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  • 1.
    Anderberg, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Barnestein-Fonseca, Pilar
    Research Unit, La Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Mental Health, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, Hospital Regional Universitario Málaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Guzman-Parra, Jose
    Research Unit, La Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Mental Health, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, Hospital Regional Universitario Málaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Garolera, Maite
    Brain, Cognition and Behavior - Clinical Research, Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain.
    Quintana, Maria
    Brain, Cognition and Behavior - Clinical Research, Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain.
    Mayoral-Cleries, Fermin
    Research Unit, La Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Mental Health, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, Hospital Regional Universitario Málaga, Malaga, Spain.
    Lemmens, Evi
    University Colleges Leuven-Limburg, Genk, Belgium.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    The Effects of the Digital Platform Support Monitoring and Reminder Technology for Mild Dementia (SMART4MD) for People With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Their Informal Carers: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial2019In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 8, no 6, article id e13711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many countries are witnessing a trend of growth in the number and proportion of older adults within the total population. In Europe, population aging has had and will continue to have major social and economic consequences. This is a fundamentally positive development where the added life span is of great benefit for both the individual and the society. Yet, the risk for the individual to contract noncommunicable diseases and disability increases with age. This may adversely affect the individual's ability to live his or her life in the way that is desired. Cognitive conditions constitute a group of chronic diseases that predominantly affects older people. Recent technology advancements can help support the day-to-day living activities at home for people with cognitive impairments. Objective: A digital platform (Support Monitoring and Reminder for Mild Dementia; SMART4MD) is created to improve or maintain the quality of life for people with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) and their carers. The platform will provide reminders, information, and memory support in everyday life, with the purpose of giving structure and lowering stress. In the trial, we will include participants with a diagnosed neurocognitive disorder as well as persons with an undiagnosed subjective memory problem and cognitive impairment, that is, 20 to 28 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Methods: A pragmatic, multicenter RCT is being conducted in Spain, Sweden, and Belgium. The targets for recruitment are 1200 dyads-split into an intervention group and a control group that are in usual care. Intervention group participants will be provided with a data-enabled computer tablet with the SMART4MD app. Its core functionalities, intended to be used daily at home, are based on reminders, cognitive supporting activities, and sharing health information. Results: Inclusion of participants started in December 2017, and recruitment is expected to end in February 2019. Furthermore, there will be 3 follow-up visits at 6, 12, and 18 months after the baseline visit. Conclusions: This RCT is expected to offer benefits at several levels including in-depth knowledge of the possibilities of introducing a holistic multilayered information and communication technology solution for this group. SMART4MD has been developed in a process involving the structured participation of PwMCI, their informal carers, and clinicians. The adoption of SMART4MD faces the challenge of this age group's relative unfamiliarity with digital devices and services. However, this challenge can also be an opportunity for developing a digital device tailored to a group at risk of digital exclusion. This research responds to the wider call for the development of digital devices which are accessible and affordable to older people and this full scale RCT can hopefully serve as a model for further studies in this field.

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  • 2.
    Behrens, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    CoGNIT Automated Tablet Computer Cognitive Testing in Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: Feasibility Study2022In: JMIR Formative Research, E-ISSN 2561-326X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id e23589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early diagnosis of cognitive disorders is becoming increasingly important. Limited resources for specialist assessment and an increasing demographical challenge warrants the need for efficient methods of evaluation. In response, CoGNIT, a tablet app for automatic, standardized, and efficient assessment of cognitive function, was developed. Included tests span the cognitive domains regarded as important for assessment in a general memory clinic (memory, language, psychomotor speed, executive function, attention, visuospatial ability, manual dexterity, and symptoms of depression). Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of automatic cognitive testing with CoGNIT in older patients with symptoms of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Patients older than 55 years with symptoms of MCI (n=36) were recruited at the research clinic at the Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH), Karlskrona, Sweden. A research nurse administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the CoGNIT app on a tablet computer. Technical and testing issues were documented. Results: The test battery was completed by all 36 patients. One test, the four-finger-tapping test, was performed incorrectly by 42% of the patients. Issues regarding clarity of instructions were found in 2 tests (block design test and the one finger-tapping test). Minor software bugs were identified. Conclusions: The overall feasibility of automatic cognitive testing with the CoGNIT app in patients with symptoms of MCI was good. The study highlighted tests that did not function optimally. The four-finger-tapping test will be discarded, and minor improvements to the software will be added before further studies and deployment in the clinic. © 2022 JMIR Publications Inc.. All right reserved.

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  • 3.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Magnus
    Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Allwood, Jens
    Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Odén, Anders
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Steen, Bertil
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Descriptions of pain in elderly patients following orthopaedic surgery2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 110-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate what words elderly patients, who had undergone hip surgery, used to describe their experience of pain in spoken language and to compare these words with those used in the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Pain-O-Meter (POM). The study was carried out at two orthopaedic and two geriatric clinical departments at a large university hospital in Sweden. Altogether, 60 patients (mean age =77) who had undergone orthopaedic surgery took part in the study. A face-to-face interview was conducted with each patient on the second day after the operation. This was divided into two parts, one tape-recorded and semi-structured in character and one structured interview. The results show that a majority of the elderly patients who participated in this study verbally stated pain and spontaneously used a majority of the words found in the SF-MPQ and in the POM. The patients also used a number of additional words not found in the SF-MPQ or the POM. Among those patients who did not use any of the words in the SF-MPQ and the POM, the use of the three additional words 'stel' (stiff), 'hemsk' (awful) and 'räd(d)(sla)' (afraid/fear) were especially marked. The patients also combined the words with a negation to describe what pain was not. To achieve a more balanced and nuanced description of the patient's pain and to make it easier for the patients to talk about their pain, there is a need for access to a set of predefined words that describe pain from a more multidimensional perspective than just intensity. If the elderly patient is allowed, and finds it necessary, to use his/her own words to describe what pain is but also to describe what pain is not, by combining the words with a negation, then the risk of the patient being forced to choose words that do not fully correspond to their pain can be reduced. If so, pain scales such as the SF-MPQ and the POM can create a communicative bridge between the elderly patient and health care professionals in the pain evaluation process.

  • 4.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Vasa Hospital, Göteborg.
    Sjöström, Björn
    Department of Health Care Pedagogics, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Odén, Anders
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Vasa Hospital, Göteborg.
    Steen, Bertil
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Vasa Hospital, Göteborg.
    An application of pain rating scales in geriatric patients2000In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 380-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the applicability of three different pain rating scales, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Graphic Rating Scale (GRS) and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), in geriatric patients. Data collection was performed in a geriatric clinic at a university hospital. A structured interview was conducted with 167 patients (mean age = 80.5 years). Patients rated their current experience of pain twice with a 5-minute pause in-between on the VAS, GRS and NRS, and were then asked if they experienced pain, ache or hurt (PAH) or other symptoms. The correlations were high and significant both between the ratings of the VAS, GRS and NRS (r = 0.78-0.92; p < 0.001) (alternative-forms reliability), and between the test and retesting (r = 0.75-r = 0.83; p < 0.001) (test-retest reliability). A logistic regression analysis showed that the probability to accomplish a rating on the pain scales decreased with advancing age of the patient, and this was especially marked for the VAS. The probability of agreement between the patients' ratings of pain and the verbal report of PAH tended to decrease with advancing age; this was especially so for the VAS. Patients who verbally denied PAH but reported pain on the scales rated it significant lower (p < 0.001) than those who verbally reported PAH and rated the pain as well. Eighteen percent of patients who denied pain but rated a pain experience verbally expressed suffering or distress. The study suggests that pain rating scales such as the VAS, GRS and NRS can be used to evaluate pain experience in geriatric patients. However, agreement between verbally expressed experience of PAH, and the rated experience of pain tended to decrease with advancing age. This indicates that the pain-evaluating process will be substantially improved by an additional penetration supported by a wide variety of expression of hurt, ache, pain, discomfort and distress.

  • 5.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University.
    Sjöström, Björn
    University of Skövde, Department of Health Sciences.
    Odén, Anders
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University.
    Steen, Bertil
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University.
    Assessing pain and pain relief in geriatric patients with non-pathological fractures with different rating scales2001In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 355-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although pain is a frequent problem among elderly patients, they are often omitted in clinical trials and few studies have focused on assessing pain relief in this population. The aim of this study was to compare geriatric patients' verbally reported effect of analgesics with changes in pain experience rated with four different rating scales: the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Graphic Rating Scale (GRS), the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and the Pain Relief Scale (PRS). Altogether 53 geriatric patients (mean=82 yrs) with non-pathological fractures in 4 geriatric units at a large university hospital were selected. In connection with the administration of analgesics, the patients were asked to "Mark the point that corresponds to your experience of pain just now at rest" on the VAS, GRS and NRS. This was repeated after 1.5-2 hours, and a direct question was asked about whether the analgesic medication given in connection with the initial assessment had had any pain-alleviation effect. Two comparisons were conducted with each patient. The results show that the probability of accomplishing a rating on the VAS, GRS, NRS, and PRS was lower with advancing age in these elderly fracture patients. The correlations between the ratings of the VAS, GRS and NRS were strong and significant (r=0.80-0.95; p<0.001) both at the initial assessments and at the re-assessments. However, the verbally reported effects of the analgesics were often directly opposite to the changes in rated pain. Therefore, application of the VAS, NRS, GRS and PRS for the purpose of assessing pain relief must be combined with supplementary questions that allow the patient to verbally describe possible experience of pain relief.

