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  • 1.
    Abdu, Hayat
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vilka ungdomar är det som tar SMS-lån och varför?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SMS-lån är ett samhällsproblem där olika aktörer är inblandade. Utifrån treforskningsmetoder; kvantitativ- och kvalitativ undersökning samt innehållsanalys av tidningsartiklarna, har synsättet på fenomenet vidgats. Undersökningspopulationen som består av unga SMS-låntagare mellan 18-25 år, var en väldigt svår grupp att nå. Av allt att döma berodde detta på att de är en utsatt och sårbar grupp med ekonomiska svårigheter. SMS-lånet är ett snabbt och lättillgängligt lån vilket stärker ungdomarnas tendens att agera utifrån begär, som i enlighet med Maslows motivationsteori saknar en kognitiv förbindelse. Variationen var stor mellan respondenterna i fråga om vad pengarna användes till, där en del befann sig i den nedersta delen i behovstrappan för att kunna tillgodose de fysiologiska behoven, medan andra konsumerade över sina tillgångar. Låneföretagens systematiska marknadsföring förenklar för ungdomar att ta ett sådant lån med korta återbetalningstider. De ungdomar som inte betalar tillbaka lånet i tid hamnar i ekonomiska svårigheter, vilket påverkar deras liv för flera år framåt i tiden.

  • 2.
    Abulafia, Carolina
    et al.
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Applied Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute for Biomedical Research, School of Medical Sciences, Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Duarte-Abritta, Bárbara
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Villarreal, Mirta F.
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Ladrón-de-Guevara, Maria S.
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Garcia, Celeste
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Sequeyra, Geraldine
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Sevlever, Gustavo
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Fiorentini, Leticia
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Bär, Karl-Jürgen
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, Germany.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Neurology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA / Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vigo, Daniel E.
    Applied Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute for Biomedical Research, School of Medical Sciences, Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Guinjoan, Salvador M.
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina / FLENI Teaching Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Department of Neurophysiology, University of Buenos Aires School of Psychology, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Relationship between Cognitive and Sleep-wake Variables in Asymptomatic Offspring of Patients with Late-onset Alzheimer's Disease2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, article id 93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature. Unexpectedly, O-LOAD displayed subtle but significant deficits in verbal episodic memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall 10.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 8.6 +/- 0.6, t = 4.97, df = 49, p < 0.01) and language (Weschler's vocabulary 51.4 +/- 1.3 vs. 44.3 +/- 1.5, t = 2.49, df = 49, p < 0.001) compared to CS, even though all participants had results within the clinically normal range. O-LOAD showed a phase-delayed rhythm of body temperature (2.56 +/- 0.47 h vs. 3.8 +/- 0.26 h, t = 2.48, df = 40, p = 0.031). Cognitive performance in O-LOAD was associated with a series of cardiac autonomic sleep-wake variables; specifically indicators of greater sympathetic activity at night were related to poorer cognition. The present results suggest sleep pattern deserves further study as a potential neurobiological signature in LOAD, even in middle-aged, at risk individuals.

  • 3.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Limbu, Yam B.
    Feliciano School of Business, Montclair State University, USA.
    Mamun, Md. Al
    Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Facebook usage intensity and compulsive buying tendency: the mediating role of envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion and the moderating role of depression2019In: International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, ISSN 1741-1025, E-ISSN 1741-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While Facebook usage intensity (FBUI) and compulsive buying tendency (CBT) have individually received increased research attention, very little is known about the mechanisms through which FBUI affects CBT. This study proposes and tests a multiple mediation model in which the effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by personality characteristics (envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion). The study also explores the moderating effect of depression on these mediated relationships. The results of a self-administered survey of 393 Bangladeshi adults support the proposed moderated mediation model. The effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by envy and self-esteem independently. The FBUI indirectly affects CBT through serial mediators: i) envy and self-esteem and ii) envy and self-promotion. These serial mediating effects are moderated by depression. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 4.
    Akbarian, Anahita
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Azhmi, Roya
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Derestey Deim, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ”Såna är dom!”: En socialpsykologisk studie om skillnader mellan unga killars och tjejers stereotypa tänkande och fördomar.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way man divides his thoughts and sorts them into different boxes, is a cognitive activity which works alike for every person. We split peoplesexterior attributes and characteristic qualities into stereotypes or prejudicemind patterns and treat them along those.

    This study examines through a qualitative method what twelve respondents (six women and six men) between the ages 16-21, think about “intense” conceptions, which may show stereotype or prejudice ways of thinking. There spondents have been chosen regardless ethnic or economic background andare all enrolled in an upper secondary school located centrally in a Swedish big city.

    The purpose is to find out if there are any differences between how some young men and some young women spontaneously think in stereotypical orprejudice patterns. The result is interpreted on the basis of the social cognitive perspective and from out of theories about how people create schemes andprototypes to separate individuals and groups from each other.

    This study suggests that men more easily express their stereotypes and prejudice, while women more often seem to be careful with their stereotypes and prejudice, and end up redefining them. Further in the discussion, aspects involving how the society, if not becoming aware of stereotypes and prejudice, can affect the people representing those stereotypes.

  • 5.
    Alm, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Förmågan att spegla känslor, avslöja lögner och gradera säkerhet: finns det ett samband dem emellan?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Underlättar kongruens mellan sinnestillstånd och påstående (vad gäller dess värdeladdning) vid bedömning av ett påståendes sanningshalt? Denna fråga uppkom via studier av embodiment och lögner, forskning från de båda områdena påvisar nämligen att olika ”kroppsliga signaler” kan hjälpa oss att avslöja om andra människor ljuger. Frågan har undersökts via en faktoriell design med repeterade mätningar där deltagarna försattes i olika sinnestillstånd varpå de utsattes för olika stimuli och fick göra olika bedömningar. Resultatet visade att kongruenta betingelser varken underlättar eller påskyndar vid bedömning av ett påståendes sanningshalt, däremot erhölls ett signifikant resultat som indikerade att kongruenta betingelser ökar människans konfidensnivå (högre grad av säkerhet vad gäller att en korrekt bedömning gjorts) vid bedömning av falska påståenden.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Jacob
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kägu, David
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Casting glamour: En fenomenologisk studie om HBTQ-personers uttryck av sexualitet och kön i Final Fantasy XIV2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online games allow players all over the world to interact with each other in new ways in virtual worlds. Through the creation of visual representations of the players they can communicate and express themselves beyond the limits of the physical world. In this phenomenological study we investigate how and if LGBT individuals experience that they can express sexuality and gender identity in the online roleplaying game Final Fantasy XIV and if the game community affects this experience. With qualitative methods players of Final Fantasy XIV were interviewed to capture this experience and through a queer theoretical lens critically examine the norms of the game. These experiences were also analysed from a dramaturgical perspective and a focus on identity theories. The results suggest that the player, despite restrictions, find new and creative ways of expressing their sexuality and gender in the game world. The players do this by constructing alternative identities and perform with their avatars on the stage that is the virtual world. The community is a major part of this as the accepting atmosphere is perceived to encourage openness.

