented care, defined as individualized assisting behaviors, is the dominant approach within elderly care today. Yet, there is little known about its conceptual structure. This paper proposes that user-oriented care has a bi-partite structure which may be decomposed into the two dimensions of task and relation. Design/methodology/approach - Care workers were "shadowed" (i.e. observed) at their work (n=391 rated interactions). User-oriented care was assessed along ten process quality indicators targeting the acts of caregiving (i.e. task focus, relation focus, involvement, time-use, body language, autonomy, respect, warmth, encouragement, and information) in two elderly care settings, i.e. home care and nursing home. Observations added up to 45 hours. Findings - Principal component analyses confirmed the proposed two-factor structure of user-oriented care. Specifically, the user-oriented care indicators loaded on two distinct factors, i.e. task and relation. The underlying structure of user-oriented care revealed to be invariant across the two settings. However, the results revealed interesting structural differences in terms of explained variance and the magnitude of factor loadings in the home care and nursing home settings. Differences also emerged specifically pertaining to the indicators of autonomy and time-use. These findings suggest that user-oriented behavior may to some extent denote different acts of caregiving and what may be called task- and relation-orientation may be loaded with different meanings in these two care settings. Originality/value - This is the first study investigating user-oriented behavior in the context of elderly care using a quantitative observational approach. The authors propose that the observed differences between the two care settings are primarily not due to better elderly care work in home care, but due to some inherent differences between these two contexts of care (e.g. better health and living at home). © Ali Kazemi and Petri J. Kajonius. Published by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 28.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Rättvist ledarskap2009In: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 37-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Kralj, Andrea
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The neurobiology underlying personality traits and conflict behavior: Examining the similarities in brain regions between agreeableness, aggression and dominating conflict style2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicts are part of our everyday life and the field of psychology describes how specific personality traits relate to specific conflict styles. However, the question remaining is why these relations exist? Recently, personality neuroscience has begun pinning down the neurobiology of personality traits, providing a deeper understanding of the human behavior. The present thesis utilizes the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1990) of personality to investigate the neurobiology underlying the inverse relation between the specific personality trait of Agreeableness and dominating conflict style (a conflict management style characterized by aggressiveness, authoritarianism and/or need for dominance). Agreeableness overlaps both empathy and aggression which can work as each other’s opposites in explaining conflict behaviors. The goal of the thesis was to investigate whether the inverse relation between Agreeableness and dominating conflict style can be explained by brain regions. Brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex and regions involving anterior cingulate appear to be the most prominent neurobiology describing the relation. Serotonin is the neural substance involved in most cortical and subcortical brain structures and it also regulates the suppression of aggression, making it an important substance both within Agreeableness and the preference for dominating conflict style. The thesis will sum up with a discussion including some limitations within the research and further aspects such the consequences of the findings will be discussed.

  • 30.
    Lidén, Josefin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Intrinsic Motivation and its Neural Correlates2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Why is motivation important? The answer is simple to most of us: it is what makes people push forward and act. Intrinsic motivation is the kind of motivation that arises from within a person, making her or him strive towards a goal for no other reward than the feeling it will bring. Additionally, this kind of motivation has shown correlations with enhanced learning, creativity, performance, optimal development, and well-being. While intrinsic motivation has long been a topic within the field of psychology, the neural correlates underlying it have only recently become of interest for researchers, and studies have shown some interesting but also contradictory findings. Therefore, the aim of this literature review thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation further. Firstly, a background review of motivation in general and intrinsic motivation in particular is presented, focusing on concepts such as the self-determination theory, flow, and cognitive evaluation theory. This is followed by a chapter on motivation- and intrinsic motivation from a neuroscientific perspective, concerning concepts such as the reward system, the undermining effect, and studies examining the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation. These studies show that there was activity in several different areas when participants were intrinsically motivated. However, a frequent pattern of activity in dopaminergic pathways involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was detected in most studies, indicating the involvement of these areas in particular when a person is intrinsically motivated.

  • 31.
    Nair, Vipul
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Drejing, Karl
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Incidental processing of biological motion:: Effects of orientation, local-motion and global-form features2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on biological motion perception indicate that the processing of biological motion is fast and automatic. A segment of these studies has shown that task irrelevant and to-be-ignored biological figures are incidentally processed since they interfere with the main task. However more evidence is needed to understand the role of local-motion and global-form processing mechanisms in incidentally processed biological figures. This study investigates the effects of local-motion and global-form features on incidental processing. Point light walkers (PLW) were used in a flanker paradigm in a direction discrimination task to assess the influence of the flankers. Our results show that upright oriented PLW flankers with global-form features have more influence on visual processing of the central PLW than inverted or scrambled PLW flankers with only local-motion features.

