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  • 1.
    Alm, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Förmågan att spegla känslor, avslöja lögner och gradera säkerhet: finns det ett samband dem emellan?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Underlättar kongruens mellan sinnestillstånd och påstående (vad gäller dess värdeladdning) vid bedömning av ett påståendes sanningshalt? Denna fråga uppkom via studier av embodiment och lögner, forskning från de båda områdena påvisar nämligen att olika ”kroppsliga signaler” kan hjälpa oss att avslöja om andra människor ljuger. Frågan har undersökts via en faktoriell design med repeterade mätningar där deltagarna försattes i olika sinnestillstånd varpå de utsattes för olika stimuli och fick göra olika bedömningar. Resultatet visade att kongruenta betingelser varken underlättar eller påskyndar vid bedömning av ett påståendes sanningshalt, däremot erhölls ett signifikant resultat som indikerade att kongruenta betingelser ökar människans konfidensnivå (högre grad av säkerhet vad gäller att en korrekt bedömning gjorts) vid bedömning av falska påståenden.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jacob
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kägu, David
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Casting glamour: En fenomenologisk studie om HBTQ-personers uttryck av sexualitet och kön i Final Fantasy XIV2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online games allow players all over the world to interact with each other in new ways in virtual worlds. Through the creation of visual representations of the players they can communicate and express themselves beyond the limits of the physical world. In this phenomenological study we investigate how and if LGBT individuals experience that they can express sexuality and gender identity in the online roleplaying game Final Fantasy XIV and if the game community affects this experience. With qualitative methods players of Final Fantasy XIV were interviewed to capture this experience and through a queer theoretical lens critically examine the norms of the game. These experiences were also analysed from a dramaturgical perspective and a focus on identity theories. The results suggest that the player, despite restrictions, find new and creative ways of expressing their sexuality and gender in the game world. The players do this by constructing alternative identities and perform with their avatars on the stage that is the virtual world. The community is a major part of this as the accepting atmosphere is perceived to encourage openness.

  • 3.
    Aronsson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kan tacksamhet främja moraliskt beteende?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har undersökt om tacksamhet kan påverka vårt moraliska beteende, genom att se över studier som gjorts inom psykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mestadels på hur det kognitiva resonerandet påverkar ens moral. På senare tid har forskningen allt mer betonat specifika emotioners avgörande roll för om man agerar efter moraliska normer eller inte. Dessa emotioner benämns som moraliska emotioner. En av dessa moraliska emotioner är tacksamhet. Tacksamhet har i studier visats fungera som en moralisk barometer, stärka välgörares fortsatta moraliska beteende samt fungera som ett moraliskt motiv. Den neurala grunden för tacksamhet är ännu relativt outforskad. Emotioners generella påverkan på moraliskt beteende samt positiva emotioners tendenser till agerande (eng: action tendencies) kan dock ses som ett steg till ökad förståelse om hur tacksamheten påverkar vårt moraliska beteende.

  • 4.
    Arweström Jansson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Axelsson, AntonDepartment of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Andreasson, RebeccaDepartment of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 13th Swecog conference2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bachmann, Talis
    et al.
    Estonian Center of Behavioral and Health Sciences, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    Estonian Center of Behavioral and Health Sciences, Estonian Center of Behavioral and Health Sciences, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Perception of successive targets presented in invariant-item streams2005In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When two successive, spatially overlapping, targets (S1 and S2) are presented on a blank background, S2 typically dominates in explicit perception. We tested whether S2 dominance is also found for the conditions of presenting S1 and S2 in a stream of irrelevant objects. Successive target letters were presented within a stream of invariant stimulus items (capital Is). The stream items were presented either as a perceptually continuous object where both type and token appeared invariant (60-Hz stream) or as a flickering stream of successive replicas of the invariant stationary object where the type appeared invariant but the token appearance seemed intermittent (20-Hz condition). Compared to the control condition where targets were presented on a blank background we found that (1) recognition rate was lower for targets embedded in a perceptually continuous type-and-token object (60 Hz), but was unchanged for targets in a perceptually flickering sequence of the invariant-object tokens (20 Hz); (2) S1 recognition rate was higher compared to S2 recognition rate within the first epoch of stream (0-150 ms) while within the later stream-epochs S2 dominated over S1 as usual; (3) the overall difference in recognition rates between S1 and S2 was decreased. The results are discussed in the theoretical context of visual masking and attentional blink.