  • 7.
    Antila, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Karlgren, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lantz, Therése
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Är rättvist för mig, rättvist för dig?: Betydelsen av social värdeorientering för bedömningar av procedural rättvisa2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om individer som skiljer sig med avseende på social värdeorientering (SVO) bedömer rättvisa på olika sätt beroende på om det gäller dem själva eller någon annan. 96 studenter, 48 män och 48 kvinnor, deltog i ett scenarioexperiment. Resultaten visade inga signifikanta effekter av SVO, vilket indikerar att samarbets- och självinriktade individer inte skilde sig vid bedömningar av procedural rättvisa i situationer som berörde dem själva och andra. Analysen visade att manipulationen var effektiv. Variansanalysen på upplevd rättvisa, tillfredställelse, beslutsacceptans och protestintention visade att ”voice” (deltagande) hade en signifikant effekt. Analysen visade även en interaktion mellan deltagande och perspektiv på tillfredställelse. En slutsats är att om individen inte kan påverka det beslut som faktiskt fattas är det viktigt att individen upplever att han/hon har haft möjlighet att ge sin syn på saken, oavsett om det handlar om individen själv eller en annan person.

  • 8.
    Aronsson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kan tacksamhet främja moraliskt beteende?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har undersökt om tacksamhet kan påverka vårt moraliska beteende, genom att se över studier som gjorts inom psykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mestadels på hur det kognitiva resonerandet påverkar ens moral. På senare tid har forskningen allt mer betonat specifika emotioners avgörande roll för om man agerar efter moraliska normer eller inte. Dessa emotioner benämns som moraliska emotioner. En av dessa moraliska emotioner är tacksamhet. Tacksamhet har i studier visats fungera som en moralisk barometer, stärka välgörares fortsatta moraliska beteende samt fungera som ett moraliskt motiv. Den neurala grunden för tacksamhet är ännu relativt outforskad. Emotioners generella påverkan på moraliskt beteende samt positiva emotioners tendenser till agerande (eng: action tendencies) kan dock ses som ett steg till ökad förståelse om hur tacksamheten påverkar vårt moraliska beteende.

  • 9.
    Arvidsson, Sofie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vi gör vårt bästa - nu är det politikernas tur att bjuda till: En socialpsykologisk studie om förskollärares syn på förändringar inom förskolan de senaste tio åren2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att ta reda på om, och i så fall på vilket sätt, attityder till arbetet påverkats av strukturella förändringar och reformer som genomsyrat svensk förskoleverksamhet under de senaste tio åren. Genomförandet av studien skedde med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex stycken kvinnliga förskollärare på två olika förskolor. Förskolorna var båda kommunalt drivna samt belägna i samma upptagningsområde. Resultatet visade på att attityderna till själva arbetssituationen är blandade. Några respondenter ansåg, i jämförelse med tidigare, att deras arbetssituation är mer splittrad idag och i vissa fall upplevdes den som stressig. Orsaken till brist i kontinuitet och stress härleddes av dem till både strukturella förändringar men även till viss del till reformer. Andra respondenter konstaterade att det skett förändringar, så som fler barn, men att det inte hade inverkan på deras arbetssituation. Oavsett hur de såg på förändringarna uppgav respondenterna att de, trots förändringar, antingen gjorde så gott de kunde eller gjort ett aktivt val att inte låta förändringarna påverka dem negativt. De respondenter som ansåg att förändringarna inte påverkat dem negativt härledde dessa tankar till aktiva val, av dem själva enskilt och i arbetslaget. Det aktiva valet innebar att omdefiniera sin situation för att kunna klara av att arbeta i en inte alltid optimal miljö.

  • 10.
    Arweström Jansson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Axelsson, AntonDepartment of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Andreasson, RebeccaDepartment of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 13th Swecog conference2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Asplund Fromholz, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anspänning, oro och stress är tre begrepp som har studerats länge, vilket har gett upphov till flertalet modeller, teorier och domäner där dessa begrepp har studerats och fortfarande studeras. I denna uppsats så kommer dessa tre begrepp bland annat att redogöras för var för sig med koppling till mätmetoder, idrott och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva hur idrottsprestationer kan påverkas av anspänning, oro och stress för att utifrån det kunna redogöra för evidensbaserade metoder som kan appliceras för att främja en idrottsprestation. Först kommer anspänning att redogöras för, anspänning följs sedan av oro som i sin tur följs av stress som sista begrepp. Avslutningsvis så behandlas även problematik och möjligheter för dessa begrepp inom forskningsfältet och dess tillämpningsområden.

  • 12.
    Bachmann, Talis
    et al.
    Estonian Center of Behavioral and Health Sciences, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    Estonian Center of Behavioral and Health Sciences, Estonian Center of Behavioral and Health Sciences, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Perception of successive targets presented in invariant-item streams2005In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When two successive, spatially overlapping, targets (S1 and S2) are presented on a blank background, S2 typically dominates in explicit perception. We tested whether S2 dominance is also found for the conditions of presenting S1 and S2 in a stream of irrelevant objects. Successive target letters were presented within a stream of invariant stimulus items (capital Is). The stream items were presented either as a perceptually continuous object where both type and token appeared invariant (60-Hz stream) or as a flickering stream of successive replicas of the invariant stationary object where the type appeared invariant but the token appearance seemed intermittent (20-Hz condition). Compared to the control condition where targets were presented on a blank background we found that (1) recognition rate was lower for targets embedded in a perceptually continuous type-and-token object (60 Hz), but was unchanged for targets in a perceptually flickering sequence of the invariant-object tokens (20 Hz); (2) S1 recognition rate was higher compared to S2 recognition rate within the first epoch of stream (0-150 ms) while within the later stream-epochs S2 dominated over S1 as usual; (3) the overall difference in recognition rates between S1 and S2 was decreased. The results are discussed in the theoretical context of visual masking and attentional blink.