  • 6.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Gothenburg.
    Steen, Gunilla
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Gothenburg.
    Waern, Magda
    Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Göteborg University, Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Boo
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Gothenburg.
    Odén, Anders
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Gothenburg.
    Sjöström, Björn
    University of Skövde, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Health Care Pedagogics, Göteborg University, Gothenburg.
    Steen, Bertil
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Gothenburg.
    Pain and its relation to cognitive function and depressive symptoms: A Swedish population study of 70-year-old men and women2003In: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, ISSN 0885-3924, E-ISSN 1873-6513, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 903-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pain and its characteristics, and to examine the association of pain with cognitive function and depressive symptoms, in a representative sample of 70-year-old men and women. Data were collected within the gerontological and geriatric population studies in Göteborg, Sweden (H-70). A sample of 124 men and 117 women living in the community took part in the study. A questionnaire was applied which included four different aspects of pain experience: prevalence, frequency of episodes of pain, duration and number of locations. In close connection to this, depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The prevalence of pain during the last 14 days was higher in women (79%; n = 91) than in men (53%; n = 65) (P<0.001). Women (68%; n = 78) also reported pain that had lasted for >6 months to a greater extent than men (38%; n = 46) (P<0.001). The frequency of episodes of pain was also higher among women, 64% (n = 74) reporting daily pain or pain several days during the last 14 days while 37% of the men (n = 45) did so (P<0.001). Women (33%, n = 38) also reported pain experience from ≥3 locations more often than men (11%; n = 13) (P<0.001). On the other hand, the association between depressive symptoms and pain experience was more evident in men than in women. Women were taking significantly more antidepressants compared to men (P<0.03). The results show that pain is common in 70-year-old people and especially in women. However, associations between depressive symptoms and the four aspects of pain experience were more pronounced among men. 

  • 7.
    Berner, Jessica
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Dallora, Ana Luiza
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Palm, Bruna
    Department of Mathematics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Five-factor model, technology enthusiasm and technology anxiety2023In: Digital Health, E-ISSN 2055-2076, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults need to participate in the digital society, as societal and personal changes and what they do with the remaining time that they have in their older years has an undeniable effect on motivation, cognition and emotion. Changes in personality traits were investigated in older adults over the period 2019–2021. Technology enthusiasm and technology anxiety are attitudes that affect the relationship to the technology used. The changes in the score of technology enthusiasm and technology anxiety were the dependent variables. They were investigated with personality traits, age, gender, education, whether someone lives alone, cognitive function, digital social participation (DSP) and health literacy as predictors of the outcome. The Edwards-Nunnally index and logistic regression were used. The results indicated that DSP, lower age, lower neuroticism and higher education were indicative of less technology anxiety. High DSP and high extraversion are indicative of technology enthusiasm. DSP and attitude towards technology seem to be key in getting older adults to stay active online. 

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  • 8.
    Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ström, Peter
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna L. V.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gatz, Margaret
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden ; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Association between sleep characteristics and incident dementia accounting for baseline cognitive status: A prospective population-based study2017In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While research has shown that sleep disorders are prevalent among people with dementia, the temporal relationship is unclear. We investigated whether atypical sleep characteristics were associated with incident dementia while accounting for baseline cognitive functioning.

    Methods: Screening Across the Lifespan Twin Study (SALT) participants were 11,247 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry who were at least 65 years at baseline (1998-2002). Sleep and baseline cognitive functioning were assessed via the SALT telephone screening interview. Data on dementia diagnoses came from national health registers. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for dementia.

    Results: After 17 years of follow-up, 1,850 dementia cases were identified. Short (≤ 6 hours) and extended (> 9 hours) time-in-bed (TIB) compared to the middle reference group (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.06-1.85, HR=1.11, 95% CI=1.00-1.24, respectively) and rising at 8:00AM or later compared to earlier rising (HR=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.24) were associated with higher dementia incidence. Bedtime, sleep quality, restorative sleep, and heavy snoring were not significant predictors. Findings stratified by baseline cognitive status indicated that the association between short TIB and dementia remained in those cognitively intact at the start.

    Conclusions: Short and extended TIB as well as delayed rising among older adults predicted increased dementia incidence in the following 17 years. The pattern of findings suggests that extended TIB and late rising represent prodromal features whereas short TIB appeared to be a risk factor for dementia.

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  • 9.
    Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ström, Peter
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden ; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Shift work and cognitive aging: A longitudinal study2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 485-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed.

    Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986–2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998–2002 was available from a subsample (N=320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men.

    Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of "any-type" or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand.

    Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

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  • 10.
    Bouwmeester Stjernetun, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.
    Odzakovic, Elzana
    School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    ”It´s like walking in a bubble”, nursing students´ perspectives on age suit simulation in a home environment – group interviews from reflection seminars2024In: BMC Nursing, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Older persons with age-related and complex health problems will increasingly depend on care provision from nurses in their own homes. However, a barrier to quality care is ageism and nursing students´ disinterest in geriatrics. In addition, nurse education often falls short in preparing students for the complexity of geriatric care. Welfare technology (WT) is progressively implemented in home care to help older persons live at home despite their health problems. However, this process is intricate and requires acceptance and digital literacy among caregivers and older persons. Despite these challenges, nurse education can address and change negative attitudes through innovative teaching methods such as age suit simulation. Therefore, the study aims to describe nursing students´ experiences of age suit simulation in a home-like environment with WT and technical aids, and will reveal their perspective on ageing and providing care to older adults.

    Methods

    A qualitative explorative design using semi-structured group interviews (n=39) among nursing students. Data was analysed through reflexive thematic analysis.

    Results

    The analysis generated three main themes; “It’s like walking in a bubble”, “An eye opener” and “Concerns about ageing and the current structure of geriatric care”. The main themes included eight subthemes. Adapting to the sensory and physical limitations of the age suit was an immersive experience and caused feelings of frustration, loneliness and disconnection. A prominent result was a raised awareness of cognitive loss, especially impaired vision, and students felt the simulations had made them aware of the everyday challenges older persons faced. Students highlighted the importance of patience and giving enough time in care situations by being present and having a critical perspective of WT. The students were mostly negative towards their own ageing and could better relate to older persons´ vulnerability.

    Conclusions

    Age suit simulation was described as an embodied and eye-opening experience, raising nursing students´ awareness of older persons´ functional limitations and the consequences for dignity and independence. Coping with cognitive loss was especially difficult. Students were motivated to apply their new knowledge to clinical practice. Age suit simulation can complement geriatric education, preparing students for the complex care needs of older persons.

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  • 11.
    Bouwmeester Stjernetun, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA.
    Effects of an age suit simulation on nursing students’ perspectives on providing care to older persons - an education intervention study2023In: Educational gerontology, ISSN 0360-1277, E-ISSN 1521-0472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing students are important future health care providers to the growing number of older persons in society. However, two barriers are their common ageist attitudes and lack of interest in geriatrics. This is a concern in light of the global demand for nurses and a challenge that need to be addressed in nurse education. Age suit simulation has been shown to affect the attitudes of students toward older persons, but the important context of home is often missing from studies. Accordingly, the present study employed a quantitative approach with the goal of investigating the effects of aging simulation with an age suit in a home context as a part of experiential learning among second-year nursing students. The age simulation allowed the students to experience both specific and common health problems from the patient’s point of view in a controlled environment and a relevant context: the home. Data were collected using a questionnaire in a quasi-experimental pretest – posttest design with a control group. Results showed that the intervention had a positive effect on various aspects of the nursing students’ perspectives on caring for older persons. Work experience was associated with more positive attitudes. The control group was more negative toward geriatrics as a career choice than the intervention group. In conclusion, age suit simulation can be an innovative part of nurse education because it raises awareness and understanding of the health challenges of older persons, which are important in combating ageism among future nurses.

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  • 12.
    Bravell, Marie Ernsth
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Finkel, Deborah
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, USA.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, USA.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Motor functioning differentially predicts mortality in men and women2017In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 72, p. 6-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Research indicates gender differences in functional performance at advanced ages, but little is known about their impact on longevity for men and women.

    Objective

    To derive a set of motor function factors from a battery of functional performance measures and examine their associations with mortality, incorporating possible gender interactions.

    Method

    Analyses were performed on the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) including twenty-four assessments of motor function up to six times over a 19-year period. Three motor factors were derived from several factor analyses; fine motor, balance/upper strength, and flexibility. A latent growth curve model was used to capture longitudinal age changes in the motor factors and generated estimates of intercept at age 70 (I), rates of change before (S1) and after age 70 (S2) for each factor. Cox regression models were used to determine how gender in interaction with the motor factors was related to mortality.

    Results

    Females demonstrated lower functional performance in all motor functions relative to men. Cox regression survival analyses demonstrated that both balance/upper strength, and fine motor function were significantly related to mortality. Gender specific analyses revealed that this was true for women only. For men, none of the motor factors were related to mortality.

    Conclusion

    Women demonstrated more difficulties in all functioning facets, and only among women were motor functioning (balance/upper strength and fine motor function) associated with mortality. These results provide evidence for the importance of considering motor functioning, and foremost observed gender differences when planning for individualized treatment and rehabilitation.

  • 13.
    Dahl, Anna
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Body mass index, cognitive ability, and dementia: prospective associations and methodological issues in late life2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the association between overweight and cognitive ability and dementia, and to evaluate the usefulness of self-reported body mass index (BMI) in late life and various data sources commonly used in epidemiological studies to identify persons with dementia. Data were drawn from three population-based studies: the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), Aging in Women and Men: A Longitudinal Study of Gender Differences in Health Behaviour and Health among Elderly (the Gender Study), and the Finnish Lieto Study. In Study I, the agreement between self-reported and measured BMI over time was evaluated among 774 men and women, ages 40 to 88 years at baseline (mean age 63.9) participating in both the questionnaire phase and in-person testing of SATSA. Latent growth curve (LGC) modeling showed a small but significant increase between self-reported and measured BMI (0.02 kg/m2/y) over time, which would probably not affect the results if self-reported BMI were used as a continuous variable in longitudinal research. In Study II, the agreement between dementia diagnoses from various sources and dementia diagnoses set at a consensus conference was evaluated. Among the 498 elderly people ages 70 to 81 at baseline (mean age 74.5) enrolled in the Gender Study, 87 were diagnosed with dementia during an eight-year period. Review of medical records and nurse evaluations yielded the highest sensitivity (0.83 and 0.80, respectively) and a high specificity (0.98 and 0.96), indicating that these sources might be good proxies of dementia, while data extraction from the Swedish Inpatient Discharge Registry underestimated the prevalence of dementia (sensitivity 0.26). In Study III, the association between being overweight in midlife and cognitive ability in late life was examined in SATSA. The 781 participants ages 25 to 63 at baseline (mean age 41.6) in 1963 or 1973 self-reported their height and weight. From 1986 until 2002, they were assessed five times using a cognitive test battery. LGC models showed that people with higher midlife BMI scores had significantly lower cognitive ability and a significantly steeper decline than their thinner counterparts, an association that persisted when those who developed dementia during the study period were excluded from the analysis. This finding indicates that being overweight might affect cognitive ability independently of dementia. In Study IV, the association between BMI and dementia risk in older persons was described among 605 persons without dementia and ages 65 to 92 at baseline (mean age 70.8) in the Lieto Study. Among these, 86 persons were diagnosed with dementia during eight years of follow-up. Cox regression analyses indicated that for each unit increase in BMI score, the risk of dementia decreased 8% (hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval = 0.87–0.97) and the association remained significant when individuals who developed dementia during the first four years of follow-up were excluded from the analyses. This result suggests that low BMI scores are present almost a decade before clinical dementia onset.