  • 6.
    Backström, Linus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Establishing a biopsychosocial model for conspiracy theory ideation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide the grounds for a biopsychosocial understanding of the underpinnings of conspiracy theorist ideation by studying research articles from different scientific disciplines. Cross-disciplinary concurring results are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of how conspiracy theories have been used during the 20th century. Also discussed is how this is used in political discourse in the populist climate of today, with the rise of radical right-wing movements, the justification of “alternative facts” from higher governmental ranks, and religious fundamentalism, making it a societal issue of possible big magnitude. Neurological similarities was found between religiousness and proneness to conspiracy theory ideation, and the articles concerning neural correlates therefore stem from research on religious individuals due to the lack of neuro-biopsychological research on actual conspiracy theorists. Since conspiracy theory ideation has shown the ability to cause negative consequences it is also advised that governmental agencies and society as a whole revise its stance on populism and the spread of flawed information, in order to maintain an open society. Also presented are a few ideas on how to begin countering the rise of populism.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    KOGNITIVA ARBETSMILJÖPROBLEM OCH TEKNIKSTRESS I EN KOMPLEX VÅRDMILJÖ2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En god arbetsmiljö kan anses vara nyckeln till en välfungerande verksamhet. Arbetsmiljö som begrepp är dock oerhört komplext där många olika problemaspekter samverkar och påverkar arbetsplatsens miljö. Vissa arbetsmiljörelaterade problem kan härröras till egenskaper som inte tillåter individen att utnyttja sina kognitiva förmågor och benämns därmed som kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem. Andra faktorer som tekniska arbetsverktyg som skall vara de anställda behjälpliga, kan i de fall de brister, också påverka och störa tankeprocesserna hos individen. Den här rapportens syfte är att utveckla en förståelse om hur komplexa arbetsmiljöer samt interaktion med teknik kan skapa en stress som i förlängningen kan leda till kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och teknikstress. En kvalitativ fallstudie utfördes för att få en holistisk överblick över arbetsflödet. Studien genomfördes på en avdelning på ett äldreboende med hjälp av datainsamlingsteknikerna observation och intervju. Resultatet tyder på att kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och teknikstress är nära sammanlänkande och förutom tidigare identifierade kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem, framträdde även en ny dimension.

  • 8.
    Bergström, Clara
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Disturbed Eating Patterns and Body Image Distortions: A review2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women in general seem to have a complicated relationship with their bodies and their body image. A small percent of the female population develop a serious pathological eating pattern which is characterized by a disturbed image of body size and shape. This disturbance has been investigated by many researchers and the quest of finding the underlying neural correlates has progressed enormously during the last decade. The relationship between disturbed eating patterns and body image distortions is highly complicated. The purpose of this review article is to give an overview of current research literature and scientific results. The aim is to find a framework for the phenomenon of body image distortions among both healthy and non-healthy women. Differences between genders and how food intake affects body image will also be addressed. The focus lies on behavioral traits and the underlying neural correlates, with focus on both the perceptual and the cognitive-affective component.

  • 9.
    Clavenstam, Isabell
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Effect of Methamphetamine Abuse on Brain Structure and Function2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The great amount of METH abuse all over the world causes enormous social and criminal justice problems. In the human brain the abuse of METH causes implications on both structures and functions given rise to acute as well as long term symptoms. In this essay the effects of METH abuse is described in the manner of the drug mechanism such as the impact on neurotransmitters, structural deficits with decreased and increased volumes and the implication on attention, memory, decision  making and emotions. Results from studies showing brain structural and cognitive impairments in METH abusers and in prenatal METH exposed children.

  • 10.
    Dorsch, Michael J.
    et al.
    College of Business, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA.
    Törnblom, Kjell Y.
    TdLab ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    A Review of Resource Theories and Their Implications for Understanding Consumer Behavior2017In: Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, ISSN 2378-1815, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift to consumer-centric marketing accentuates the need for a more comprehensive understanding of consumer desires, including how consumers manage their resources to satisfy these desires. However, the complexity of the resource concept combined with a fragmented research stream thus far provides a limited understanding of consumer resources and their effect on consumer well-being. The purpose of this article is to encourage continued research into consumer resources, including resource exchange, to gain a more complete understanding of the concept and to facilitate the development of a unified theory of consumer resources. To accomplish our objective, resource theories proposed in different disciplines (economics, management/marketing, psychology, and social psychology) are summarized and used to provide research direction into a wide variety of consumer behavior issues related to consumer resource management and resource exchange behavior.

  • 11.
    Drejing, Karl
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engagement: A traceable motivational concept in human-robot interaction2015In: Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII), 2015 International Conference on, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 956-961Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engagement is essential to meaningful social interaction between humans. Understanding the mechanisms by which we detect engagement of other humans can help us understand how we can build robots that interact socially with humans. However, there is currently a lack of measurable engagement constructs on which to build an artificial system that can reliably support social interaction between humans and robots. This paper proposes a definition, based on motivation theories, and outlines a framework to explore the idea that engagement can be seen as specific behaviors and their attached magnitude or intensity. This is done by the use of data from multiple sources such as observer ratings, kinematic data, audio and outcomes of interactions. We use the domain of human-robot interaction in order to illustrate the application of this approach. The framework further suggests a method to gather and aggregate this data. If certain behaviors and their attached intensities co-occur with various levels of judged engagement, then engagement could be assessed by this framework consequently making it accessible to a robotic platform. This framework could improve the social capabilities of interactive agents by adding the ability to notice when and why an agent becomes disengaged, thereby providing the interactive agent with an ability to reengage him or her. We illustrate and propose validation of our framework with an example from robot-assisted therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder. The framework also represents a general approach that can be applied to other social interactive settings between humans and robots, such as interactions with elderly people.