  • 13.
    Backström, Linus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Establishing a biopsychosocial model for conspiracy theory ideation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide the grounds for a biopsychosocial understanding of the underpinnings of conspiracy theorist ideation by studying research articles from different scientific disciplines. Cross-disciplinary concurring results are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of how conspiracy theories have been used during the 20th century. Also discussed is how this is used in political discourse in the populist climate of today, with the rise of radical right-wing movements, the justification of “alternative facts” from higher governmental ranks, and religious fundamentalism, making it a societal issue of possible big magnitude. Neurological similarities was found between religiousness and proneness to conspiracy theory ideation, and the articles concerning neural correlates therefore stem from research on religious individuals due to the lack of neuro-biopsychological research on actual conspiracy theorists. Since conspiracy theory ideation has shown the ability to cause negative consequences it is also advised that governmental agencies and society as a whole revise its stance on populism and the spread of flawed information, in order to maintain an open society. Also presented are a few ideas on how to begin countering the rise of populism.

  • 14.
    Badh, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Johansson, Carolina
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vem är jag?: - En kvantitativ studie om tonårstjejers identitet och kroppsuppfattning.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka sambandet mellan tonårsflickans identitet och kroppsuppfattningen. Även roller i kompisgruppen kommer att tas upp och då framförallt rollen som den tyste i gruppen. Genom en enkätstudie undersöktes 37 elever från högstadiet och 68 elever från gymnasiet. Sambandet mellan positiv personlig identitet och en normal kroppsuppfattning undersöktes. Resultatet visade att personer med positiv (M=1,20, SD=0,41) eller neutral (M=1,15,SD=0,36) personlig identitet hade en bra kroppsuppfattning medanpersoner med negativ (M=1,55, SD=0,51) personlig identitet hade en mindre bra kroppsuppfattning. Undersökningen visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan högstadiet och gymnasiet i fråga om identitet och kroppsuppfattning. Vi antar att skillnader i identitet och kroppsuppfattning beror mer på individuella skillnader än vilken åldersgrupp man tillhör.

  • 15.
    Balaj, Elvidana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Haxhija, Ardijana
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Utvecklingssamtal: En dialog mellan chef och anställd2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att beskriva och analysera hur såväl medarbetare som coach (chef) upplever utvecklingssamtal. Syftet har avgränsats till tre frågeområden: Vilken typ av frågor/problem tas upp? Finns det här någon skillnad mellan vad chef och anställd prioriterar? Vilka är fördelarna och nackdelarna med utvecklingssamtal? För att få svar på våra frågor har vi intervjuat anställda vid ett företag som under en längre tid använt sig av återkommande utvecklingssamtal. Resultaten har därefter analyserats utifrån ett symboliskt interaktionisk perspektiv där vi sökt lyfta fram den betydelse som samtalet tillskrivs i det aktuella företaget samt hur man här sökt hantera de förväntningar olika positioner är förknippade med. Resultaten visar att såväl anställda som chefer är nöjda med de samtal som hålls på företaget trots att vi kan se en skillnad i vad man prioriterar för frågor. En av förklaringarna är att båda parterna ges möjlighet till förberedelse och att man har för avsikt att behandla alla frågor som upplevs som viktiga. En annan förklaring är den status företaget tilldelar individens roll i företaget och att utvecklingssamtalet är något som bör prioriteras. Trots kritiska röster ser vi här en stor potential för utvecklingssamtalet som en plattform att skapa en gemensam förståelse och förtroende mellan parterna, som kan ses som en förutsättning för att interaktionen mellan parterna ska bli så optimal som möjligt.

  • 16.
    Beckung, Camilla
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Född i frihet – Dömd till frihet?: – En kvalitativ studie om unga vuxnas förhållningssätt till valfrihet och väljande.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie är att undersöka en grupp unga vuxnamänniskors förhållningssätt till dagens ökade valfrihet och väljande. Det empiriska materialet består av intervjuer med ungdomar i åldern 20-24 år och har analyserats mot bakgrund av resonemang om individualisering, valfrihet och väljande förda av A.Giddens, Z.Bauman, U.Beck och B.Schwartz. Gällandehantering av valmöjligheter utgår arbetet ifrån teorier om kognitiva dissonans, ontologisk trygghet samt lokus av kontroll. Även tidigare forskning om ungdomars förhållningssätt till valmöjligheter behandlas. Studiens huvudresultat visar att ungdomarna bl.a. upplever utbudet av alternativa vägar att välja bland gällande exempelvis studieprogram, yrke, bostadsort eller resmål som meningsfullt och identitetsskapande. Vidare anses att informationssökande gällande olika alternativ tar mycket tid och kraft i anspråk, vilket kan vara påfrestande. Utbudet av varor och tjänster gör att det uppstår en känsla av press då man förväntas vara aktiv och finna det ”bästa alternativet”. Ungdomarna upplever att deras psykiska välmående påverkas av valalternativ först när de blir alltför många till antalet. Stress upplevs då på grund av önskan om att göra det bästa valet.

  • 17.
    Behnsen, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Buil, Joanne M.
    Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Koot, Susanne
    Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Huizink, Anja
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Van Lier, Poul
    Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Heart rate (variability) and the association between relational peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in elementary school children2019In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, p. 1-9, article id 29 aprilArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relational victimization typically emerges first during the elementary school period, and has been associated with increased levels of internalizing symptoms in children. Individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning have been suggested as a potential factor linking social stressors and internalizing symptoms. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether heart rate and heart rate variability mediated the association between relational victimization and internalizing symptoms in 373 mainstream elementary school children. Children were assessed in 2015 (T 0 ; Grades 3-5, M age = 9.78 years, 51% boys) and reassessed in 2016 (T 1 ). Heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed during a regular school day at T 1 . A multi-informant (teacher and peer report) cross-time measure of relational victimization, and a multi-informant (self- and teacher report) measure of internalizing problems at T 1 was used. Results showed that heart rate variability, but not heart rate, mediated the association between relational victimization and internalizing symptoms. This study provides tentative support that in children from a general population sample, a psychobiological factor may mediate the association of relational victimization with internalizing symptoms.

  • 18.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Neurovetenskaplig psykiatri2018In: Psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, no 2, p. 47-49Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Socialisationsteorins neurologiska återkomst2017In: Modern Psykologi, ISSN 2000-4087Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens hjärnforskning har öppnat dörren på vid gavel för att kunna intensivstudera hur miljön påverkar och bygger om hjärnan.

    Socialpsykologen Lars-Erik Berg vill damma av socialisationsbegreppet.