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  • 14.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Berg, Stig
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Sven E.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Identification of dementia in epidemiological research: A study on the usefulness of various data sources2007In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 381-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Prevalence and incidence ratios of dementia in epidemiological studies vary according to the data source used. Medical records, cognitive tests, and registry information are sources frequently used to differentiate dementia from normal aging. The aim of the present study was to compare the identification of dementia from these different sources with that from consensus diagnosis. 

    Methods: 498 elderly people (age range 70–81 at baseline) enrolled in a Swedish population-based longitudinal twin study (Gender) were evaluated on physical and mental health and interviewed for their socio-demographic background three times during an eight-year period. Reviews of medical records and the Swedish Discharge Registry (DR) were conducted. The 10th percentile was used to differentiate between dementia and non-dementia in all cognitive tests. Scores of 24 or below on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (range 1–30) indicated dementia. A consensus conference diagnosed dementia on the basis of total information. The consensus diagnosis was used as the gold standard. 

    Results: MMSE scores (sensitivity 64%, specificity 96%, kappa 0.65) and the review of medical records (sensitivity 57%, specificity 99%, kappa 0.65) were good sources for dementia identification. The precision of medical records increased when recordings of cognitive impairment were included (sensitivity 83%, specificity 98%, kappa 0.84). The discharge registry had low sensitivity (26%) and kappa coefficient (0.31). 

    Conclusions: The present study shows that both review of medical records and MMSE scores are good although not perfect identifiers of dementia. The discharge registry is an uncertain source of dementia identification.

  • 15.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hassing, Linda B.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Berg, Stig
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Gatz, Margrete
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, USA.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Being overweight in midlife is associated with lower cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in late life2010In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 65A, no 1, p. 57-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although an increasing body of evidence links being overweight in midlife with an increased risk for dementia in late life, no studies have examined the association between being overweight in midlife and cognitive ability in late life. Our aim was to examine the association between being overweight in midlife as measured by body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability assessed over time. METHODS: Participants in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study Aging were derived from a population-based sample. The participants completed baseline surveys in 1963 or 1973 (mean age 41.6 years, range 25-63 years). The surveys included questions about height, weight, diseases, and lifestyle factors. Beginning in 1986, the same individuals were assessed on neuropsychological tests every 3 years (except in 1995) until 2002. During the study period, 781 individuals who were 50 years and older (60% women) had at least one complete neuropsychological assessment. A composite score of general cognitive ability was derived from the cognitive test battery for each measurement occasion. RESULTS: Latent growth curve models adjusted for twinness showed that persons with higher midlife BMI scores had significantly lower general cognitive ability and significantly steeper longitudinal decline than their thinner counterparts. The association did not change substantially when persons who developed dementia during the study period were excluded from the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher midlife BMI scores precede lower general cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in both men and women. The association does not seem to be mediated by an increased risk for dementia

  • 16.
    Dahl, Anna K.
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hassing, Linda B.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight and body mass index in old age: a longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up2010In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 445-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: self-reported body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight is a widely used measure of adiposity in epidemiological research. Knowledge about the accuracy of these measures in late life is scarce.

    Objective: the study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and changes in accuracy of self-reported height, weight and BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight in late life.

    Design: a longitudinal population-based study with five times of follow-up was conducted.

    Participants: seven hundred seventy-four community-living men and women, aged 40–88 at baseline (mean age 63.9), included in The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.

    Methods: participants self-reported their height and weight in a questionnaire, and height and weight were measured by experienced research nurses at an in-person testing five times during a 20-year period. BMI was calculated as weight (kilogramme)/height (metre)2.

    Results: latent growth curve modelling showed an increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured values over time for height (0.038 cm/year) and BMI (0.016 kg/m2/year), but not for weight.

    Conclusions: there is a very small increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI with ageing, which probably would not affect the results when self-reported BMI is used as a continuous variable in longitudinal studies.

  • 17.
    Dahl, Anna K.
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Löppönen, Minna
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Turku, Finland ; Härkätie Health Centre, Finland.
    Isoaho, Raimo
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Turku, Finland ; Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Stig
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Turku, Finland ; Satakunta Central Hospital, Satakunta, Finland ; Unit of Family Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Overweight and obesity in old age are not associated with greater dementia risk2008In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 2261-2266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between body mass index (BMI) and dementia risk in older persons.

    DESIGN: Prospective population‐based study, with 8 years of follow‐up.

    SETTING: The municipality of Lieto, Finland, 1990/91 and 1998/99.

    PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred five men and women without dementia aged 65 to 92 at baseline (mean age 70.8).

    MEASUREMENTS: Weight and height were measured at baseline and at the 8‐year follow‐up. Dementia was clinically assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria.

    RESULTS: Eighty‐six persons were diagnosed with dementia. Cox regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, education, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and alcohol use, indicated that, for each unit increase in BMI score, the risk of dementia decreased 8% (hazard ratio (HR)=0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.87–0.97). This association remained significant when individuals who developed dementia early during the first 4 years of follow‐up were excluded from the analyses (HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.86–0.99). Women with high BMI scores had a lower dementia risk (HR=0.90, 95% CI=0.84–0.96). Men with high BMI scores also tended to have a lower dementia risk, although the association did not reach significance (HR=0.95, 95% CI=0.84–1.07).

    CONCLUSION: Older persons with higher BMI scores have less dementia risk than their counterparts with lower BMI scores. High BMI scores in late life should not necessarily be considered to be a risk factor for dementia.

  • 18.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Starr, John M.
    Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, Edinburgh, UK ; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Pattie, Alison
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Deary, Ian
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Cognitive consequences of overweight and obesity in the ninth decade of life?2015In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: the association between late-life obesity and late-life cognitive abilities is poorly understood. We studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive change in longitudinal population-based study spanning over the ninth decade of life.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: in total, 475 participants free of dementia at baseline from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (mean age: 79.1 years, SD: 0.6) were included. Height and weight were assessed at baseline. BMI was calculated as kg/m(2). Cognitive abilities were assessed at age ∼11 years and at age ∼79, ∼83, ∼87 and ∼90 years.

    RESULTS: latent growth models showed that men being overweight and obese had a 0.65 (SD: 0.3) and 1.10 (SD: 0.5) points less steep decline in general cognitive ability (as measured by the Moray House Test) for each year than people of normal weight. These associations were to some extent confounded by childhood intelligence. No other association between BMI and cognition was significant, either for men or women. People who were obese in old age had significantly lower childhood intelligence (m = 43.6, SD: 1.3) than people who were normal in weight (m = 47.0, SD: 0.8) and persons being overweight (m = 47.5, SD: 0.8), F (472, 3) = 3.2, P = 0.043.

    CONCLUSIONS: the current study shows weak or no evidence for an association between BMI in old age and cognitive function, especially not when childhood intelligence is controlled for. Lower intelligence at the age of 11 years predicted obesity at the age of 79 years.

  • 19.
    Dallora, Ana Luiza
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Department of Computer Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Machine learning and microsimulation techniques on the prognosis of dementia: A systematic literature review2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0179804Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Dementia is a complex disorder characterized by poor outcomes for the patients and high costs of care. After decades of research little is known about its mechanisms. Having prognostic estimates about dementia can help researchers, patients and public entities in dealing with this disorder. Thus, health data, machine learning and microsimulation techniques could be employed in developing prognostic estimates for dementia. Objective The goal of this paper is to present evidence on the state of the art of studies investigating and the prognosis of dementia using machine learning and microsimulation techniques. Method To achieve our goal we carried out a systematic literature review, in which three large databases -Pubmed, Socups and Web of Science were searched to select studies that employed machine learning or microsimulation techniques for the prognosis of dementia. A single backward snowballing was done to identify further studies. A quality checklist was also employed to assess the quality of the evidence presented by the selected studies, and low quality studies were removed. Finally, data from the final set of studies were extracted in summary tables. Results In total 37 papers were included. The data summary results showed that the current research is focused on the investigation of the patients with mild cognitive impairment that will evolve to Alzheimer's disease, using machine learning techniques. Microsimulation studies were concerned with cost estimation and had a populational focus. Neuroimaging was the most commonly used variable. Conclusions Prediction of conversion from MCI to AD is the dominant theme in the selected studies. Most studies used ML techniques on Neuroimaging data. Only a few data sources have been recruited by most studies and the ADNI database is the one most commonly used. Only two studies have investigated the prediction of epidemiological aspects of Dementia using either ML or MS techniques. Finally, care should be taken when interpreting the reported accuracy of ML techniques, given studies' different contexts.

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  • 20.
    Dallora, Ana Luiza
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Prognosis of dementia employing machine learning and microsimulation techniques: a systematic literature review2016In: International Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems/International Conference on Project MANagement/International Conference on Health and Social Care Information Systems and Technologies, CENTERIS/ProjMAN / HCist 2016 / [ed] João Eduardo Quintela Varajão; Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha; Ricardo Martinho; Rui Rijo; Niels Bjørn-Andersen; Rodney Turner; Domingos Alves, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 100, p. 480-488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to investigate the goals and variables employed in the machine learning and microsimulation studies for the prognosis of dementia. METHOD: According to preset protocols, the Pubmed, Socups and Web of Science databases were searched to find studies that matched the defined inclusion/exclusion criteria, and then its references were checked for new studies. A quality checklist assessed the selected studies, and removed the low quality ones. The remaining ones (included set) had their data extracted and summarized. RESULTS: The summary of the data of the 37 included studies showed that the most common goal of the selected studies was the prediction of the conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's Disease, for studies that used machine learning, and cost estimation for the microsimulation ones. About the variables, neuroimaging was the most frequent used. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic literature review showed clear trends in prognosis of dementia research in what concerns machine learning techniques and microsimulation.