  • 12.
    Einarsson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Composition, Conducting and Music Theory, Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Cognition and Interaction Lab, Human-Centered Systems Division, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a "bodily turn" in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we believe that the theoretical perspectives and concrete examples discussed in this paper help to elucidate how situations-and with them affordances-are dynamically constructed through the interactions of various mechanisms as people engage in embodied and situated activity.

  • 13.
    Elfstrand Corlin, Tinna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    The impact of personality on person-centred care: a study of care staff in Swedish nursing homes2017In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e12132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objective: In this study, we explore how personal and situational factors relate to the provision of person-centred care (PCC) in nursing homes. Specifically, we focus on the relationship between the care staff's personality traits and provision of PCC and to what extent perceptions of the working environment influences this relationship.

    Background: The ultimate goal of elderly care is to meet the older person's needs and individual preferences (PCC). Interpersonal aspects of care and the quality of relationship between the care staff and the older person are therefore central in PCC.

    Design and methods: A cross-sectional Swedish sample of elderly care staff (= 322) completed an electronic survey including measures of personality (Mini-IPIP) and person-centred care (Individualized Care Inventory, ICI). A principal component analysis was conducted on the ICI-data to separate the user orientation (process quality) of PCC from the preconditions (structure quality) of PCC.

    Results: Among the five factors of personality, neuroticism was the strongest predictor of ICI user orientation. ICI preconditions significantly mediated this relationship, indicating the importance of a supportive working environment. In addition, stress was introduced as a potential explanation and was shown to mediate the impact of neuroticism on ICI preconditions.

    Conclusions: Personality traits have a significant impact on user orientation, and the perception of a supportive and stress free working environment is an important prerequisite for achieving high-quality person-centred elderly care.

    Implications for practice: Understanding how personality is linked to the way care staff interacts with the older person adds a new perspective on provision of person-centred elderly care.

  • 14.
    Elfstrand Corlin, Tinna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Accounting for job satisfaction: Examining the interplay of person and situation2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 436-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we investigate the interplay of personality traits (i.e., person) in frontline care staff in nursing homes and the way they relate to the residents (i.e., situation) to account for their job satisfaction. Participants completed a survey including Mini-IPIP tapping the five-factor model of personality, Individualized Care Inventory tapping four aspects of person-centered care and job satisfaction. The results revealed that staff scoring high on neuroticism experienced less job satisfaction. This relationship was partly accounted for by resident autonomy, suggesting that part of the adverse influence of neuroticism on job satisfaction may be mitigated by organizations providing a supportive care environment. In contrast, staff scoring high on agreeableness experienced higher job satisfaction. This relationship was accounted for by another aspect of person-centered care, that is, knowing the person. This suggests that agreeableness in a sense facilitated adjustment of acts of care toward the unique needs and preferences of residents and this partly explained why the more agreeable the staff was the more they felt satisfied at work. In sum, effects of personality traits on job satisfaction in care staff are partially mediated by the perception of working conditions and care policy and to the extent that a certain personality trait affects whether the staff have a positive or negative perception of the way they relate to the residents, they will experience, respectively, higher or a lower job satisfaction. This finding has implications for how to combine a focus on delivering person-centered care with improving personal job satisfaction.

  • 15.
    Fridner, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    What Facilitates Client Motivation for Change?: A critical look at self-determined behavior change2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a client-centered, directive approach for behavior change. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is a theory of human motivation and self-determined growth. Both of these social-cognitive theories aim to explain motivation and health behavior change and have generated a lot of research on how to increase human motivation. However, MI lacks a definite theory on mechanisms of behavior change and SDT offers a theory of motivation based on extensive research on human interactions. This paper aims to critically look at facilitators of client motivation for behavior change in-session from a social-cognitive perspective on one hand, and neural correlates related to client behavior change on the other hand. MI and SDT somewhat similarly explain what most importantly determines client motivation for change in-session. However, SDT mainly focus on psychological needs such as fostering client autonomy, and MI focus on the therapeutic alliance and on generating client change talk in-session. Efforts to bridge the two methods aim at generating a clearer definition of motivation in MI, and a better framework of practice in SDT. Studies on neural correlates of behavior change support and challenge elements of both approaches, indicating the importance of autonomy and relatedness for motivating positive behavior change.