  • 32.
    Niemi, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neuroscientific perspective on the bidirectional relationship between life satisfaction and health: Are people happier because they are healthy, or are they healthier because they are happy?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bentham’s 1832 Greatest Happiness Principle states that the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people should be the goal of public policy. When people are asked what they wish for in life, health and happiness are consistently mentioned. This thesis examines the relationship between health and happiness. However, as happiness is difficult to consistently operationalize across different studies and scientific disciplines, life satisfaction is used as a proxy for happiness. This thesis studies the relationship between health and life satisfaction with a particular focus on the directionality of the relationship and the tentative processes indicated to be involved with this process. This study is accomplished through a literary review of the scientific literature related to life satisfaction, its neural correlates and their relationship with physical health. This study is modelled on the top-down, bottom-up and bidirectional debate within the larger Subjective Well-Being (SWB) literature. The results indicate that the correlation between life satisfaction and health appears to be robust, but the exact directionality and causality is unclear and difficult to establish with a literary review, with only predictive ability of life satisfaction on later physical health or vice versa established. Furthermore, the results appear to indicate that the central process linking this relationship is resilience - the ability to adaptively respond to stressors. Enhancing resiliency through psychological interventions may be a method to promote happiness and health in individuals as well as in society as a whole.

  • 33.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Department of Behavioral Science and Social Work, Jönköping university, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Cultivating mindfulness through the practice of iaidō2017In: Contemporary Buddhism, ISSN 1463-9947, E-ISSN 1476-7953, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Department of Literature, History of Ideas and Religion, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Making Mindfulness: Highlighting the Social and Existential Dimensions2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Mindful hållbart åldrande – holistiskt åldrande i ny belysning2016In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 93, no 6, p. 692-703Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Socioexistential mindfulness: Bringing empathy and compassion into health care practice2016In: Spirituality in Clinical Practice, ISSN 2326-4500, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet / Karolinska Institutet.
    Mindfulness – terapier och paradoxer2016In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 106-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Reconciling and Thematizing Definitions of Mindfulness: The Big Five of Mindfulness2016In: Review of General Psychology, ISSN 1089-2680, E-ISSN 1939-1552, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 183-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Review of General Psychology on Jul 11 2016 (see record 2016-33699-001). In the original article, there was an error in the abstract. The second core element of the concept of mindfulness yielded by the analysis was incorrectly listed as “nonjudgmental attitude.” It should be “present-centeredness.” The online version of this article has been corrected.] Mindfulness is an emerging concept in many professions and spheres of social life. However, mindfulness (or sati in Buddhism) can connote many plausible meanings. Thus, the concept is not easily defined and the definitions provided in the literature easily confuse the reader. Some mindfulness researchers offer definitions whereas others do not and take the definition of mindfulness for granted. Beyond the problem of defining mindfulness, the fact that the phenomenon is of great interest to various disciplines, each of which has its own theoretical and methodological approaches, different authors use different terms in describing this phenomenon. In the present article 33 definitions of mindfulness were extracted from a pool of 308 peer-reviewed full-length theoretical or empirical articles written in English, published between 1993 and March 2016, after systematic searches in Google Scholar, PsycARTICLES, and SocINDEX. The definitions were analyzed with a particular focus on the defining attributes or core elements of the concept of mindfulness. The analysis yielded 4 core elements of awareness and attention, present-centeredness, external events, and cultivation. Furthermore, an additional core element emerged from this analysis as being absent in Western definitions of mindfulness. This formed the basis for formulation of a new definition of mindfulness with an emphasis on ethical-mindedness. We argue that this core element is instrumental in filling in the gap that exists in current Western definitions, and with highlighting this element we hope to bridge the Western and Buddhist notions of mindfulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 39.
    Palmquist, Adam
    Magelungen Utveckling / Akademi Magelungen.
    Det spelifierade klassrummet2018 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Ramos Knudsen, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Neural Correlates of Bilingual Language Control: Lifelong Bilingualism and its Mitigating Effects on Cognitive Decline2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speaking a second language requires the ability to keep the two languages apart so that language interference can be avoided, allowing the target language to be used fluently. As such, cognitive control systems are used more extensively in bilinguals compared to monolinguals, a process referred to as bilingual language control (BLC). In the past few decades, the cognitive and structural effects of this lifelong language control experience have been of great interest among researchers within the field of cognitive neuroscience. The present thesis reviews current knowledge on the neural correlates of bilingual language control in high proficient bilingual speakers who actively use both languages in their everyday lives. Language proficiency and frequency of use are important aspects to consider since they both modulate brain activity and structure. Indeed, some studies fail to provide this information. Neuroimaging studies reveal consistent brain activity in a network of cortical and subcortical areas in bilingual speakers during non-verbal and verbal executive control tasks. These brain areas include the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), inferior parietal lobes (IPLs), basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum. Research also indicates that bilingualism serves as a protective variable against age-related cognitive decline. Studying the effects of lifelong bilingualism on the brain has therefore proven to be important since it can influence an individual’s ability to cope with age decline at a cognitive level. 