  • 20.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Granath, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Härnqvist, Christine
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Att vara ung och utan arbete: Arbetslösa unga vuxnas subjektiva upplevelser2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva och ge djupare förståelse för hur unga vuxna arbetslösa i Västra Götalands län upplever sitt identitetsskapande och sin levnadssituation. I denna studie utfördes tio kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med respondenter i åldrarna 18-29 år. Då vi anser att identiteten är social valde vi i vår studie att utgå från Symbolisk interaktionism, med underliggande teorier som definitionen av situationen (Charon, 2004; Svensson, 1992), den generaliserade andre (Mead, 1976), spegeljaget (Mortensen, 2003) och stämplingsteorin (Goffman, 1972; Becker, 1963). Att vara arbetslös påverkar många olika delar av livet och är av allra högsta grad avgörande för hur individen upplever sin levnadssituation och sitt identitetsskapande. Det som framkommit pekar främst på vikten av de sociala interaktionerna gällande arbetslöshet samt dess betydelse för individen. Slutsatsen är att vi inte kan förstå en individs upplevelser av sin levnadssituation och identitetsskapande utan att se till helheten. Vi har funnit att upplevelsen av sig själv och identitetsskapandet har förändrats i en situation av arbetslöshet.

  • 21.
    Berglund, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    KOGNITIVA ARBETSMILJÖPROBLEM OCH TEKNIKSTRESS I EN KOMPLEX VÅRDMILJÖ2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En god arbetsmiljö kan anses vara nyckeln till en välfungerande verksamhet. Arbetsmiljö som begrepp är dock oerhört komplext där många olika problemaspekter samverkar och påverkar arbetsplatsens miljö. Vissa arbetsmiljörelaterade problem kan härröras till egenskaper som inte tillåter individen att utnyttja sina kognitiva förmågor och benämns därmed som kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem. Andra faktorer som tekniska arbetsverktyg som skall vara de anställda behjälpliga, kan i de fall de brister, också påverka och störa tankeprocesserna hos individen. Den här rapportens syfte är att utveckla en förståelse om hur komplexa arbetsmiljöer samt interaktion med teknik kan skapa en stress som i förlängningen kan leda till kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och teknikstress. En kvalitativ fallstudie utfördes för att få en holistisk överblick över arbetsflödet. Studien genomfördes på en avdelning på ett äldreboende med hjälp av datainsamlingsteknikerna observation och intervju. Resultatet tyder på att kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och teknikstress är nära sammanlänkande och förutom tidigare identifierade kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem, framträdde även en ny dimension.

  • 22.
    Bergman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hammar, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Tårpölar i ögonen: En socialpsykologisk studie om barn i årskurs fem och deras uppfattning om mobbning.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla barn har en rättighet att känna sig trygga i skolan och inte bli utsatta för kränkande behandling eller mobbning. Mobbning är ett problem som måste uppmärksammas alltmer eftersom det inte alltid tas på allvar trots att varje skola har någon form av antimobbningsplan. Mobbning kan uttryckas i form av fysisk, psykosocial och verbal mobbning. Vårt syfte med undersökningen är att lyfta fram barns uppfattning om mobbning. Då lyder vår problemformulering som följer: Hur uppfattas mobbning av barn i årskurs fem på sex olika skolor? Vårt intresse ligger i att utföra vår undersökning i årskurs fem på sex olika skolor som aktivt arbetar med olika program mot mobbning. Undersökningen är inte avsedd som en jämförande studie. Vår metod är kvalitativ i form av en helt anonym enkätundersökning med öppna frågor då vi anser att ämnet är alltför känsligt för att använda vid intervjuer. Svaren vi får är inte ämnade att föra statistik utan syftet är att analysera och tolka barnens svar för att skapa en förståelse av deras uppfattning. Vi har valt att i analysen av enkätsvaren använda oss av symbolisk interaktionism, social identitetsteori, rollteori och aggression som gruppfenomen.

  • 23.
    Bergström, Clara
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Disturbed Eating Patterns and Body Image Distortions: A review2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women in general seem to have a complicated relationship with their bodies and their body image. A small percent of the female population develop a serious pathological eating pattern which is characterized by a disturbed image of body size and shape. This disturbance has been investigated by many researchers and the quest of finding the underlying neural correlates has progressed enormously during the last decade. The relationship between disturbed eating patterns and body image distortions is highly complicated. The purpose of this review article is to give an overview of current research literature and scientific results. The aim is to find a framework for the phenomenon of body image distortions among both healthy and non-healthy women. Differences between genders and how food intake affects body image will also be addressed. The focus lies on behavioral traits and the underlying neural correlates, with focus on both the perceptual and the cognitive-affective component.

  • 24.
    Bergvall, Kasper
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lindefors, Clara
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ”Det är många som tror att det bara finns två kön”: – en studie om genuskonstruktion utanför den traditionella genusdikotomin2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att genom ett symboliskt interaktionistiskt och ett social konstruktionistiskt perspektiv öka förståelsen för hur personer som anser att de överskrider de dikotomiska kategorierna man/kvinna konstruerar sitt genus. Samt problematisera om och hur individer kan frångå dessa kategorier i skapandet av genus. Studien grundades på sju djupintervjuer med personer som upplevde att de överskred eller inte identifierade sig med kategorierna man/kvinna. Som teoretisk grund gällande identitetskonstruktion och socialisation har vi främst använt oss av Berger och Luckmann (1991) samt tolkningar av Mead (Berg, 1992; 2007). För att få en djupare insikt kring genuskonstruktion har teorier av Butler (2007) samt Connell (2003; 1996) använts. Konstruktionen av könsidentiteten är en ständigt pågående process som är i ständigt behov av upprätthållelse. Upprätthållandet sker till stor del genom identifikation och bekräftelse samt uttryck, så som språk och yttre attribut. Då samhället har ett mycket dikotomiskt synsätt gällande kön/genus så krävs av respondenterna ett aktivt ställningstagande för att de ska kunna avvika från det normativa. Respondenterna kan dock inte helt frångå de dikotomiska kategorierna då de måste förhålla sig till dem i mötet med andra människor. Eftersom de avviker från det normativa får de också svårare att upprätthålla könsidentiteten då den inte uppmuntras av samhällsnormen och det därmed blir svårare att få bekräftelse och hitta identifikationsobjekt. Vi menar att denna uppsats ger den socialpsykologiska diskursen gällande genus, en bredare syn på identitets- och genuskonstruktion utanför normen, då vi uppfattar detta som underrepresenterat inom den socialpsykologiska forskningen.

  • 25.
    Birgersson, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ekman, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Rättvist ledarskap inom kriminalvården2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att attribuera effekten av rättvist ledarskap på arbetstillfredsställelse då det saknats specifik forskning inom området. Studien genomfördes i ett verksamhetsområde inom kriminalvården. Studien syftade även till att undersöka effekten av rättvist ledarskap på turnover intention och förekomsten av psykosomatiska besvär hos de anställda. Totalt 103 kriminalvårdare besvarade enkäten som mätte ovan nämnda variabler. Resultaten visade ett signifikant positivt samband mellan samtliga former av rättvisa och arbetstillfredsställelse. Resultaten visade vidare ett samband att rättvist ledarskap leder till en minskning av psykosomatiska besvär och minskad grad av turnover intention.