  • 16.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Personality traits and personal values: A replication with a Swedish sample2015In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain rigor and transparency in the science of personality psychology, we conducted a replication of the often cited “The Big Five Personality Factors and Personal Values” by Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, and Knafo (2002). More than a decade ago, based on a study of Israeli students, they presented results on how personality traits and personal values relate. In the current replication study with Swedish students, we related the Big Five personality traits to Schwartz´s personal values. Our results replicated most of the earlier findings. Whereas the earlier study tested the predictive validity of traits and values on religious beliefs, presumed to be under a relatively high degree of cognitive control, our study tested the willingness-to-pay for Fairtrade alternatives. Our findings confirmed the earlier findings that personal values explain substantially more variance than personality traits in this. We discuss that traits and values are different constructs and that their relationship is consistent across the two geographic locations and student cohorts.

  • 17.
    Jarl, Zandra
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Threshold between Life and Death: An Examination of Near Death Experiences2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    In studies on Near Death Experiences (NDE) data has been collected by using the recently developed scaling methods, the scale developed by Ring and the Greyson NDE Scale. In order to illustrate the problems in the empirical study of NDEs, my intention is to compare the Greyson NDE-scale with the most common theories on NDEs.  After series of modifications the final scale consisted of a questionnaire consisting of sixteen different questions, that yielded into four different areas, Cognitive components, Emotional components, Paranormal components, and Transcendental components.

    In the end the theory that has the most likely possibility to explain NDEs in the future must be the Dying Brain theory, but one should not disclose the different features of the Afterlife theory (but without the origin explanation).

     

  • 18.
    Jonasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Investigating Training and Transfer in Complex Tasks with Dual N-Back2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    No clear consensus exists in the scientific community of what constitutes efficient dual-tasking abilities. Moreover, the training of executive components has been given increased attention in the literature in recent years. Investigating transferability of cognitive training in a complex task setting, thirty subjects practiced for five days on a Name-Tag task (controls) or a Dual N-Back task (experimental), subsequently being tested on two transfer tasks; the Automated Operation Span and a dual task (Trail Making task + Mathematical Addition task). Dual N-Back training previously transferred to unrelated intelligence tests and in this study is assumed to rely primarily on executive attention. Executive attention, functioning to resolve interference and maintaining task-relevant information in working memory, has previously been linked to fluid intelligence and to dual-tasking. However, no transfer effects were revealed. The length of training may have been too short to reveal any such effects. However, the three complex tasks correlated significantly, suggesting common resources, and therefore having potentials as transfer tasks. Notably, subjects with the highest task-specific improvements performed worse on the transfer tasks than subjects improving less, suggesting that task-specific gains do not directly correlate with any transfer effect. At present, if transfer exists in these settings, data implies that five days of training is insufficient for a transfer to occur. Important questions for future research relates to the necessary conditions for transfer to occur, such as the amount of training, neural correlates, attention, and motivation.

  • 19.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West / University of Gothenburg.
    Five Factor Model-Based Personality Disorders across Sex and Age-groups (N=320,128)2017In: Personality and Personality Disorders: Foundations of Pathology, Pathways to Health, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Five Factor Model (FFM) with its 30 facet traits is proposed as a universal basis for PD (Personality Disorders). For instance, based on the FFM-count method (Miller et al., 2005), the disposition for Paranoid PD can be calculated by a validated set of FFM sub-traits: N2 + E1_R + E2_R + O4_R + O6_R + A1_R + A2_R + A3_R + A4_R + A6_R. Using a comprehensive open-source representation of FFM (IPIP-NEO-120; Johnson, 2014), we explored age and sex differences in the 10 DSM-IV PD categories with the presumably largest US sample to date (N = 320,128). The results showed differences of up to ½ SD in all PD categories across age-groups, as well as clear gaps between sexes. For example, the largest decline with age, as well as differences in sex, was seen in Antisocial PD. Also, interaction effects between age and sex could be seen in Schizoid and Schizotypal PDs. The present study presents tentative support for personality trait theory as a basis for psychopathology, and updated benchmarks on the scope and size of sex and age differences in PD dispositions in the community.