  • 41.
    Roos, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The winner takes IT all: Swedish digital divides in global internet usage2018In: Digital Transformation and Global Society / [ed] Daniel A. Alexandrov, Alexander V. Boukhanovsky, Andrei V. Chugunov, Yury Kabanov, Olessia Koltsova, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 859, p. 3-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we examined the influence of personality factors and demographic factors on Internet usage. Personality was defined from the Five Factor Model of personality in terms of Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism, while demographic factors were defined as gender, age and socioeconomic status (e.g. income and educational attainment). The results from a large, representative Swedish sample (N = 1,694) show that global Internet usage can be explained by a high degree of Extraversion, young age and high socioeconomic status. Our findings are consistent with some previous studies, but in contrast with others. We discuss contrasting results in terms of different study designs, cultures and time periods of Internet development. The results are discussed in terms of the “rich get richer model” and digital divides, and what broader implication our findings might have for society. The study may help facilitate our understanding regarding future challenges in the Internet design. 

  • 42.
    Sakko, Christopher
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Hur spelare tar sig an olika typer av moraliska val2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur bemöter spelare moraliska val i spel? Beror det på psykologiska fördomar? Att alltid vilja göra det ”rätta” valet? Skiljer de på moral i spel och moral i verkligheten? Det kan vara flera olika faktorer som påverkar. Studien tittade på tidigare undersökningar och teorier relaterade till ämnet som visade på att spelare oftast vill göra det ”rätta” valet och att faktorer som skuld och skada är de viktigaste faktorerna som påverkar hur spelare tar ett moraliskt beslut. Syftet med denna undersökning var att ta reda på hur spelvana personer resonerar när de ställs inför olika moraliska problem. För att testa denna problemformulering skapade jag en artefakt som innehöll fem olika moraliska problem. Artefakten skapades i Twine; ett verktyg för att skriva icke-linjära berättelser. De sju spelvana respondenterna fyllde sedan i en enkät och svarade på vilka val de gjorde och varför. Resultaten bekräftade mycket av det den tidigare forskningen kommit fram till och visade att respondenterna oftast följer sin egna moraliska kompass i spel som erbjuder moraliska val. Skuld och skada var de faktorer som mest påverkade hur respondenterna gjorde sina val vilket bekräftar det tidigare forskning sagt. De är också fullt medvetna om att valen de gör sker inom en fiktiv värld och hade inga problem med att skilja moral i spel från moral i verkligheten. Resultaten visar även att de följer någon form av konsekvensetik. Framtida arbeten kan genomföra studien med intervjuer istället för enkäter då det blir enklare att kunna följa upp på en respondents svar och ställa relevanta följdfrågor. Undersökningens olika faktorer såsom deltagare, yrke och intressen kan enkelt bytas ut för att kunna forska kring andra grupper av personer relaterade till moral i spel.

  • 43.
    Vidlund, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Moral cognition and its neural correlates: Possibilites for enhancement of moral cognition and behavior2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to provide an overview of some key theories and frameworks regarding moral cognition and its neural correlates, in order to examine the possibilities of enhancement of moral cognition. Moral cognition arises from the functional integration of several distinct brain regions and networks. These neural systems correspond to different socioaffective abilities, such as empathy and compassion, as well as sociocognitive abilities, such as theory of mind. Due to this neural distinction, these moral abilities, behaviors, and emotions can be targeted and trained separately. Recent research suggests that training sociocognitive and socioaffective abilities increases cortical thickness in corresponding brain regions and networks, hence providing support for adult neural plasticity in relation to moral cognition. Increased cortical thickness also corresponds to enhanced performance in socioaffective and sociocognitive abilities. Training compassion and empathy induce enhanced abilities to pick up emotional cues, as well as strengthen the motivation to alleviate others’ distress. Practicing theory of mind allows for a better understanding of the perspective of others, which has been indicated to reduce biases between individuals or societal groups. Thus, enhanced moral cognition can contribute to an increase in consideration for those affected by our choices and behavior, which may yield more compassionate, just, and safe societies.

  • 44.
    Vingéus, Kevin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    AN INVESTIGATION ON MIMICKING WITH BREATH FOR IMMERSION: A case study on immersion comparing the differences between input-feedback and queued guidance during a breathing exercisein a VR experience using common hardware2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Practicing breathing exercises isn’t very engaging thou it is seen as great for well-being. Applications can utilize breath as a controller mechanism for interactions. With virtual reality (VR) being an effective tool for inducing the sense of immersion and presence, a breathing exercise was paired up with three alternative sessions in an application that was developed to examine the differences between mimicking and controlling input during an experience in VR, with the baseline of interaction being that of no other controllers but head-orientation-tracking of the VR device. Two pilot tests were performed to evaluate functionality and procedure. The main tests investigated the case of research. It was possible to identify mimicking as an immersive experience that promoted the breathing exercise, while input was more immersive but less beneficial towards performing the breathing exercise. The study was also conducted with- and addresses some design limitations of commonly accessible hardware.

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