  • 21.
    Dallora, Ana Luiza
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Minku, Leandro
    School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Department of Computer Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan Sanmartin
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Multifactorial 10-year prior diagnosis prediction model of dementia2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 18, p. 1-18, article id 6674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the older adult population. To date, no cure or treatment to change its course is available. Since changes in the brains of affected individuals could be evidenced as early as 10 years before the onset of symptoms, prognosis research should consider this time frame. This study investigates a broad decision tree multifactorial approach for the prediction of dementia, considering 75 variables regarding demographic, social, lifestyle, medical history, biochemical tests, physical examination, psychological assessment and health instruments. Previous work on dementia prognoses with machine learning did not consider a broad range of factors in a large time frame. The proposed approach investigated predictive factors for dementia and possible prognostic subgroups. This study used data from the ongoing multipurpose Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, consisting of 726 subjects (91 presented dementia diagnosis in 10 years). The proposed approach achieved an AUC of 0.745 and Recall of 0.722 for the 10-year prognosis of dementia. Most of the variables selected by the tree are related to modifiable risk factors; physical strength was important across all ages. Also, there was a lack of variables related to health instruments routinely used for the dementia diagnosis. 

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  • 22.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Browall, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Eriksson, Monika
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Healthcare providers’ experiences of assessing and performing oral care in older adults2018In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e12189Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Emery, Charles F.
    et al.
    Departments of Psychology and Internal Medicine, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Finkel, Deborah
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN, United States ; Institute for Gerontology Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bidirectional associations between body mass and bodily pain among middle-aged and older adults2022In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 163, no 10, p. 2061-2067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher body mass and obesity are associated with bodily pain, and rates of chronic pain increase among older adults. Most past studies are cross-sectional, precluding determination of the temporal relationship between body mass and pain. A longitudinal study of body mass and pain among middle-aged adults found that higher body mass index (BMI) led to greater lower back pain. No longitudinal study of BMI and pain has been conducted among adults older than 70 years. This study used dual change score models to determine the directional relationship between BMI and bodily pain in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Participants (n = 1889) from the Swedish Twin Registry (baseline age range 40-93 years) completed at least 1 nurse assessment of BMI and self-report ratings of pain interference and joint pain. Pain interference was not associated with BMI, but joint pain was analyzed in univariate and bivariate models, with dual change score models modeling the relationship of BMI and joint pain across age, both independently and as part of bivariate relationships. The results indicated a reciprocal relationship between BMI and joint pain, but joint pain generally led to changes in BMI. In addition, the relationship changed with age, until approximately age 80 years, increasing joint pain contributed to higher BMI, but after that time increasing joint pain contributed to lower BMI. In addition, sex differences in the relationship between BMI and pain appeared after age 70 years. Thus, joint pain contributes to changes in BMI among middle-aged and older adults, but the relationship may change by age and sex.

  • 24.
    Emmesjö, Lina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Hallgren, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Patients’ and next of kin’s expectations and experiences of a mobile integrated care model with a home health care physician – a qualitative thematic study2023In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The organizational principle of remaining at home has offset care from the hospital to the home of the older person where care from formal and informal caregivers is needed. Globally, formal care is often organized to handle singular and sporadic health problems, leading to the need for several health care providers. The need for an integrated care model was therefore recognized by health care authorities in one county in Sweden, who created a cross-organisational integrated care model to meet these challenges. The Mobile integrated care model with a home health care physician (MICM) is a collaboration between regional and municipal health care. Descriptions of patients’ and next of kin’s experiences of integrated care is however lacking, motivating exploration.

    Method

    A qualitative thematic study. Data collection was done before the patients met the MICM physician, and again six months later.

    Results

    The participants expected a sense of relief when admitted to MICM, and hoped for shared responsibility, building a personal contact and continuity but experienced lack of information about what MICM was. At the follow-up interview, participants described having an easier daily life. The increased access to the health care personnel (HCP) allowed participants to let go of responsibility, and created a sense of safety through the personalised contact and continuity. However, some felt ignored and that the personnel teamed up against the patient. The MICM structure was experienced as hierarchical, which influenced the possibility to participate. However, the home visits opened up the possibility for shared decision making.

    Conclusion

    Participants had an expectation of receiving safe and coherent health care, to share responsibility, personal contact and continuity. After six months, the participants expressed that MICM had provided an easier daily life. The direct access to HCP reduced their responsibility and they had created a personalised contact with the HCP and that the individual HCP mattered to them, which could be perceived as in line with the goals in the shift to local health care. The MICM was experienced as a hierarchic structure with impact on participation, indicating that all dimensions of person-centred care were not fulfilled.

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  • 25.
    Emmesjö, Lina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.
    Home health care professionals’ experiences of working in integrated teams during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative thematic study2022In: BMC Primary Care, E-ISSN 2731-4553, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Since COVID-19 emerged, over 514 million COVID-19 cases and 6 million COVID-19-related deaths have been reported worldwide. Older persons receiving home health care often have co-morbidities that require advanced medical care, and are at risk of becoming severely ill or dying from COVID-19. In Sweden, over 10,000 COVID-19-related deaths have been reported among persons receiving municipal home health and social care. Home health care professionals have been working with the patients most at risk if infected. Most research has focused on the experiences of professionals in hospitals and assistant nurses in a home care setting. It is therefore valuable to study the experiences of the registered nurses and physicians working in home health care during the COVID-19 pandemic to learn lessons to inform future work.

    Method

    A thematic qualitative study design using a semi-structured interview guide.

    Results

    The health care professionals experienced being forced into changed ways of working, which disrupted building and maintaining relationships with other health care professionals, and interrupted home health care. The health care professionals described being forced into digital and phone communication instead of in-person meetings, which negatively influenced the quality of care. The COVID-19 pandemic brought worry about illness for the health care professionals, including worrying about infecting patients, co-workers, and themselves, as well as worry about upholding the provision of health care because of increasing sick leave. The health care professionals felt powerless in the face of their patients’ declining health. They also faced worry and guilt from the patients’ next of kin.

    Conclusion

    Home health care professionals have faced the COVID-19 pandemic while working across organizational borders, caring for older patients who have been isolated during the pandemic and trying to prevent declining health and feelings of isolation. Due to the forced use of digital and phone communication instead of in-person visits, the home health care professionals experienced a reduction in the patients’ quality of care and difficulty maintaining good communication between the professions.

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  • 26.
    Ericsson, Malin
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fors, Stefan
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Institute for Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zavala, Catalina
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, United States.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Childhood social class and cognitive aging in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 27, p. 7001-7006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we analyzed genetically informative data to investigate within-person change and between-person differences in late-life cognitive abilities as a function of childhood social class. We used data from nine testing occasions spanning 28 y in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging and parental social class based on the Swedish socioeconomic index. Cognitive ability included a general factor and the four domains of verbal, fluid, memory, and perceptual speed. Latent growth curve models of the longitudinal data tested whether level and change in cognitive performance differed as a function of childhood social class. Between-within twin-pair analyses were performed on twins reared apart to assess familial confounding. Childhood social class was significantly associated with mean-level cognitive performance at age 65 y, but not with rate of cognitive change. The association decreased in magnitude but remained significant after adjustments for level of education and the degree to which the rearing family was supportive toward education. A between-pair effect of childhood social class was significant in all cognitive domains, whereas within-pair estimates were attenuated, indicating genetic confounding. Thus, childhood social class is important for cognitive performance in adulthood on a population level, but the association is largely attributable to genetic influences.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Irene
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Department of Nursing Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Buskerud, Drammen, Norway.
    Older women's experiences of suffering from urinary tract infections2014In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 23, no 9-10, p. 1385-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: To describe and explore older women's experiences of having had repeated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Background: UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections among older women. Approximately one-third of very old women suffer from at least one UTI each year. Despite the high incidence of UTI, little is known about the impact of UTI on health and daily life in older women. Design: A qualitative descriptive design. Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 20 Swedish women aged 67-96 years who suffered from repeated UTIs the preceding year. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Two main themes were identified: being in a state of manageable suffering and depending on alleviation. Being in a state of manageable suffering was described in terms of experiencing physical and psychological health problems, struggling to deal with the illness and being restricted in daily life. Depending on alleviation was illustrated in terms of having access to relief but also receiving inadequate care. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that UTIs are a serious health problem among older women that not only affects both physical and mental health but also has serious social consequences. The women in this study described the physical and psychological health problems, struggling to deal with the illness, being restricted in daily life, depending on access to relief and receiving inadequate care. Relevance to clinical practice: It is important to improve the knowledge about how UTI affects the health of older women. This knowledge may help nurses develop strategies to support these women. One important part in the supportive strategies is that nurses can educate these women in self-care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 28.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Hallgren, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Bouwmeester Stjernetun, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    En utbildnings-intervention med simulering i äldredräkt i Skaraborgs Hälsoteknikcentrum för ökad insikt och förståelse för att åldras och leva med åldersrelaterade hälsoproblem2021In: DAL-21 Det akademiska lärarskapet: Konferensbidrag / [ed] Jessica Lindblom; Christina Lönnheden; Peter Fogel, Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde , 2021, p. 30-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Världshälsoorganisationen, [1] belyser utmaningen att ge en vård som stödjer ett hälsosamt åldrande. Ett centralt hinder är den höga förekomsten av negativa attityder gentemot åldrandet, äldre personer och vård av äldre, särskilt bland vårdpersonal [2-4]. Vidare påvisas att sjuksköterskestudenter kan bära på negativa attityder till att vårda äldre och därför inte ser arbete inom äldrevård som ett önskvärt och framtida arbetsfält [5, 6]. Otillräcklig forskning avseende ålderism tillsammans med bristande utbildning inom området äldre, det normala åldrandet samt åldrandets hälsoproblem beskrivs som en bidragande faktor till ålderism [4]. Trots att interventioner kontinuerligt genomförs för att ändra attityder och minska ålderism i vården kvarstår dessa i betydande omfattning [3]. Det finns således ett behov av att skapa innovativa lösningar som bidrar till en ökad och hållbar förståelse för åldrandet, äldre och åldersrelaterade hälsoproblem. Detta adresseras i en ny utbildningsintervention med simulering i äldredräkt som utformats och genomförs i Skaraborgs Hälsoteknikcentrum (SHC), Högskolan i Skövde. Forskning [7] lyfter fram att simulering i utbildning, särskilt genom användande av utrustning som äldredräkt, är en framgångsrik väg att ändra studenters attityder gentemot äldre. Simulering i SHC ger även möjlighet att testa hälso- och välfärdsteknik vilket ytterligare kan inverka positivt på uppfattningar om dess nytta vid implementering av teknik i vården [8].