  • 20.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Sweden.
    Low Honesty-Humility gives high self-reported IQ2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary.—The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 21.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Work- and Organizational Psychology, Department of Psychology, University College West, Sweden.
    The Impact of Personality Traits on the View of Uniqueness of Consciousness2015In: Toward a Science of Consciousness 2015, University of Helsinki , 2015, p. 315-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits, including the well-known Big Five traits, the subclinical Dark Triad traits, as well as cognitive (IQ) and emotional abilities (EQ), are known to predict a number of attitudes, such as views of politics, importance of other people, or interest in self. This present study set out to research the impact of personality traits on the view of consciousness, the main question being whether consciousness sets mankind apart from the animal kingdom. A Swedish sample was tested on six different personality-related tests measuring traits, values, and abilities. The results showed that high scorers in emotional intelligence, openness and extraversion had a view of consciousness being unique for human beings only. Furthermore, people high on self-enhancing values and the tendency to manipulate others (Machiavellianism) also held a view of consciousness being unique for human beings, and which sets us apart from animals. Only self-transcending values, such as universalism, showed a negative association with the uniqueness of consciousness. The discussion extends to how the view on consciousness affects other outlooks on life, such as the view on one’s personal future or mankind’s environmental predicament. Motivational agendas stemming from personality traits, in terms of stable, genetical influences, might explain views on ontological questions to a greater degree than previously thought.

  • 22.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    An Inquiry into Satisfaction and Variations in User-Oriented Elderly Care2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The foundation for this thesis is an ongoing discussion about quality in Swedish elderly care: Which are the most important factors that contribute to elderly care in terms of satisfaction among older persons, and what are the primary reasons for their differences?

    Aims. The principal aim was to examine what determines satisfaction with elderly care in home care and nursing homes, using the perspective of older persons (Studies I and II). The secondary aim was to analyze why these determinants differ, using the perspective of care workers, managers, and observers (Studies III and IV).

    Methods. Study I analyzed aggregated statistical data from the level of municipalities and districts (N = 324) based on the Swedish elderly care quality reports “Open Comparisons”, while Study II analyzed individual data based on the original ratings in the annual, nationwide elderly surveys (N = 95,000). Study III describes field observations and interviews with care workers and managers in two municipalities, one with a high rating for user satisfaction and one with an average rating. Study IV describes investigations in these two municipalities concerning their organizing principles and departmental‑level management climate.

    Results. The results relating to the principal aim showed that process factors (such as respect, information, and influence) are related considerably more closely than structural factors (such as budget, staffing levels, and training levels) to satisfaction with care. Other process factors (such as treatment, safeness, staff and time availability) were also able to alleviate person factors (such as health, anxiety, and loneliness). Moreover, the results relating to the secondary aim showed that differences in user-oriented elderly care are mainly due to interpersonal factors between the caregiver and the older person. Care workers, however, reported that other factors (such as organizing principles and leadership support) influence the quality of the care process. Overall, older persons who receive home care generally report higher satisfaction with care than those in nursing homes, and feeling less safe. It may be that differences in the process of aging explain this.

    Value. This thesis shows that satisfaction with elderly care can be largely explained by psychological quality at the individual level. The sizes of structural resources and organizing principles at the municipal level have minimal effect (< 5%). The thesis also presents a theoretical multiple-level Quality Agents Model to explain the sources of differences in satisfaction with care, and it presents recommendations for elderly care practices. A renewed focus on the psychology of satisfaction may contribute to the development of quality in elderly care.  

  • 23.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Psychology, University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations2014In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary.—The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 24.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dåderman, A. M.
    University West, Sweden.
    Conceptualizing the structure of FFM personality disorders with empathy2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new section III in DSM-5 suggests pathological personality traits and impairments in personality functioning such as empathy to be used for identifying personality disorders (PDs). Previous research has also theoretically and empirically advocated that psychopathology is related to the general Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hierarchical structure of the 10 DSM PD categories using the FFM count technique (Miller et al., 2008), and to conceptualize PDs with empathy dimensions. We measured PDs and 4 dimensions of empathy (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and distress) in a medium-sized community sample. The results showed that higher order factors such as externalizing and internalizing could be applied to PDs based on FFM scores. PD could furthermore be conceptualized using two of the empathy dimensions, low emphatic concern and high distress, and specific PD categories could be conceptualized by using distinct dimensions of empathy (e.g., histrionic PD with high fantasy, or dependent PD with high distress). The discussion concludes that PDs based on self-reported FFM show conceptual validity, and that the presence of symptoms of PDs potentially may be screened in the community population by using empathy measures.   

  • 25.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Exploring the Relationship Between Honesty-Humility, the Big Five, and Liberal Values in Swedish Students2014In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 104-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the Five-Factor model (Big Five) reports a relationship between personality traits and liberal values, and the trait Agreeableness has demonstrated the strongest relationship. The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Five-factor model with an additional sixth trait of Honesty-Humility. Previous research on the Honesty-Humility trait has reported mixed results with liberal values, and this study set out to resolve this. The work presented here explored the relationship between the Honesty-Humility trait on facet-level (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) and liberal values (equality for women, minorities, and socio-economical groups). Data from Swedish students (N = 202), known for their individualistic and liberal mindset, were sampled. There was an overall positive correlation between Honesty-Humility and the strength of liberal values (r = .36), and Honesty-Humility predicted liberal values beyond Agreeableness. We discuss these results in terms of the significance of traits and values in a culture that promotes both individualism and equality.