  • 26.
    Blagrove, Mark
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Hale, Sioned
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Lockheart, Julia
    Swansea College of Art, University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Swansea, United Kingdom / Goldsmiths, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Carr, Michelle
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Jones, Alex
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with a mixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions. We propose that the sharing of dreams has an empathic effect on the dreamer and on significant others who hear and engage with the telling of the dream. Study 1 tests three correlations that are predicted by the theory of dream sharing and empathy: that trait empathy will be correlated with frequency of telling dreams to others, with frequency of listening to others’ dreams, and with trait attitude toward dreams (ATD) (for which higher scores indicate positive attitude). 160 participants completed online the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire. Pearson partial correlations were conducted, with age and sex partialled out. Trait empathy was found to be significantly associated with the frequency of listening to the dreams of others, frequency of telling one’s own dreams to others, and attitude toward dreams. Study 2 tests the effects of discussing dreams on state empathy, using an adapted version of the Shen (2010) state empathy scale, for 27 pairs of dream sharers and discussers. Dream discussion followed the stages of the Ullman (1996) dream appreciation technique. State empathy of the dream discusser toward the dream sharer was found to increase significantly as a result of the dream discussion, with a medium effect size, whereas the dream sharer had a small decrease in empathy toward the discusser. A proposed mechanism for these associations and effects is taken from the robust findings in the literature that engagement with literary fiction can induce empathy toward others. We suggest that the dream acts as a piece of fiction that can be explored by the dreamer together with other people, and can thus induce empathy about the life circumstances of the dreamer. We discuss the speculation that the story-like characteristics of adult human dreams may have been selected for in human evolution, including in sexual selection, as part of the selection for emotional intelligence, empathy, and social bonding.

  • 27.
    Borgström, Juliana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cyclical Women: Menstrual Cycle Effects on Mood and Neuro-Cognitive Performance2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During roughly forty years of a woman’s life-span, the fertile female human body prepares itself monthly for the possibility of pregnancy. Science has shown that the fluctuation of the sex steroids progesterone and estrogen have a crucial role in the female body's physiology, determining the menstrual cycle and its general phases. This biological dance of hormones governing the cycle influences a lot of physical, mental and cognitive aspects of life for a fertile ovulating woman. Although the question of whether these changes also affect women's cognitive performance is still unclear, some evidence has been gathered that could bring us closer to answers. Recent research findings show that this hormonal interplay might have a significant role in cognitive and psychological development - modulating brain activity, cognitive performance, higher cognition, emotional status, sensory processing, appetite and more. This thesis aims to uncover to what extent the menstrual cycle affects brain functions, neurobiology, mood, well-being and cognitive performance in menstruating cisgender women.

  • 28.
    Bryde, Jonathan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Affect and Attention: An Empirical Study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In daily life there are numerous experiences and events that divert people's attention and cause stress, which may be linked with aspects of ill-being and lowered well-being. Mindfulness meditation may alleviate such issues. Mindfulness can be summarized as a form of awareness and attention in the present that is characterized by an open-minded and non-judgemental perspective, and meditation as a group of practices that engage many of the same processes and may involve mindfulness. There is evidence that both mindfulness and mindfulness meditation are associated with activity in brain regions relating to, for example, attention, emotion-regulation, and bodily awareness. Consequently, mindfulness meditation was hypothesized in the present study to improve attention as measured by the Attention Network Test, and decrease negative affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule when compared to a control condition. The mindfulness meditation instructions employed were largely based on the work of Kabat-Zinn (1982). 14 participants were recruited to the study, and 7 of them completed the experiment. 3 participants were randomized to the experimental group, and 4 to the control group. Results were largely contrary to the hypotheses, with only executive attention having statistical significance (p < .05) and supporting one hypothesis. Although effect sizes were on average large for the variables of the study, the small sample size may have limited the power and increased the risk for type-II errors.

  • 29.
    Carlsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Fransson, Camilla
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Tomasdottir, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Förlåtelse: Förlåta fullt ut2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I ordet förlåtelse ingår det många olika tolkningar beroende på vem det är som definierar. I vårt arbete har vi valt att inrikta oss på förhållandet mellan offret och förövaren när det gäller grova gärningar som mord, övergrepp och misshandel. Vår frågeställning är om det är möjligt att förlåta onda gärningar fullt ut? Kan ett offer förlåta en förövare fullt ut som genom sina onda handlingar har orsakat offret lidande? Finns det någon rättvisa med tanke på den obalans som uppstår genom ondskefulla gärningar. Vi har valt att utgå ifrån rättvise teorin eftersom samhället har en rättvisa som grund när det gäller brott och straff. Vi har använt kvalitativmetod och har valt att göra två informantintervjuer med personer som i sitt dagliga arbete kommer i kontakt med förlåtelse. Vi intervjuade även personer som hade genomgått en förlåtelseprocess och vi analyserade intervjuerna utifrån vår definition på förlåtelse fullt ut som är

    … att människor inte ska uppleva någon aggression, bitterhet, rädsla, sårbarhet, ångestfylldhet till förövaren/gärningen och återfått förtroendet till förövaren när de har förlåtit fullt ut.

    Förlåtelse, försoning, hämnd och rättvisa är de begrepp som vi har funnit spegla respondenternas syn på området. Enligt vår förförståelse anser vi att det inte går att stryka ett streck över eller glömma svåra kränkningar. Vi menar att det inte går att förlåta fullt ut.

  • 30.
    Carlsson, Veronica
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Emotional attention: A cognitive neuroscience perspective2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention is a cognitive mechanism that guides our perception in order to prioritize the limited resources to the most relevant information while ignoring distracting information. Attention can be voluntarily deployed to stimuli during tasks or goals, or the features of the stimulus can capture our attention either by being salient or being emotionally induced. Emotions affect multiple different cognitive processes such as attention because emotional stimuli can be relevant for defending or sustain life. This relationship between attention and emotion indicates that there should be interactive but distinct networks between these cognitive mechanisms as well as a modulative effect on perceptional and attentional systems. Emotions were in general demonstrating a facilitation affect on attentional and saccadic processes as well as broadening or narrowing the scope of attention. The reason behind emotions impact on attention was proposed to be for eliciting a change in the application of resources in order to solve the limited capacity problem and possibly to protect and sustain life. Inconsistent findings as well as limitations for emotional attention studies are discussed.