    Pågående utbildningsmoment i utbildning till sjuksköterska och distriktssköterska

    Under läsåret 2019-2020 har grupper av studerande inom omvårdnad deltagit i simulering i SHC. Vid denna simulering har äldredräkt använts för att återspegla upplevelsen av normalt åldrande och vanligt förekommande hälsoproblem. De studerande tilldelas en personas och genomför olika scenarier i SHC. I samband med detta besvaras enkät [9], före simulering samt efter simulering för att ta del av synen på åldrandet och att vårda äldre samt eventuell förändring efter genomgången simulering. Efter simuleringen reflekterar studenterna i grupp över upplevelsen av simuleringen, åldrandet och den vård som ges. Reflektionerna relateras sedan till centrala begrepp i omvårdnad samt sjuksköterskans kärnkompetenser. Vidare reflekterar de studerande över hur simuleringen påverkat deras insikt och förståelse samt hur det kommer att visa sig i den vård som ges.

    Forskningsprojekt

    Utbildningsinterventionen beforskas som en del i ett longitudinellt projekt med övergripande syfte att studera hur en utbildningsintervention med simulering i äldredräkt inverkar på insikt och förståelse för åldrandet, att vara äldre och att leva med åldersrelaterade hälsoproblem i kontexten samt vård av äldre personer. Vidare är syftet att longitudinellt studera studenters syn på åldrandet, äldre och att vårda äldre personer. De hittills genomförda simuleringarna visar tecken på att studenters insikt och förståelse avseende åldrandet, att åldras och att leva med åldersrelaterade hälsoproblem förändras på ett positivt sätt. Det finns därför ett behov av att systematiskt utvärdera effekten och nyttan av den intervention som nu genomförs i SHC. Externa medel söktes hos Familjen Kamprads stiftelse och 3,5 miljoner erhölls för att genomföra projektet och att anställa en doktorand.

    Referenser

    1. WHO, Integrated care for older people (ICOPE) implementation framework: guidance for systems and services. 2019, Geneva: World Health Organization.

    2. Wyman, M.F., S. Shiovitz-Ezra, and J. Bengel, Ageism in the Health Care System: Providers, Patients, and Systems, in Contemporary Perspectives on Ageism, L. Ayalon and C. Tesch-Römer, Editors. 2018, Springer International Publishing: Cham. p. 193-212.

    3. Burnes, D., et al., Interventions to Reduce Ageism Against Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.American Journal of Public Health, 2019. 109(8): p. e1-e9.

    4. Wilson, D.M., et al., A critical review of published research literature reviews on nursing and healthcare ageism. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2017. 26(23-24): p. 3881-3892.

    5. Szadowska-Szlachetka, Z., et al., Attitudes of students of nursing major towards people of geriatric age. Polish Journal of Public Health, 2019. 129(3): p. 95.

    6. Naughton, C., K.L. O’Shea, and N. Hayes, Incentivising a career in older adult nursing: The views of student nurses. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 2019. 14(4): p. e12256.

    7. Giner Perot, J., et al., Aging-simulation experience: impact on health professionals’ social representations. BMC Geriatrics, 2020. 20(1): p. 14.

    8. Frennert, S. and K. Baudin, The concept of welfare technology in Swedish municipal eldercare. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2019: p. 1-8.

    9. Burbank, P.M., G.J. Burkholder, and J. Dugas, Development of the Perspectives on Caring for Older Patients scale: Psychometric analyses. Applied Nursing Research, 2018. 43: p. 98-104

  • 29.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Karlsson, Sandra
    Department of Natural Science and Biomedicine, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Fredrik
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Lifestyle's influence on community-dwelling older adults' health: A mixed-methods study design2021In: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, E-ISSN 2451-8654, Vol. 21, article id 100687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aging often involves health problems and difficulties, such as physical and psychological impairments, isolation, and loneliness, causing social and existential consequences. Studies have explored aging from different perspectives. However, few studies have examined healthy older adults’ genetic backgrounds, lifestyles, and meaning in life separately or in combination. This study aims to describe how healthy older adults experience aging, health, lifestyles, and meaning in life and explore potential genetic correlations.

    Methods and Design:The project will comprise three main parts: a quantitative section featuring the development and testing of a lifestyle questionnaire, a quantitative genetic analysis, and a qualitative interview study. Participants will be communitydwelling, healthy, older adults between 70 and 95 years of age. A sample size of 800 older adults will be invited to participate at a gathering in collaboration with the national Swedish association Active Seniors. Data will be collected through lifestyle questionnaires, DNA extracted from saliva samples, and interviews. Based on questionnaire responses, profile groups will be created and compared statistically with variations in genetic backgrounds, providing the basis for recruiting participants to the qualitative interviews.

    Discussion: This study’s expected outcome will be to gain knowledge about variations in genetic backgrounds correlated with individual experiences regarding aging, health, and meaning in life. This knowledge can improve the understanding of motivations for healthy lifestyle changes. The results can reveal potential implications for individual prerequisites to healthy aging and how health-promoting aging and lifestyle counseling can be adjusted to meet individual needs.

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  • 30.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, United States.
    Nyström, Maria
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Department of Caring Science, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Palmér, Lina
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Department of Caring Science, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Department of Caring Science, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Dalheim-Englund, Ann-Charlotte
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Department of Caring Science, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Balance in life as a prerequisite for community-dwelling older adults’ sense of health and well-being after retirement: an interview-based study2021In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 1984376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to describe community-dwelling older adults’ perceptions of health and well-being in life after retirement. Methods: This study is part of a larger project using a mixed-methods design to address lifestyles’ influence on community-dwelling older adults’ health. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 older adults in age 70 to 95 years. Data were analysed according to a phenomenographic approach. Results: The results encompass four categories describing variations in community-dwelling older adults’ perceptions of health and well-being after retirement: feeling well despite illness and disease, interacting with and being useful for oneself and others, independently embracing opportunities and engaging in life, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions: The absence of illness and disease is not a clear prerequisite for a sense of health and well-being. To promote and preserve health and well-being after retirement, older adults strived for—and coached themselves to uphold—a balance in life, focusing on not burdening others. This life orientation after retirement must be acknowledged by society at large, especially from an ageist perspective, and in health and social care to preserve and promote health and well-being. 

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  • 31.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Schwartz-Barcott, Donna
    University of Rhode Island.
    von Post, Iréne
    Åbo Academy University, Vasa.
    Home: The place the older adult can not imagine living without2011In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 11, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rapidly aging populations with an increased desire to remain at home and changes in health policy that promote the transfer of health care from formal places, as hospitals and institutions, to the more informal setting of one's home support the need for   further research that is designed specifically to understand the experience of home among older adults. Yet, little is known among health care providers about the older adult's experience of home. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of home as experienced by older adults living in a rural community in Sweden.

    Methods: Hermeneutical interpretation, as developed by von Post and Eriksson and based on Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, was used to interpret interviews with six older adults. The interpretation included a self examination of the researcher's experiences and   prejudices and proceeded through several readings which integrated the text with the   reader, allowed new questions to emerge, fused the horizons, summarized main and sub-themes and allowed a new understanding to emerge.

    Results: Two main and six sub-themes emerged. Home was experienced as the place the older adult could not imagine living without but also as the place one might be forced to leave. The older adult's thoughts vacillated between the well known present and all its comforts and the unknown future with all its questions and fears, including the underlying   threat of loosing one's home.

    Conclusions: Home has become so integral to life itself and such an intimate part of the older adult's being that when older adults lose their home, they also loose the place closest   to their heart, the place where they are at home and can maintain their identity, integrity and way of living. Additional effort needs to be made to understand the older adult's experience of home within home health care in order to minimize intrusion and maximize care. There is a need to more fully explore the older adult's experience with health care providers in the home and its impact on the older adult's sense of "being at home" and their health and overall well-being.

  • 32.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, New York, USA.
    Adipose Tissue Complexities in Dyslipidemias2019In: Dyslipidemia / [ed] Samy I. McFarlane, London: IntechOpen , 2019, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adipose tissue is the largest organ in the human body and, in excess, contributes to dyslipidemias and the dysregulation of other vascular and metabolic processes. Adipose tissue is heterogeneous, comprised of several cell types based on morphology, cellular age, and endocrine and paracrine function. Adipose tissue depots are also regional, primarily due to sex differences and genetic variation. Adipose tissue is also characterized as subcutaneous vs. visceral. In addition, fatty deposits exist outside of adipose tissue, such as those surrounding the heart, or as infiltration of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on adipose tissue and its contribution to dyslipidemias. Dyslipidemias are defined as circulating blood lipid levels that are too high or altered. Lipids include both traditional and nontraditional species. Leaving aside traditional definitions, adipose tissue contributes to dyslipidemias in a myriad of ways. To address a small portion of this topic, we reviewed (a) adipose tissue location and cell types, (b) body composition, (c) endocrine adipose, (d) the fat-brain axis, and (e) genetic susceptibility. The influence of these complex aspects of adipose tissue on dyslipidemias and human health, illustrating that, once again, that adipose tissue is a quintessential, multifunctional tissue of the human body, will be summarized.