  • 26.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sub-clinical Narcissism, Psychopathy: Dark Values of Inclusion and Exclusion2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad offers measurement and predictive validity of egotistic and anti-social dispositions, including the factors Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Based on the well established link between personality traits and values, this study proposes that the Dark Triad can be used to understand individuals’ propensity towards including or excluding other people in their social relationships. A group of 80 human resource management students whose future comptence among other things will be to cooperate with others were measured on the Dark Triad, Schwartz’ ten Value Orientations, and two versions of the Big Five personality traits (FIPI, BFI44). The results showed consistent negative correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for generalized others, as well as positive correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for self. The study also concluded that the Dark Triad works as a moderator of the relationship between personality traits (Big Five) and values (Schwartz’), and substantially adds additional explained variance especially on values of exclusion. The etiology of social in-group and out-group processes in everyday life is suggested to be individuals’ dispositions for dark values, a path towards deviant and negative behaviors. 

  • 27.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jonason, Peter K.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Hedonism, Achievement, and Power: Universal Values that Characterize the Dark Triad2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 77, p. 173-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), we attempted to understand the Dark Triad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) in terms of the universal social values. The Dark Triad traits correlated significantly with all 10 value types, forming a sinusoid pattern corresponding to the value model circumplex. In regression analyses, Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the values Hedonism, and Power. In addition, the Dark Triad traits explained significant variance over the Big Five traits in accounting for individual differences in social values. Differences between the Swedish and the US sample in the social value Achievement was mediated by the Dark Triad traits, as well as age. Given the unique complex of values accounted for by the Dark Triad traits compared to the Big Five traits, we argue that the former account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values”, often hidden but constantly contributing in evaluations of others.

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Doris
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Kan inställningen till en IT-artefakt förändras genom användarmedverkan i designprocessens tidigaste stadium?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ansatsen; Deltagande design inom MDI förespråkar att användare är med under hela designprocessen, även under det tidigaste skedet, före det har skissats på någon prototyp över huvudtaget. Medverkan innebär då att användarna får klargöra sina behov, åsikter och önskemål om en produkt. En speciell deltagarteknik har utvecklats för att göra detta möjligt och heter Contextual inquiry. I detta arbete har tekniken tillämpats på hyresgäster inom Skövdebostäder och har gällt produkten elektronisk anslagstavla. Hypotesen har varit att inställningen till en produkt är mer positiv när användare har deltagit i det tidigaste stadiet i designprocessen och skulle då förklaras med hjälp av ett psykologiskt "fenomen" som kallas Hawthorne-effekten. Resultatet från studien kunde inte ge stöd för hypotesen, det fanns med andra ord ingen signifikant skillnad mellan experimentgrupp och kontrollgrupp.

  • 29.
    Karlsson, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Neuroscience of Decision Making: The Importance of Emotional Neural Circuits in Decision Making2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The neuroscience of decision making is laying the puzzle of how the brain computes decisions. It tries to sort out which factors are responsible for causing us to choose one way or the other. This thesis reviews to what extent emotional brain processes and their neural circuits impact decision making. The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) provides a solid dual-system framework for decision making. Dissociating an impulsive system, in which the amygdala is central, and a reflective system mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex(VMPFC). The SMH emphasizes the function of the VMPFC as necessary and crucial formaking favorable long-term decisions. Research on moral decision making also shows that similar systems as used by the SMH has a key role in how we think about moral dilemmas as well. Damage or maldevelopment of these neural circuits can cause myopia for the future and deeply immoral behavior. Abnormalities in emotional neuronal circuits can also be linked to addictive behavior and psychopathy. The findings on decision making and its neuralsubstrates dismantle the common sense notion of free will and moral responsibility. An explanation of how the feeling of free will arises is given using the Interpreter system theoryof consciousness. Moral responsibility without the need for a free will is defended by analternative approach with a framework of a brain in-control versus out-of-control.

  • 30.
    Kastrati, Granit
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Event-related potential correlates of visual consciousness: a review of theories and empirical studies2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two influential theories of consciousness disagree about if consciousness initially arises along the occipitotemporal cortex to later engage frontoparietal regions and attentional mechanisms, or if it necessarily requires the latter. Consequently, different predictions are made about the temporal emergence of consciousness. The event-related potential (ERP) technique can be used to resolve the issue. It can temporally track neural activity of consciously perceived stimuli relative to stimuli bypassing consciousness. This essay describes the two theories and reviews ERP studies on visual consciousness and its relationship to attention. Three ERP correlates of consciousness have been proposed. The question is if they should be interpreted as supporting the one or the other theory. Most plausibly, visual consciousness arises along occipitotemporal regions and later incorporates frontal areas engaging higher cognitive functions. Importantly it seems that consciousness cannot arise without spatial attention/parietal regions. 