  • 31.
    Chamoun, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    En identitet med rötter utan jord: En kvalitativ studie om hur svenskfödda assyriska ungdomar upplever och skapar sin identitet.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens vill belysa assyriska ungdomars identitetsskapande och hur detta utförs med två olika kultursystem, och dessutom visas skillnader mellan könsrollerna. Urvalet avgränsas till svenskfödda assyriska ungdomar i 18 - 25 årsåldern. Dessa har oftast levt med en kollektivistisk kultur och en individualistisk kultur redan i primär socialisation. Tidigare forskning som har relevans för uppsatsen presenteras och handlar om assyriska ungdomars livssituation, assyriska genusroller och invandrarungdomar i Sverige. Teoretisk utgångspunkt för uppsatsen är symbolisk interaktionism, med teorier runt socialisationsprocessen, social identitet samt etnisk minoritet i kulturmöte. Metoden för undersökningen är kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer. Detta tillvägagångssättets för - och nackdelar diskuteras och genomförande, etiska principer och valet av fem respondenter förklaras. Intervjuresultat ges i ett eget avsnitt för att visa tendenser och mönster som respondenterna uppvisar i intervjumaterialet. Dessa resultat diskuteras vidare genom att de kopplas till teori och tidigare forskning i ett sista kapitel. Uppsatsen avrundas med egna reflektioner och förslag på framtida forskning.

     

    Keywords: Identity, culture belong, Assyrian youths, ethnical minority.

     

  • 32.
    Clavenstam, Isabell
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Effect of Methamphetamine Abuse on Brain Structure and Function2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The great amount of METH abuse all over the world causes enormous social and criminal justice problems. In the human brain the abuse of METH causes implications on both structures and functions given rise to acute as well as long term symptoms. In this essay the effects of METH abuse is described in the manner of the drug mechanism such as the impact on neurotransmitters, structural deficits with decreased and increased volumes and the implication on attention, memory, decision  making and emotions. Results from studies showing brain structural and cognitive impairments in METH abusers and in prenatal METH exposed children.

  • 33.
    Dahlberg, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Franzén, Laila
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Genus en social konstruktion?: En socialpsykologisk studie om och hur interaktioner påverkas av genusordningen i den icke-verbala kommunikationen under anställningsintervjuer.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to create an understanding for if and how nonverbal communication and the learned gender structure influence interactions during employment interviews for executive posts. The study is conducted from a social constructivist perspective where it is argued that the individual is created through social interactions. In order to obtain understanding for social gender structure and nonverbal communication in social interactions observation has been utilized as a method. In addition an observation matrix based on nonverbal behavior and masculine and feminine hexis has been established. The results include both the specific individual’s and the general interactions that took place during the employment interviews. The focus in the analysis, however, concentrates on the interactions between individuals. By focusing on interactions between individuals we are able to capture the nonverbal communication and in addition, how learned gender structures influence the interactions. In the analysis we arrived at the conclusion that both nonverbal communication and gender, to a certain degree, affect the interactions on the employment interview.

  • 34.
    Davidsson, Brita
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Malm Georgson, Jennie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ottosson, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social exkludering utifrån resursteoretiskt perspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om det finns samband mellan resurspreferens och social exkludering. Effekten av kön och resurspreferens på upplevelse av social exkludering och livstillfredsställelse studerades också. Data samlades in genom enkäter och totalt ingick 250 personer i studien från både offentlig och privat sektor i Västra Götalands Län. Resultaten visade att vad människor önskar utbyta för resurser med andra i vardagen är individuellt och påverkar upplevelse av social exkludering samt livstillfredställelse. Människor som eftersträvar kärlek, status och tjänster i relationer är de som upplever sig minst exkluderade och känner också hög livstillfredställelse. De som däremot eftersträvar information, pengar och varor i relationer är de som upplever sig exkluderade och också känner lägre livstillfredställelse. Analysen visade vidare att kvinnor i högre grad än män upplever sig socialt exkluderade i samhället men inte i nära relationer.

  • 35.
    Davidsson, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Role of Major Life Events and Brain Development on Personality Trait Change in Adulthood: Insights from Personality Neuroscience2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between personality trait change and major life events is currently undergoing extensive investigations within the field of personality psychology. A debate has risen regarding whether or not major life events can bring about trait change, and how typical trait change patterns over the adult lifespan can be explained. It is valuable to understand how traits change because they predict important future outcomes. The Five-Factor Theory described by McCrae and Costa (2008a) states that traits are purely biological entities, and trait change is explained to result from processes of intrinsic biological maturation, unaffected by life events. This thesis reviewed the literature regarding the relationship of trait change and life events, and the research of potential biological bases of traits in the brain together with a brain developmental perspective of intrinsic maturation. Gaining an insight in the relationship between personality traits and the brain is a goal within a young field of research called personality neuroscience, and an agenda of the Five-Factor Theory. Major life events do cause trait change, but the relationship is complex. A brain developmental perspective of intrinsic maturation did not entirely correspond with patterns of typical trait change in young adulthood. The Five-Factor Theory is challenged and modifications are suggested. Neurobiological correlates of five-factor traits reveal issues and potentials for future research.

  • 36.
    Degerfeldt, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    It's About a Day: The Effect of Glucocorticoids on Shifting and Re-entraining the Circadian Rhythm in Peripheral Cells: A Review and Meta-Analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The circadian rhythm is a rhythm which permeates all aspects of biological life and follows the hours of the sun. The pace of the rhythm is controlled by a collection of neurons in the hypothalamus, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), whose signals affect rhythms throughout the body as can be seen in aspects of life from behavior down to oscillations of proteins in the cells. A disruption of this rhythm such as what happens during jet lag, where the rhythm of the SCN is out of synch with the rhythm of the rest of the body, is something that can have adverse effects on mental and physical health. To realign the SCN and the rhythm of the body, different methods and be implemented. This thesis investigated the effectiveness of glucocorticoids on re-aligning the rhythms of the body following a disruption through a meta-analysis and a qualitative review. The meta-analysis and review incorporated experiments from six articles investigating the hours of circadian rhythm shifts in the mouse model, after administering glucocorticoids. What was found was that the individual experiments presented results with high effect sizes; however, the direction of said effects was not uniform as the rhythms shifted in different directions. The lack of uniform direction caused no significant combined effect size to be found by this meta-analysis (MES=0.11 ± 0.06), showing that a statistical analysis based on hours shifted could not find a significant combined effect. The qualitative review, however, indicates that the administration of glucocorticoids shows an effect in re-entraining the rhythm of the peripheral parts of the body to that of the environmental cues and the SCN. Though no significant statistical effect was found in this analysis, the effect of glucocorticoids should not be discounted and could still prove a promising treatment for circadian disruptions, such as jet lag.