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  • 33.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Neurology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, New York, USA.
    Epidemiology Informs Randomized Clinical Trials of Cognitive Impairments and Late-Onset, Sporadic Dementias2018In: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine, ISSN 2572-942X, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 34.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Section for NeuroEpidemiology, Department of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York, NY, USA.
    McFarlane, Samy I.
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York, NY, USA.
    Obesity, vascular disease and frailty in aging women with HIV2021In: Advances in Geriatric Medicine and Research, E-ISSN 2632-9921, Vol. 3, no 3, article id e210014Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women with chronic HIV infection (WWH) living in the United States, experience a disproportionately high rate of obesity compared to uninfected populations. Both overweight and obesity, particularly central obesity, are major contributors to insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia—the major components of metabolic syndromes, including type 2 diabetes, and leading to increased cardiovascular risk, including coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular diseases. Notably, declining physical performance and frailty co-occur with vascular morbidities as well as changes in bone. These factors tend to exacerbate each other and accelerate the aging trajectory, leading to poorer quality of life, cognitive impairments, dementia, and eventually, death. In WWH, persistent HIV infection, sustained treatment for HIV infection, and concomitant obesity, may accelerate aging-related morbidities and poorer aging outcomes. Furthermore, health disparities factors common among some WWH, are independently associated with obesity and higher vascular risk. The purpose of this review is to describe the constellation of obesity, cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases, bone health and frailty among aging WWH, a 21st century emergence.

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  • 35.
    Guzman-Parra, Jose
    et al.
    Mental Health Department, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, University Regional Hospital of Malaga, Spain.
    Barnestein-Fonseca, Pilar
    Mental Health Department, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, University Regional Hospital of Malaga, Spain.
    Guerrero-Pertiñez, Gloria
    Mental Health Department, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, University Regional Hospital of Malaga, Spain.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Jimenez-Fernandez, Luis
    Mental Health Department, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, University Regional Hospital of Malaga, Spain.
    Valero-Moreno, Esperanza
    Mental Health Department, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, University Regional Hospital of Malaga, Spain.
    Goodman-Casanova, Jessica Marian
    Mental Health Department, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, University Regional Hospital of Malaga, Spain.
    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio
    Departamento de Fisioterapia, Instituto de Biomedicina de Málaga, Universidad de Málaga, Spain.
    Garolera, Maite
    Brain, Cognition and Behavior – Clinical Research, Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain.
    Quintana, María
    Brain, Cognition and Behavior – Clinical Research, Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain.
    García-Betances, Rebeca Isabel
    Life Supporting Technologies Group, Universidad Politécnica, Madrid, Spain.
    Lemmens, Evi
    University Colleges Leuven-Limburg, Genk, Belgium.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín
    Mental Health Department, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, University Regional Hospital of Malaga, Spain.
    Attitudes and use of information and communication technologies in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or early stages of dementia and their caregivers: cross-sectional study2020In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 22, no 6, article id e17253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Information and communication technologies are promising tools to increase the quality of life of people with dementia or mild cognitive impairment and that of their caregivers. However, there are barriers to their use associated with sociodemographic factors and negative attitudes, as well as inadequate knowledge about technologies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze technophilia (attitudes toward new technologies) and the use of smartphones and tablets along with associated factors in people with dementia/mild cognitive impairment and their caregivers. METHODS: Data from the first visit of the Support Monitoring and Reminder for Mild Dementia (SMART4MD) randomized multicenter clinical trial were used for this analysis. Data were obtained from two European countries, Spain and Sweden, and from three centers: Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain), Servicio Andaluz de Salud (Andalusia, Spain), and the Blekinge Institute of Technology (Sweden). Participants with a score between 20 and 28 in the Mini Mental State Examination, with memory problems (for more than 6 months), and who were over the age of 55 years were included in the study, along with their caregivers. The bivariate Chi square and Mann-Whitney tests, and multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1086 dyads were included (N=2172). Overall, 299 (27.53%) of people with dementia/mild cognitive impairment had a diagnosis of dementia. In addition, 588 (54.14%) of people with dementia/mild cognitive impairment reported using a smartphone almost every day, and 106 (9.76%) used specific apps or software to support their memory. Among the caregivers, 839 (77.26%) used smartphones and tablets almost every day, and 181 (16.67%) used specific apps or software to support their memory. The people with dementia/mild cognitive impairment showed a lower level of technophilia in comparison to that of their caregivers after adjusting for confounders (B=0.074, P=.02) with differences in technology enthusiasm (B=0.360, P<.001), but not in technology anxiety (B=-0.042, P=.37). Technophilia was associated with lower age (B=-0.009, P=.004), male gender (B=-0.160, P<.001), higher education level (P=.01), living arrangement (living with children vs single; B=-2.538, P=.01), country of residence (Sweden vs Spain; B=0.256, P<.001), lower depression (B=-0.046, P<.001), and better health status (B=0.004, P<.001) in people with dementia/mild cognitive impairment. Among caregivers, technophilia was associated with comparable sociodemographic factors (except for living arrangement), along with a lower caregiver burden (B=-0.005, P=.04) and better quality of life (B=0.348, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Technophilia was associated with a better quality of life and sociodemographic variables in people with dementia/mild cognitive impairment and caregivers, suggesting potential barriers for technological interventions. People with dementia/mild cognitive impairment frequently use smartphones and tablets, but the use of specific apps or software to support memory is limited. Interventions using these technologies are needed to overcome barriers in this population related to sociodemographic characteristics and the lack of enthusiasm for new technologies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03325699; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03325699. ©Jose Guzman-Parra, Pilar Barnestein-Fonseca, Gloria Guerrero-Pertiñez, Peter Anderberg, Luis Jimenez-Fernandez, Esperanza Valero-Moreno, Jessica Marian Goodman-Casanova, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas, Maite Garolera, Maria Quintana, Rebeca I García-Betances, Evi Lemmens, Johan Sanmartin Berglund, Fermin Mayoral-Cleries.

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  • 36.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk factors for hospital readmission among Swedish older adults2018In: European Geriatric Medicine, ISSN 1878-7649, E-ISSN 1878-7657, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 603-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction 

    Hospital readmissions of older persons are common and often associated with complex health problems. The objectives were to analyze risk factors for readmission within 30 days from hospital discharge.

    Methods

    A prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/ Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) was conducted. During 9 years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations, readmissions and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Logistic regression models controlling for age and sex were conducted to analyze risk factors for readmissions.

    Results

    Of the 772 participants, [mean age 69.7 (±11.1), 84 (63%)] were hospitalized and among these 208 (43%) had one or several readmissions within 30 days during the follow-up period. Most of the readmissions (57%) occurred within the frst week; mean days from hospital discharge to readmission was 7.9 (±6.2). The most common causes of admission and readmission were cardiovascular diseases and tumors. Only 8% of the readmissions were regarded as avoidable admissions. In a multivariate logistic regression, falling within the last 12 months (OR 0.57, p=0.039) and being a male (OR 1.84, p=0.006) increased the risk of readmission.

    Conclusions

    Most older persons that are readmitted return to hospital within the frst week after discharge. Experiencing a fall was a particular risk factor of readmission. Preventive actions should preferably take place already at the hospital to reduce the numbers of readmission. Still, it should be remembered that most readmissions were considered to be necessary.

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  • 37.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Regional Development Council of Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Ernsth Bravell, Marie
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Midlöv, Patrik
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Factors associated with increased hospitalisation risk among nursing home residents in Sweden: a prospective study with a three-year follow-up2016In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Hospitalisation of nursing home residents might lead to deteriorating health.

    Aim

    To evaluate physical and psychological factors associated with hospitalisation risk among nursing home residents.DesignProspective study with three years of follow-up.

    Methods

    Four hundred and twenty-nine Swedish nursing home residents, ages 65–101 years, from 11 nursing homes in three municipalities were followed during three years. The participants' physical and psychological status was assessed at baseline. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate factors associated with hospitalisation risk using STATA.

    Results

    Of the 429 participants, 196 (45.7%) were hospitalised at least once during the three-year follow-up period, and 109 (25.4%) during the first six months of the study. The most common causes of hospitalisation were cardiovascular diseases or complications due to falls. A Cox regression model showed that residents who have had previous falls (P < 0.001), are malnourished (P < 0.001), use a greater number of drugs (P < 0.001) and have more diseases (P < 0.001), are at an increased risk of hospitalisation.

    Conclusion

    Nursing home residents are frequently hospitalised, often due to falls or cardiovascular diseases. Study results underscore the relationships between malnutrition, previous falls, greater numbers of drugs and diseases and higher risk of hospitalisation.

    Implications for practice

    Preventive interventions aimed at malnutrition and falls at the nursing home could potentially reduce the number of hospitalisations. With improved education and support to nurses concerning risk assessment at the nursing homes, it may be possible to reduce the numbers of avoidable hospitalisation among nursing home residents and in the long run improve quality of life and reduce suffering.

  • 38.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Department of Natural Science and Biomedicine, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Riverside, USA.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Factors associated with hospitalization risk among community living middle aged and older persons: Results from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA)2016In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 66, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe and compare individual characteristics of hospitalized and not hospitalized community living persons, and (2) to determine factors that are associated with hospitalization risk over time. We conducted a prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). A total of 772 Swedes (mean age at baseline 69.7 years, range 46–103, 59.8% females) answered a postal questionnaire about physical and psychological health, personality and socioeconomic factors. During nine years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Results show that 484 persons (63%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up period. The most common causes of admission were cardiovascular diseases (25%) and tumors (22%). Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age, sex and dependency within twin pairs, showed that higher age (HR = 1.02, p < 0.001) and more support from relatives (HR = 1.09, p = 0.028) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization, while marital status (unmarried (HR = 0.75, p = 0.033) and widow/widower (HR = 0.69, p < 0.001)) and support from friends (HR = 0.93, p = 0.029) were associated with lower risk of hospitalization. Social factors were important for hospitalization risk even when medical factors were controlled for in the analyses. Number of diseases was not a risk in the final regression model. Hospitalization risk was also different for women and men and within different age groups. We believe that these results might be used in future interventions targeting health care utilization.

  • 39.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Department of Natural Science and Biomedicine, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, USA.
    Finkel, Deborah
    School of Social Sciences, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, USA.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cognitive trajectories in relation to hospitalization among older Swedish adults2018In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 74, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Research indicate that cognitive impairment might be related to hospitalization, but little is known about these effects over time.

    Objective

    To assess cognitive change before and after hospitalization among older adults in a population-based longitudinal study with up to 25 years of follow-up.