  • 31.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Conceptualizing and measuring occupational social well-being: a validation study2017In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 45-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The current conceptualizations and measurements of well-being are inadequate in the context of work. Specifically, well-being research has neglected the social aspects of well-being. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the validity of a multi-dimensional view of occupational social well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in an educational setting, i.e. six different schools in a Swedish municipality. A total of 314 teachers and other categories of school staff (239 females and 75 males) participated in a survey study. Findings: Results provided empirical support for a multi-dimensional view of occupational social well-being. The dimensions were integration, acceptance, contribution, actualization and coherence, and they were differentially correlated with previous measures of well-being. Furthermore, occupational social well-being accounted for additional variance in work tension, overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment over and above the variance accounted for by positive and negative affect and satisfaction with life, indicating the value of taking domain-specific social indicators of well-being into account in explaining various employee outcomes. Practical implications: Occupational social well-being is an umbrella term for describing the well-lived social life in the context of work. As such, this is a crucial part of a holistic view of well-being at work. Thus, effective employee well-being enhancement programs should not only focus on physical and mental health promotion or competence development but must also include measures of relational experience and functioning as discussed in the present study. Originality/value: This is the first study to measure and validate occupational social well-being as an attempt to complement existing measures of subjective and psychological well-being. Measures of social aspects of well-being are crucial to assess as it has been argued in previous research that context-free measures of well-being might render misleading results.

  • 32.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Examining the Interplay of Justice Perceptions, Motivation, and School Achievement among Secondary School Students2016In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paucity of empirical research on the social psychology of justice in educational settings. A few previous studies have predominantly focused on distributive and procedural justice concerns, and knowledge about the role of what have been called informational and interpersonal justice for school outcomes is very scarce. In the present study, data from 227 eighth- and ninth-grade students who participated in a survey study were analyzed to examine the interplay between relational justice concerns (decomposed into procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice), motivation to study, and school achievement. A comprehensive theoretically grounded multi-item measure of informational justice was developed and validated. The results showed that informational justice significantly predicts school grades, and that motivation to study fully mediates this effect. Neither procedural nor interpersonal justice was associated with school grades. The implications of these results for research and practice are discussed in detail.

  • 33.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Overtime2015In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society / [ed] Frederick F. Wherry & Juliet B. Schor, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2015, p. 1235-1236Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Promotion2015In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society / [ed] Frederick F. Wherry & Juliet B. Schor, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2015, p. 1336-1337Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Eek, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Allocation of Public Goods: The Interplay of Self-Interest, Fairness, and Group Goal2016In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 214-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seventy-two undergraduates participating in a step-level asymmetric public good dilemma were requested to distribute the provided public good among the group members to achieve different group goals. In Line with the hypotheses, economic productivity resulted in equitable allocations, harmony in equal allocations, and social concern in need-based allocations. The results also supported the hypotheses that salience of group goal minimizes influences of self-interest on allocations and that perceived fairness accounts for why people pursuing different group goals differ in their preferences for allocation of public goods.

  • 36.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Eek, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Equity, Equal Shares or Equal Final Outcomes?: Group Goal Guides Allocations of Public Goods2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, p. 1-7, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experiment we investigate preferences for allocation of a public good among group members who contributed unequally in providing the public good. Inducing the group goal of productivity resulted in preferences for equitable allocations, whereas inducing the group goals of harmony and social concern resulted in preferences for equal final outcomes. The study makes a contribution by simultaneously treating provision and allocation of a public good, thus viewing these as related processes. Another contribution is that a new paradigm is introduced that bears closer resemblance to real life public good dilemmas than previous research paradigms do.

  • 37.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Variations in user-oriented elderly care: a multilevel approach2017In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Pilotstudie om psykisk ohälsa och utanförskap bland unga vuxna: Personliga berättelser och reflektioner kring vägar som bär till förändring2014Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Health and Education. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    University of Skövde, Health and Education. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, Health and Education. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Differing attitudes toward health and sickness2014In: Encyclopedia of human services and diversity / [ed] Linwood H. Cousins, Sage Publications, 2014, p. 616-618Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mikula, Gerold
    University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Justice: Social Psychological Perspectives2015In: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences / [ed] James D. Wright, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, 2, p. 949-955Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the concept of justice from a social psychological perspective. The authors begin by briefly outlining some theoretical precursors of current social psychological research on justice. Another part is devoted to an overview of theories and empirical research in the areas of distributive and procedural justice. The article furthermore addresses interactional justice, why people care about justice, and reactions to injustice in the context of which individual differences in conceptions of justice are briefly discussed. The article ends by discussing some current trends, social applications, and some future challenges in social psychological inquiries of social justice.