  • 37.
    Dorsch, Michael J.
    et al.
    College of Business, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA.
    Törnblom, Kjell Y.
    TdLab ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    A Review of Resource Theories and Their Implications for Understanding Consumer Behavior2017In: Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, ISSN 2378-1815, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift to consumer-centric marketing accentuates the need for a more comprehensive understanding of consumer desires, including how consumers manage their resources to satisfy these desires. However, the complexity of the resource concept combined with a fragmented research stream thus far provides a limited understanding of consumer resources and their effect on consumer well-being. The purpose of this article is to encourage continued research into consumer resources, including resource exchange, to gain a more complete understanding of the concept and to facilitate the development of a unified theory of consumer resources. To accomplish our objective, resource theories proposed in different disciplines (economics, management/marketing, psychology, and social psychology) are summarized and used to provide research direction into a wide variety of consumer behavior issues related to consumer resource management and resource exchange behavior.

  • 38.
    Drejing, Karl
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engagement: A traceable motivational concept in human-robot interaction2015In: Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII), 2015 International Conference on, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 956-961Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engagement is essential to meaningful social interaction between humans. Understanding the mechanisms by which we detect engagement of other humans can help us understand how we can build robots that interact socially with humans. However, there is currently a lack of measurable engagement constructs on which to build an artificial system that can reliably support social interaction between humans and robots. This paper proposes a definition, based on motivation theories, and outlines a framework to explore the idea that engagement can be seen as specific behaviors and their attached magnitude or intensity. This is done by the use of data from multiple sources such as observer ratings, kinematic data, audio and outcomes of interactions. We use the domain of human-robot interaction in order to illustrate the application of this approach. The framework further suggests a method to gather and aggregate this data. If certain behaviors and their attached intensities co-occur with various levels of judged engagement, then engagement could be assessed by this framework consequently making it accessible to a robotic platform. This framework could improve the social capabilities of interactive agents by adding the ability to notice when and why an agent becomes disengaged, thereby providing the interactive agent with an ability to reengage him or her. We illustrate and propose validation of our framework with an example from robot-assisted therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder. The framework also represents a general approach that can be applied to other social interactive settings between humans and robots, such as interactions with elderly people.

  • 39.
    Einarsson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Composition, Conducting and Music Theory, Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Cognition and Interaction Lab, Human-Centered Systems Division, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a "bodily turn" in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we believe that the theoretical perspectives and concrete examples discussed in this paper help to elucidate how situations-and with them affordances-are dynamically constructed through the interactions of various mechanisms as people engage in embodied and situated activity.

  • 40.
    Elfstrand Corlin, Tinna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    The impact of personality on person-centred care: a study of care staff in Swedish nursing homes2017In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e12132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objective: In this study, we explore how personal and situational factors relate to the provision of person-centred care (PCC) in nursing homes. Specifically, we focus on the relationship between the care staff's personality traits and provision of PCC and to what extent perceptions of the working environment influences this relationship.

    Background: The ultimate goal of elderly care is to meet the older person's needs and individual preferences (PCC). Interpersonal aspects of care and the quality of relationship between the care staff and the older person are therefore central in PCC.

    Design and methods: A cross-sectional Swedish sample of elderly care staff (= 322) completed an electronic survey including measures of personality (Mini-IPIP) and person-centred care (Individualized Care Inventory, ICI). A principal component analysis was conducted on the ICI-data to separate the user orientation (process quality) of PCC from the preconditions (structure quality) of PCC.

    Results: Among the five factors of personality, neuroticism was the strongest predictor of ICI user orientation. ICI preconditions significantly mediated this relationship, indicating the importance of a supportive working environment. In addition, stress was introduced as a potential explanation and was shown to mediate the impact of neuroticism on ICI preconditions.

    Conclusions: Personality traits have a significant impact on user orientation, and the perception of a supportive and stress free working environment is an important prerequisite for achieving high-quality person-centred elderly care.

    Implications for practice: Understanding how personality is linked to the way care staff interacts with the older person adds a new perspective on provision of person-centred elderly care.

  • 41.
    Elfstrand Corlin, Tinna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Accounting for job satisfaction: Examining the interplay of person and situation2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 436-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we investigate the interplay of personality traits (i.e., person) in frontline care staff in nursing homes and the way they relate to the residents (i.e., situation) to account for their job satisfaction. Participants completed a survey including Mini-IPIP tapping the five-factor model of personality, Individualized Care Inventory tapping four aspects of person-centered care and job satisfaction. The results revealed that staff scoring high on neuroticism experienced less job satisfaction. This relationship was partly accounted for by resident autonomy, suggesting that part of the adverse influence of neuroticism on job satisfaction may be mitigated by organizations providing a supportive care environment. In contrast, staff scoring high on agreeableness experienced higher job satisfaction. This relationship was accounted for by another aspect of person-centered care, that is, knowing the person. This suggests that agreeableness in a sense facilitated adjustment of acts of care toward the unique needs and preferences of residents and this partly explained why the more agreeable the staff was the more they felt satisfied at work. In sum, effects of personality traits on job satisfaction in care staff are partially mediated by the perception of working conditions and care policy and to the extent that a certain personality trait affects whether the staff have a positive or negative perception of the way they relate to the residents, they will experience, respectively, higher or a lower job satisfaction. This finding has implications for how to combine a focus on delivering person-centered care with improving personal job satisfaction.

  • 42.
    Engvall, Pär
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ericzon, Michael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Rydén, Tobias
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ungdomars attityder kring våldtäkt2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie belyses ungdomars rådande attityder som rör gränssättning kring en önskad sexuell akt och våldtäkt jämfört med den juridiska definitionen. Vidare undersöks även kamraters eventuella påverkan till ungdomarnas gränssättning utifrån den sociala inlärningsteorin.Tillvägagångssättet var av kvantitativ art där data samlades in i form av enkäter.Respondenterna bestod av N=210 ungdomar i 15 till 16 års ålder (årskurs nio)från åtta stycken grundskolor, inom en radie av åtta mil från studieorten. Den insamlade datan analyserades med statistikprogrammet SPSS.Ungdomarna i studien påvisade relativt goda attityder i förhållande till den juridiska definitionen av våldtäkt. Något samband mellan kamraters påverkan och rådande attityder som rör denna gränsdragning kunde dock inte fastställas.