    Method

    A longitudinal study on 828 community living men and women aged 50–86 from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Ageing (SATSA) were linked to The Swedish National Inpatient Register. Up to 8 assessments of cognitive performance (general cognitive ability, verbal, spatial/fluid, memory, and processing speed) from 1986 to 2010 were available. Latent growth curve modelling was used to assess the association between cognitive performance and hospitalization including spline models to analyse cognitive trajectories pre- and post-hospitalization.

    Results

    A total of 735 persons (89%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up. Mean age at first hospitalization was 70.2 (±9.3) years. Persons who were hospitalized exhibited a lower mean level of cognitive performance in general ability, processing speed and spatial/fluid ability compared with those who were not hospitalized. The two-slope models revealed steeper cognitive decline before hospitalization than after among those with at least one hospitalization event, as compared to non-hospitalized persons who showed steeper cognitive decline after the centering age of 70 years.

    Conclusions

    Persons being hospitalized in late life have lower cognitive performance across all assessed domains. The results indicate that the main decline occurs before the hospitalization, and not after. This might indicate that when you get treatment you also benefit cognitively.

  • 40.
    Halme, Marie
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Rautava, Päivi
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Finland ; Turku Clinical Research Centre, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Sillanmäki, Lauri
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Finland ; Turku Clinical Research Centre, Turku University Hospital, Finland ; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sumanen, Markku
    Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Finland ; Turku Clinical Research Centre, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Department of Public Health and Centre for Population Health Research, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Finland.
    Salo, Paula
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland ; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Educational level and the use of mental health services, psychotropic medication and psychotherapy among adults with a history of physician diagnosed mental disorders2023In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 493-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of mental disorders is increased among people of low socioeconomic status or educational level, but it remains unclear whether their access to treatment matches their increased need.

    Aims: Our objective was to examine whether educational level as an indicator of socioeconomic status is associated with use of mental health services, psychotropic medication and psychotherapy in Finland.

    Method: Cross-sectional data from a follow-up survey of a longitudinal, population-based cohort study were used to form a sample of 3,053 men and women aged 24 to 68 with a current or previous physician diagnosed mental disorder. The prevalence of mental disorders, mental health service use and educational level were assessed with self-report questionnaire. Educational level was determined by the highest educational attainment and grouped into three levels: high, intermediate and low. The associations between educational level and mental health service -related outcomes were assessed with binary logistic regression. Covariates in the fully adjusted model were age, gender and number of somatic diseases.

    Results: Compared to high educational level, low educational level was associated with higher odds of using antidepressants (OR 1.35, 95% CI [1.09, 1.66]), hypnotics (OR 1.33, 95% CI [1.07, 1.66]) and sedatives (OR 2.17, 95% CI [1.69, 2.78]), and lower odds of using mental health services (OR 0.80, 95% CI [0.65, 0.98]). No associations were found between educational level and use of psychotherapy.

    Conclusions: The results do not suggest a general socioeconomic status related mismatch. A pharmacological emphasis was observed in the treatment of low educational background participants, whereas overall mental health service use was emphasized among high educational background participants. 

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  • 41.
    Hedén, Lena
    et al.
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, South Kingstown, RI, USA.
    Effects of the Intervention "reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogues" for Older Adults Living with Long-Term Pain: A Pilot Study2020In: Journal of Aging Research, ISSN 2090-2204, E-ISSN 2090-2212, Vol. 2020, article id 7597524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Long-term musculoskeletal pain is a major, often undertreated, disabling health problem among an increasing number of older adults. Reflective STRENGTH-giving dialogues (STRENGTH) may be a tool to support older adults living with long-term pain. The main aim of this pilot study was to investigate the immediate and longitudinal effect of the intervention STRENGTH on levels of pain, wellbeing, occurrence of depression symptoms, and sense of coherence (SOC) among community-dwelling older adults suffering from musculoskeletal pain compared to a control group. Methods. The study was semiexperimental with an intervention group and a control group. The effect of a single STRENGTH intervention was reported on the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) regarding pain and wellbeing. To evaluate the longitudinal effect of STRENGTH, using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), the Geriatric Depression Scale-20 (GDS-20), SOC-13 at baseline (T1), and six months after the intervention/no intervention (T2), a total of 30 older adults, aged 72 to 97 years (Mdn 86 years), were included consecutively and fulfilled the intervention series (n = 18) or untreated controls (n = 12). Results. The intervention with STRENGTH decreases pain (NRS 6 Mdn versus NRS 4 Mdn, p<0.001) and increases wellbeing (NRS 7 Mdn versus NRS 8 Mdn, p<0.001). After a six-month study period with STRENGTH, no longitudinal effect difference was found compared to baseline. Compared to the control group, there was an increasing trend between decreased pain level and increased SOC level for STRENGTH intervention. Conclusions. This pilot study supports STRENGTH's effect as a pain-alleviating model that provides a decrease in pain levels and an increase of wellbeing in older adults with long-term pain. STRENGTH dialogues could be a useful intervention to provide individually holistic care in older adults living with long-term pain. 

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  • 42.
    Hovlin, Lina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Mutual trust is a prerequisite for nurses’ sense of safety and work satisfaction – Mobile Integrated Care Model: A qualitative interview study2023In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of older persons have complex health care needs. This, along with the organizational principle of remaining at home, emphasizes the need to develop collaborations among organizations caring for older persons. A health care model developed in Sweden, the Mobile Integrated Care Model aims to promote work in teams across organizations. The aim of the study was to describe nurses’ experiences in working and providing health care in the Mobile Integrated Care Model in the home with home health care physicians. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 nurses and analyzed through qualitative content analysis. The method was compliant with the COREQ checklist. A mutually trusting collaboration with physicians, which formed person-centered care, created work satisfaction for the nurses. Working within the Mobile Integrated Care Model was negatively impacted by being employed by different organizations, lack of time to provide health care, and physicians’ person-centered work abilities.

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  • 43.
    Hovlin, Lina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.
    The role of the home health care physician in mobile integrated care: a qualitative phenomenograpic study2022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An increasing older population, along with the organizational principle of remaining at home, has moved health care from institutions into the older person’s home, where several health care providers facilitate care. The Mobile Integrated Care Model strives to provide cost-efficient, coherent, person-centered health care in the home. In the integrated care team, where the home health care physician is the medical authority, several health care professions work across organizational borders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe Home Health Care Physicians perceptions of working and providing health care in the Mobile Integrated Care Model, as well as perceptions of participating in and forming health care.

    Methods: A phenomenographic qualitative study design, with semi-structured interviews using an interview guide.

    Results: Working within Mobile Integrated Care Model was a different way of working as a physician. The physicians’ role was to support the patient by making safe medical decisions. Physicians described themselves as a piece in the team puzzle, where the professional knowledge of others was crucial to give quality health care. Being in the patients’ homes was expressed as adding a unique dimension in the provision of health care, and the physicians learned more about the patients by meeting them in their homes than at an institution. This aided the physicians in respecting patient autonomy in medical decision making, even though the physicians sometimes disregarded patient autonomy in favor of their own medical experience. There was a divided view on next of kin participation among the home health care physicians, ranging from always including to total absence of involving next of kin in decision making.

    Conclusions: The home health care physicians described the Mobile Integrated Care Model as the best way to work, but there was still a need for additional resources and structure when working in different organizations. The need for full-time employment, additional time or hours, more equipment, access to each other’s medical records, and additional collaboration with other health care providers were expressed, which could contribute to increased work satisfaction and facilitate further development of person-centered care in the Mobile Integrated Care Model. 

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  • 44.
    Javeed, Ashir
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    Department of Software Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Noor, Adeeb
    Department of Information Technology, Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health, Lund University, SUS Malmö, Sweden.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Breaking barriers: a statistical and machine learning-based hybrid system for predicting dementia2023In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 11, article id 1336255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Dementia is a condition (a collection of related signs and symptoms) that causes a continuing deterioration in cognitive function, and millions of people are impacted by dementia every year as the world population continues to rise. Conventional approaches for determining dementia rely primarily on clinical examinations, analyzing medical records, and administering cognitive and neuropsychological testing. However, these methods are time-consuming and costly in terms of treatment. Therefore, this study aims to present a noninvasive method for the early prediction of dementia so that preventive steps should be taken to avoid dementia. Methods: We developed a hybrid diagnostic system based on statistical and machine learning (ML) methods that used patient electronic health records to predict dementia. The dataset used for this study was obtained from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care (SNAC), with a sample size of 43040 and 75 features. The newly constructed diagnostic extracts a subset of useful features from the dataset through a statistical method (F-score). For the classification, we developed an ensemble voting classifier based on five different ML models: decision tree (DT), naive Bayes (NB), logistic regression (LR), support vector machines (SVM), and random forest (RF). To address the problem of ML model overfitting, we used a cross-validation approach to evaluate the performance of the proposed diagnostic system. Various assessment measures, such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC), were used to thoroughly validate the devised diagnostic system’s efficiency. Results: According to the experimental results, the proposed diagnostic method achieved the best accuracy of 98.25%, as well as sensitivity of 97.44%, specificity of 95.744%, and MCC of 0.7535. Discussion: The effectiveness of the proposed diagnostic approach is compared to various cutting-edge feature selection techniques and baseline ML models. From experimental results, it is evident that the proposed diagnostic system outperformed the prior feature selection strategies and baseline ML models regarding accuracy. 

