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  • 1.
    Ayukekbong, James A.
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, M. E.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vansarla, Goutham
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Tah, F.
    Camyaids Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis and Clinical Research, Douala, Cameroon.
    Nkuo-Akenji, T.
    Faculty of Science Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.
    Lindh, M.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergström, T.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Monitoring of seasonality of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon by real-time PCR: an exploratory study2014In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 142, no 7, p. 1393-1402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the seasonal fluctuation of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon. Two hundred participants aged between 1 and 69 years were prospectively followed up. Each participant provided monthly faecal samples over a 12-month period. A total of 2484 samples were tested using multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of norovirus, rotavirus and enterovirus. The effect of weather variables and risk factors were analysed by Pearson correlation and bivariate analysis. Overall, enterovirus was the most commonly detected virus (216% of specimens), followed by norovirus (39%) and rotavirus (04%). Norovirus and enterovirus were detected throughout the year with a peak of norovirus detection at the beginning of the rainy season and a significant alternation of circulation of norovirus genogroups from one month to the next. Age <5 years and consumption of tap water were risk factors for norovirus infection. Better understanding of factors influencing transmission and seasonality may provide insights into the relationship between physical environment and risk of infection for these viruses.

  • 2.
    Behnsen, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Buil, Joanne M.
    Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Koot, Susanne
    Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Huizink, Anja
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Van Lier, Poul
    Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Heart rate (variability) and the association between relational peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in elementary school children2019In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, p. 1-9, article id 29 aprilArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relational victimization typically emerges first during the elementary school period, and has been associated with increased levels of internalizing symptoms in children. Individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning have been suggested as a potential factor linking social stressors and internalizing symptoms. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether heart rate and heart rate variability mediated the association between relational victimization and internalizing symptoms in 373 mainstream elementary school children. Children were assessed in 2015 (T 0 ; Grades 3-5, M age = 9.78 years, 51% boys) and reassessed in 2016 (T 1 ). Heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed during a regular school day at T 1 . A multi-informant (teacher and peer report) cross-time measure of relational victimization, and a multi-informant (self- and teacher report) measure of internalizing problems at T 1 was used. Results showed that heart rate variability, but not heart rate, mediated the association between relational victimization and internalizing symptoms. This study provides tentative support that in children from a general population sample, a psychobiological factor may mediate the association of relational victimization with internalizing symptoms.

  • 3.
    Russo, Marika D.
    et al.
    Institute of Food Sciences, CNR, Avellino, Italy.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS, Bremen, Germany / Institute of Statistics, University of Bremen, Germany.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Hebestreit, Antje
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Kourides, Yannis
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Cyprus.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molnar, Denes
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Pécs, Hungary.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Pala, Valeria
    Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCSS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Siani, Alfonso
    Institute of Food Sciences, CNR, Avellino, Italy.
    Russo, Paula
    Institute of Food Sciences, CNR, Avellino, Italy.
    The impact of adding sugars to milk and fruit on adiposity and diet quality in children: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the identification and prevention of dietary-and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 1350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugar, particularly as free sugars or sugar-sweetened beverages, significantly contributes to total energy intake, and, possibly, to increased body weight. Excessive consumption may be considered as a proxy of poor diet quality. However, no previous studies evaluated the association between the habit of adding sugars to “healthy” foods, such as plain milk and fresh fruit, and indicators of adiposity and/or dietary quality in children. To answer to these research questions, we Panalysed the European cohort of children participating in the IDEFICS study. Anthropometric variables, frequency of consumption of sugars added to milk and fruit (SAMF), and scores of adherence to healthy dietary pattern (HDAS) were assessed at baseline in 9829 children stratified according to age and sex. From this cohort, 6929 children were investigated again after two years follow-up. At baseline, a direct association between SAMF categories and adiposity indexes was observed only in children aged 6–<10 years, while the lower frequency of SAMF consumption was significantly associated with a higher HDAS. At the two year follow-up, children with higher baseline SAMF consumption showed significantly higher increases in all the anthropometric variables measured, with the exception of girls 6–<10 years old. The inverse association between SAMF categories and HDAS was still present at the two years follow-up in all age and sex groups. Our results suggest that the habit to adding sugars to foods that are commonly perceived as healthy may impact the adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and increase in adiposity risk as well. 