  • 43.
    Ericsson, Jennie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    BDD: Den glömda sjukdomen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44. Fogelström Karpuz, Åsa
    et al.
    Karpuz, Ömer
    Trygg, Cecilia
    Vilka faktorer påverkar skolungdomarsintentioner till studier?: En applikation av Theory of planned behavior2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande undersökning är en kvantitativ attitydstudie vilken bygger på Izec Ajzens Theory of planned behavior. Teorins utgångspunkt är att individens beteende föregås av en intention att utföra beteendet. Intentionen grundar sig i tre faktorer: individens attityd gentemot beteendet, subjektiva normer och individens upplevda beteendekontroll. Studien syfte är att i första hand studera ungdomars attityder gentemot läxläsning och delaktighet på lektioner. Syftet är även att kartlägga vilka faktorer som i störst grad påverkar intentionen att studera och hur intentionen skiljer sig mellan könen. 307 respondenter besvarade en enkät bestående av 28 frågor. Resultaten visar att den upplevda beteendekontrollen är den starkaste prediktorn till intentionen till att studera. Resultatet motsäger hypotesen om att subjektiva normer skulle vara den starkaste prediktorn till intentionen att studera. Resultaten visade vidare att flickor har en större intention till attstudera än pojkar vilket är förenligt med ställd hypotes. Resultaten skulle kunna användas för arbete med att stärka ungdomars studiebeteende och studiemotivation.

  • 45.
    Fredriksson, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ”Utan den feministiska kampen, då finns inte jag”: en socialpsykologisk studie av komma ut processen och ett feministiskt engagemang.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsens syfte är att genom ett symboliskt interaktionistiskt och ett social konstruktionistiskt perspektiv öka förståelsen och beskriva komma ut processens samband med feministiskt engagerade lesbiska kvinnor. Den undersöker hur komma ut processen, dvs. den homosexuella identitetsutvecklingen, relaterar till et feministiskt engagemang hos respondenterna. Som teoretisk grund gällande identitetskonstruktion och socialisation har jag främst använt mig av Berger och Luckmann (1991) men även tolkningar av Mead (Berg, 1992; 2007) samt Giddens. För att få en djupare insikt kring kön/genus och sexualitet använder jag mig av Rubin (1984), Rich (1980) och Butler (2007). Jag undersöker i uppsatsen hur komma ut processen upplevs av kvinnorna både inför sig själva och inför deras omgivning. Hur kan det feministiska engagemanget och komma ut processen kopplas samman samt vilka uttryck tar sig detta samspel är också två relevanta frågeställningar i uppsatsen. Resultatet visar att det finn minst två olika sätt där ett politiskt engagemang kan generera en homosexuell identitetsutveckling medan det i det andra fallet förhåller sig tvärtom - komma ut processen blir vägen in i ett feministiskt engagemang för att stärka den homosexuella identiteten samt att hitta likasinnade som bekräftar det lesbiska Självet.

  • 46.
    Fridner, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    What Facilitates Client Motivation for Change?: A critical look at self-determined behavior change2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a client-centered, directive approach for behavior change. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is a theory of human motivation and self-determined growth. Both of these social-cognitive theories aim to explain motivation and health behavior change and have generated a lot of research on how to increase human motivation. However, MI lacks a definite theory on mechanisms of behavior change and SDT offers a theory of motivation based on extensive research on human interactions. This paper aims to critically look at facilitators of client motivation for behavior change in-session from a social-cognitive perspective on one hand, and neural correlates related to client behavior change on the other hand. MI and SDT somewhat similarly explain what most importantly determines client motivation for change in-session. However, SDT mainly focus on psychological needs such as fostering client autonomy, and MI focus on the therapeutic alliance and on generating client change talk in-session. Efforts to bridge the two methods aim at generating a clearer definition of motivation in MI, and a better framework of practice in SDT. Studies on neural correlates of behavior change support and challenge elements of both approaches, indicating the importance of autonomy and relatedness for motivating positive behavior change.

  • 47.
    Garcia, Danilo
    et al.
    Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Al Nima, Ali
    Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rapp-Ricciardia, Max
    Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen2018In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 3, article id e00569Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Personality traits and personal values: A replication with a Swedish sample2015In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain rigor and transparency in the science of personality psychology, we conducted a replication of the often cited “The Big Five Personality Factors and Personal Values” by Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, and Knafo (2002). More than a decade ago, based on a study of Israeli students, they presented results on how personality traits and personal values relate. In the current replication study with Swedish students, we related the Big Five personality traits to Schwartz´s personal values. Our results replicated most of the earlier findings. Whereas the earlier study tested the predictive validity of traits and values on religious beliefs, presumed to be under a relatively high degree of cognitive control, our study tested the willingness-to-pay for Fairtrade alternatives. Our findings confirmed the earlier findings that personal values explain substantially more variance than personality traits in this. We discuss that traits and values are different constructs and that their relationship is consistent across the two geographic locations and student cohorts.

  • 49.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    The Relationship between Mind-Body Dualism and Personal Values2016In: International Journal of Psychological Studies, ISSN 1918-7211, E-ISSN 1918-722X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dualists view the mind and the body as two fundamental different “things”, equally real and independent of each other. Cartesian thought, or substance dualism, maintains that the mind and body are two different substances, the non-physical and the physical, and a causal relationship is assumed to exist between them. Physicalism, on the other hand, is the idea that everything that exists is either physical or totally dependent of and determined by physical items. Hence, all mental states are fundamentally physical states. In the current study we investigated to what degree Swedish university students’ beliefs in mind-body dualism is explained by the importance they attach to personal values. A self-report inventory was used to measure their beliefs and values. Students who held stronger dualistic beliefs attach less importance to the power value (i.e., the effort to achieve social status, prestige, and control or dominance over people and resources). This finding shows that the strength in laypeople’s beliefs in dualism is partially explained by the importance they attach to personal values

  • 50.
    Grassini, Simone
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Castellotti, Serena
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Petrizzo, Irene
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Benedetti, Viola
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Processing of natural scenery is associated with lower attentional and cognitive load compared with urban ones2019In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 62, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental psychology has provided evidence for psychologically favorable effects of exposure to natural settings, by means of controlled laboratory experiments as well as outdoor field studies. Most of these studies have employed subjective rating scales to assess processes and outcomes of exposure to nature, while only few of them have used physiological measures to assess the neural correlates of these benefits. The present study used electroencephalography (EEG) to explore how the brain engages in processing of images of natural vs. urban scenery. During EEG recording, the participants (n = 32) were presented with a series of photos depicting urban or natural scenery. Participants rated the sceneries for their subjective relaxing value. Images of natural scenery were rated as more relaxing compared to the images of urban scenery. Event related potentials suggested a lower attentional demand for images of natural scenery compared to urban ones. Signal spectral analyses revealed differences in brain activity level and cognitive demand between natural and urban scenery. Our data suggest that the visual perception of natural environments calls for less attentional and cognitive processing, compared with urban ones. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

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