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  • 45.
    Johansson, Yvonne A.
    et al.
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden ; The Research School of Health and Welfare, Aging Research Network-Jönköping (ARN-J), Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Tsevis, Theofanis
    Theme Inflammation and Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nasic, Salmir
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden ; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, United States.
    Johansson, Linda
    Institute of Gerontology, Aging Research Network-Jönköping (ARN-J), School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Bogdanovic, Nenad
    Theme Inflammation and Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden ; Institute of Health and Care Science, Sahlgrenska Academy, Centre for Person-Centred Care Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Diagnostic accuracy and clinical applicability of the Swedish version of the 4AT assessment test for delirium detection, in a mixed patient population and setting2021In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Delirium is common in older hospitalized patients. It has serious consequences e.g., poor health outcomes, mortality and increased costs. Despite that, many cases are undetected. Early detection of delirium is important in improving outcomes and use of assessment tools improves detection rates. The 4AT is a brief screening tool for delirium detection, which has not previously been translated into Swedish. The study aim was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy and clinical applicability of a Swedish version of the screening tool 4AT for delirium detection. Method: This diagnostic test accuracy study used a quantitative and a qualitative approach and evaluated the patients’ and the health care professionals’ experiences of the tool. Study included 200 patients ≥65 years from a university hospital and a county hospital in two Swedish regions. Medical specialties were geriatric stroke/neurology, geriatric multimorbidity, severe cognitive impairment, orthopaedic, and urology. The translated 4AT was tested against the reference standard DSM-IV-TR criteria, based on the Organic Brain Syndrome scale and patient records. The 4AT was assessed simultaneously and independently by two assessors. Additionally, data was collected through patient record reviews, and questions about applicability to the patients (n = 200) and the assessors (n = 37). Statistical analyses, and qualitative content analyses were conducted. Results: By reference standard 18% had delirium, and by 4AT 19%. The overall percent agreement was 88%, AUROC 0.808, sensitivity 0.70 (95% CI 0.51–0.84) and specificity 0.92 (95% CI 0.87–0.96). In the ward for severe cognitive impairment (n = 63) the 4AT was less sensitive and less specific. In the other wards (n = 132) sensitivity was 0.77 (95% CI 0.50–0.93), specificity 0.93 (95% CI 0.87–0.97), and AUROC 0.848. Interrater reliability (Kappa) was 0.918, p = < 0.001 (n = 144). The 4AT was well tolerated by patients, easy to use for health care professionals, and took a few minutes to conduct. Conclusion: The Swedish version of 4AT is an accurate and applicable tool to use in clinical practice for detecting delirium in hospitalized patients across different medical specialities, and to use by different professionals and levels of seniority. To improve patient outcomes, we recommend the 4AT to be incorporated in clinical practice in health care settings in Sweden. 

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  • 46.
    Karlsson, Ida K.
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Aging Research Network – Jönköping (ARN-J), School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, China.
    Wang, Yunzhang
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Xia
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jylhävä, Juulia
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hägg, Sara
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gatz, Margaret
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, United States.
    Adiposity and the risk of dementia: mediating effects from inflammation and lipid levels2022In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 1261-1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While midlife adiposity is a risk factor for dementia, adiposity in late-life appears to be associated with lower risk. What drives the associations is poorly understood, especially the inverse association in late-life. Using results from genome-wide association studies, we identified inflammation and lipid metabolism as biological pathways involved in both adiposity and dementia. To test if these factors mediate the effect of midlife and/or late-life adiposity on dementia, we then used cohort data from the Swedish Twin Registry, with measures of adiposity and potential mediators taken in midlife (age 40–64, n = 5999) or late-life (age 65–90, n = 7257). Associations between body-mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid levels, and dementia were tested in survival and mediation analyses. Age was used as the underlying time scale, and sex and education included as covariates in all models. Fasting status was included as a covariate in models of lipids. One standard deviation (SD) higher WHR in midlife was associated with 25% (95% CI 2–52%) higher dementia risk, with slight attenuation when adjusting for BMI. No evidence of mediation through CRP or lipid levels was present. After age 65, one SD higher BMI, but not WHR, was associated with 8% (95% CI 1–14%) lower dementia risk. The association was partly mediated by higher CRP, and suppressed when high-density lipoprotein levels were low. In conclusion, the negative effects of midlife adiposity on dementia risk were driven directly by factors associated with body fat distribution, with no evidence of mediation through inflammation or lipid levels. There was an inverse association between late-life adiposity and dementia risk, especially where the body’s inflammatory response and lipid homeostasis is intact. 

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  • 47.
    Ler, Peggy
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ploner, Alexander
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Finkel, Deborah
    Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States ; Institute of Gerontology, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado Boulder, United States.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen Campus, Guandong, Shenzhen, China.
    Jylhävä, Juulia
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden ; Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Health Sciences and Gerontology Research Center, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Karlsson, Ida K.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Interplay of body mass index and metabolic syndrome: association with physiological age from midlife to late-life2024In: GeroScience, ISSN 2509-2715, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 2605-2617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) share common pathophysiological characteristics with aging. To better understand their interplay, we examined how body mass index (BMI) and MetS jointly associate with physiological age, and if the associations changed from midlife to late-life. We used longitudinal data from 1,825 Swedish twins. Physiological age was measured as frailty index (FI) and functional aging index (FAI) and modeled independently in linear mixed-effects models adjusted for chronological age, sex, education, and smoking. We assessed curvilinear associations of BMI and chronological age with physiological age, and interactions between BMI, MetS, and chronological age. We found a significant three-way interaction between BMI, MetS, and chronological age on FI (p-interaction = 0·006), not FAI. Consequently, we stratified FI analyses by age: < 65, 65–85, and ≥ 85 years, and modeled FAI across ages. Except for FI at ages ≥ 85, BMI had U-shaped associations with FI and FAI, where BMI around 26-28 kg/m2 was associated with the lowest physiological age. MetS was associated with higher FI and FAI, except for FI at ages < 65, and modified the BMI-FI association at ages 65–85 (p-interaction = 0·02), whereby the association between higher BMI levels and FI was stronger in individuals with MetS. Age modified the MetS-FI association in ages ≥ 85, such that it was stronger at higher ages (p-interaction = 0·01). Low BMI, high BMI, and metabolic syndrome were associated with higher physiological age, contributing to overall health status among older individuals and potentially accelerating aging. 

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  • 48.
    Lilje, Stina
    et al.
    Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Institute of Intervention and Implementation Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Unit of Health Care Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Unit of Health Care Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Palmlöf, Lina
    FoU Nordost Research and Development Unit Northeast Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skillgate, Eva
    Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden ; Scandinavian College of Naprapathic Manual Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden ; Karolinska Institute, Institute of Environmental Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The importance of weak physical performance in older adults for the development of musculoskeletal pain that interferes with normal life: A prospective cohort study2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 789-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are associations between pain, comorbidity and risk of falling, and falling increases the risk of mortality in older persons, but few studies have investigated the development of pain as a result of impaired physical function. The aim of this study was to examine possible associations between weak physical performance and the development of musculoskeletal pain that interferes with normal life in a sample of older adults. The sample derived from a national, longitudinal multicenter study; the Swedish National Study on Ageing and Care; SNAC-B. The participants (n = 490) were between 60 and 78 years at the baseline examinations. Three variables were chosen for the exposure physical function, from the baseline examinations; One Leg Stand, Grip strength and Sit-to-Stand. The outcome musculoskeletal pain that interferes with normal life was measured using EQ5D and SF-12 6 years later, and logistic regression was used to investigate possible associations between the exposures and the outcome. Maximum grip strength (Grippit) was inversely associated with musculoskeletal pain that interferes with normal life (OR 2.31; 95% CI 1.15-4.61), and One-Leg Stand and Sit-to-Stand were not associated with the development of pain (OR 1.30; 95% CI 0.64-2.64) and (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.45-1.86), respectively. Weak grip strength was inversely associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain that interferes with normal life in older adults. Impaired proprioceptive function, strength and mobility in elderly with pain have been found in earlier research. Since pain increases the risk of falling, it is important to investigate if it may develop as a function of an impaired physical function. The results of the present study could be of importance for future prevention programs aiming to protect elderly from falling.

  • 49.
    Marseglia, Anna
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden ; Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Santoni, Giola
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
    Xu, Weili
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, China.
    Cognitive Trajectories of Older Adults With Prediabetes and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study2018In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Diabetes has been linked to dementia risk; however, the cognitive trajectories in older adults with diabetes remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive trajectories among cognitively intact older adults in a long-term follow-up study.

    Methods Within the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, 793 cognitively intact older adults aged ≥50 were identified at baseline and followed for up to 23 years. Based on standardized scores from 11 cognitive tests, administered at baseline and up to seven follow-ups, four cognitive domains (verbal abilities, spatial/fluid, memory, perceptual speed) were identified by principal-component analysis. Prediabetes was defined according to blood glucose levels in diabetes-free participants. Diabetes was ascertained based on self-report, hypoglycemic medication use and blood glucose levels. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effect models adjusting for potential confounders.

    Results At baseline, 68 participants (8.6%) had prediabetes and 45 (5.7%) had diabetes. Compared to diabetes-free individuals, people with diabetes had a steeper decline over time in perceptual speed and verbal abilities. The annual declines in these domains were greater than the annual decline in memory. Prediabetes was associated with lower performance in memory in middle-age, but also associated with a less steep memory decline over the follow-up.

    Conclusions Diabetes is associated with a faster decline in perceptual speed and verbal abilities, while prediabetes is associated with lower memory performance in middle-age. However, the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia seem to not affect memory over time.

  • 50.
    Piculell, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Skär, Lisa
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan Sanmartin
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Bohman, Doris
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    A concept analysis of health communication in a home environment: Perspectives of older persons and their informal caregivers2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 1006-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Health communication (HC) is a vast research field focusing on changing health behaviours, and rapidly evolving technology is creating different ways and possibilities to reach target groups and audiences. In the context of home care, a deeper understanding of HC is lacking, specifically for older persons with care needs and their informal caregivers. The aim of this concept analysis is to identify and construct the meaning of HC from the perspective of older persons in need of care in the home environment and their informal caregivers. Materials and methods This study utilised Rogers' (2000) Evolutionary Concept Analysis Method (EMCA) to create and construct a meaning of the concept of HC. The EMCA was based on a systematic literature review of scientific articles, using CINAHL, Pubmed and Inspec (2000-2017). A total of 29 articles were retrieved and analysed. Results The identified attributes of the concept were as follows: resources of the recipient, influence on decisions and advantages of tailored information. HC was described as both contributing to knowledge as well as being overwhelming where habits and resources influenced the use of information. The attributes led to the following descriptive definition of HC: 'Tailored HC, based on needs and resources of the recipient influence care decisions'. The home environment influenced HC by habits and interactions between older persons and their informal caregivers. Conclusions The home environment influenced HC in terms of social aspects of interactions and habits and between the older person and the informal caregiver. Tailored information with the use of technology contributed to knowledge in care of older persons and their informal caregivers. HC was shown to contribute to improve care for older people in their home environment.

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