  • 45.
    Kimmo, Eriksson
    et al.
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    A New Look at Individual Differences in Perceptions of Unfairness: The Theory of Maximally Unfair Allocations in Multiparty Situations2015In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 401-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that unfairness judgments of resource allocations become more complex when there are more than two recipients. In order to explain some of this complexity, we propose a set of psychological mechanisms that may underlie four different choices of maximally unfair resource allocations (MUA): Self-Single-Loser, Self-One-Loser-of-Many, Self-Single-Winner, and Self-One-Winner-of-Many. From this psychological theory, several predictions are derived and tested in vignette studies involving a total of 708 participants recruited online using MTurk. As predicted by our theory, (1) choices of MUA where there is a single loser were much more common when the allocated resource was of negative rather than positive valence, and (2) the amount of egoistic bias individuals exhibited when judging the unfairness in receiving a small rather than a large share in a non-extreme multi-party allocation was predicted by their choices of MUA. These findings suggest that an individual’s choice of MUA reveals some generally relevant principles of how unfairness is perceived in multi-party allocations. This opens up new lines of inquiry, especially regarding research on social dilemmas and social value orientation.

  • 46.
    Klarén, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Dispositional optimism and attentional bias to happy facial expressions2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the human attentional system is biased towards emotional events in the environment. This attentional bias is believed to be an adaptive function that can provide survival benefits for the organisms that possess it. Dispositional optimism is a trait defined as a general expectation that good things will happen in the future. This trait has received interest as an adaptive trait that has a multitude of psychological and physical benefits for the individuals who exhibit it. The aim of this study is to examine whether there is a difference in the attentional bias towards happy and angry facial expressions based on level of dispositional optimism using the dot-probe paradigm. Thirty-two psychologically and neurologically healthy females (mean age = 26.5, SD = 5.8) participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire measuring dispositional optimism and performed the dot-probe task in a laboratory setting in the University of Skövde. In the dot- probe task a short exposure (100 ms) of photographs depicting happy, angry and neutral facial expressions was used as emotional cues. A general bias towards happy faces across all participants was detected. Also, a clear trend towards an interaction between DO and AB to emotional faces was found in the group high in DO displaying and AB towards happy facial expressions. This study implies that for the psychologically and neurologically healthy population, a fast operating and automatic AB for positive stimuli exists, moreover, this AB may be modulated by individual differences in DO.

  • 47.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Different Electrophysiological Correlates of Visual Awareness for Detection and Identification2017In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1621-1631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting the presence of an object is a different process than identifying the object as a particular object. This difference has not been taken into account in designing experiments on the neural correlates of consciousness. We compared the electrophysiological correlates of conscious detection and identification directly by measuring ERPs while participants performed either a task only requiring the conscious detection of the stimulus or a higher-level task requiring its conscious identification. Behavioral results showed that, even if the stimulus was consciously detected, it was not necessarily identified. A posterior electrophysiological signature 200-300 msec after stimulus onset was sensitive for conscious detection but not for conscious identification, which correlated with a later widespread activity. Thus, we found behavioral and neural evidence for elementary visual experiences, which are not yet enriched with higher-level knowledge. The search for the mechanisms of consciousness should focus on the early elementary phenomenal experiences to avoid the confounding effects of higher-level processes.

  • 48.
    Koukoura, Angeliki
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Is Telling the Truth a New Index for Deception?: An Electrophysiological Approach2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Labbé, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Measures of Working Memory, Motivation, and Time Perception2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have indicated a further need to investigate the role of motivation in workingmemory (WM) training and that time perception affects motivation. We addressed whethersubjectively perceived time on task in reference to objective time on task could serve as animplicit measure of motivation, while controlling for individual differences in timeperception. Here, the relationship between different measures of time perception, WM, andmotivation was explored in healthy children. Fifty children in three natural groups (ages: 6-7,8-9, 10-11) at a Swedish school participated. WM scores changed with age as expected.However, the absence of correlations between WM performance and intrinsic motivationwere inconsistent with previous findings, presumably due to the low statistical sensitivity.Nevertheless, time perception accuracy (r=0.318, p=0.043) and state motivation (r=0.434,p=0.005) correlated with performance on task interference, but not WM. With somereservations due to low sensitivity, time perception accuracy appears to be linked tocoordinative capacity required for shifting attention, but to a lesser degree sequential working memory capacity.

  • 50.
    Labbé, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Feeling of Anxiety: Phenomenology and neural correlates2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The feeling of anxiety, a conscious experience, is associated with uneasiness, painfulness, or disturbing suspense. The current paper presents the phenomenology of anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria and reviews neuroimaging studies on anxiety including dissociation studies. Activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, temporal poles and amygdala suggest neural correlates of anxiety. The relevance of the neural correlates, how the feeling of anxiety differs from fear and worry, and the construct validity of anxiety are addressed. Anxiety and pain correlate with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, which warrants further studies on the painfulness–anxiety relationship.

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