  • 4.
    Sina, Elida
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Buck, Christoph
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Jilani, Hannah
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany / Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research—IPP, University of Bremen, Germany.
    Tornaritis, Michael
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Lefcosia, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    Department of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Russo, Paola
    Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Molnar, Denes
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Pécs, Hungary.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Marild, Staffan
    Department. of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pala, Valeria
    Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany / Faculty of Mathematics/Computer Science, University of Bremen, Germany.
    Hebestreit, Antje
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Association of infant feeding patterns with taste preferences in European children and adolescents: A retrospective latent profile analysis2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1-16, article id 1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate associations between the duration of infant feeding practices (FP) and taste preferences (TP) in European children and adolescents. A total of 5526 children (6-16 years old) of the I.Family study completed a Food and Beverage Preference Questionnaire to measure their preferences for sweet, fatty and bitter tastes. Mothers retrospectively reported the FPs duration in months: exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), exclusive formula milk feeding (EFMF), combined breastfeeding (BF&FMF) and the age at the introduction of complementary foods (CF). Using logistic regression analyses and latent class analysis (latent profiles of FP and CF were identified), we explored associations between profiles and TP, adjusting for various covariates, including the Healthy Diet Adherence Score (HDAS). A total of 48% of children had short durations of EBF (≤4 months) and BF&FMF (≤6 months) and were introduced to CF early (<6 months). No significant relationship was observed between the single FPs and TP, even when considering common profiles of FP. HDAS was inversely associated with sweet and fatty TP, but positively with bitter TP. Contrary to our hypotheses, we did not observe associations between FP and children’s TP later in life. Further studies with higher FP variation and longitudinal design are needed to investigate the causal associations between infant FP and taste preferences later in life. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 5.
    Takahashi, Yuki
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden / Japanese Red Cross Toyota Coll Nursing, Aichi, Japan.
    Jonas, Wibke
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden / Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Ransjo-Arvidson, Anna-Berit
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lidfors, Lena
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Uvnäs Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weight loss and low age are associated with intensity of rooting behaviours in newborn infants2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 10, p. 1018-1023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Little is known about the developing breastfeeding behaviour of newborn infants. This study describes infants' prebreastfeeding behaviour during the second day of life and explores possible associations with infant characteristics. Methods: We studied 13 mothers and healthy full-term infants after normal births. At 2448 hours of life, the newborns were placed in skin-to-skin contact with their mothers for breastfeeding and were video-filmed. The order, frequency and duration of predefined infant prefeeding behaviours and suckling were coded and analysed using computer-based video software. Results: Prefeeding behaviours occurred in the following order: rooting, hand to mouth movements, licking of the nipple and hand to breast to mouth movements. The infants started to suckle at a median of one to two minutes. Rooting was the most common behaviour, observed in 12 infants. The duration of rooting movements during the last minute before breastfeeding was inversely related to neonatal age (p = 0.001) and positively related to neonatal weight loss (p = 0.02) after birth. Conclusion: Infants exhibited a distinct sequence of prefeeding behaviours during the second day of life, and our findings suggest that rooting movements were governed by mechanisms involved in the regulation of food intake and weight gain.

  • 6.
    Theurich, Melissa Ann
    et al.
    LMU - Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Div. Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Munich, Germany.
    Davanzo, Riccardo
    Department of Mother and Child Health, ASM-Matera and Task Force on Breastfeeding, MOH, Rome, Italy.
    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne
    Danish Committee for Health Education, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Díaz-Gómez, N. Marta
    Instituto de Tecnologías Biomédicas (ITB) and Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Canarias (CIBICAN), Universidad de La Laguna, Spain.
    Brennan, Christine
    Breastfeeding Promotion Foundation, Bern, Switzerland.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Bærug, Anne
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Breastfeeding, Oslo, Norway.
    McHugh, Laura
    Health Service Executive, Ennis, Ireland.
    Weikert, Cornelia
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Department of Food Safety, Berlin, Germany.
    Abraham, Klaus
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Department of Food Safety, Berlin, Germany.
    Koletzko, Berthold
    LMU - Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Div. Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Munich, Germany.
    Breastfeeding Rates and Programs in Europe: A Survey of 11 National Breastfeeding Committees and Representatives2019In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 400-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Among the world's regions, the WHO European Region has the lowest rates of exclusive breastfeeding at age 6 months with around 25%. Low rates and early cessation of breastfeeding have important adverse health consequences for women, infants and young children. Protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding are a public health priority.

    OBJECTIVES: National breastfeeding data and monitoring systems among selected European countries and the WHO European Region are compared. Mechanisms for the support, protection and promotion of breastfeeding are reviewed and successes and challenges in implementation of national programs are presented.

    METHODS: National representatives of national breastfeeding committees and initiatives in eleven European countries, including Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland, participated in a standardized survey. Results are evaluated and compared in a narrative review.

    RESULTS: Variation exists in Europe on breastfeeding rates, methodology for data collection and mechanisms for support, protection and promotion of breastfeeding. Directly after birth, between 56 and 98 % of infants in all countries were reported to receive any human milk, and at 6 months 38-71% and 13-39 % of infants to be breastfed or exclusively breastfed, respectively. National plans addressing breastfeeding promotion, protection and support exist in 6 of the 11 countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: National governments should commit to evidence-based breastfeeding monitoring and promotion activities, including financial and political support, to improve breastfeeding rates in the Europe. Renewed efforts for collaboration between countries in Europe, including a sustainable platform for information exchange, are needed.

  • 7.
    Wennström, Berith
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesia, Skaraborg Hospital, Kärnsjukhuset, 541 85 Skövde, Sweden / Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Törnhage, Carl-Johan
    Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nasic, Salmir
    Centre for Research and Development, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Hedelin, Hans
    Centre for Research and Development, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Department of Urology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    The perioperative dialogue reduces postoperative stress in children undergoing day surgery as confirmed by salivary cortisol2011In: Pediatric Anaesthesia, ISSN 1155-5645, E-ISSN 1460-9592, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1058-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of 'the perioperative dialogue (PD)' by analyzing salivary cortisol, in 5- to 11-year-old children undergoing day surgery. Background: To deal with anxiety prior to investigations and/or procedures, children need to be confident and informed about what is going to happen. Therefore, intervention strategies should be initiated before admission to hospital. Methods and materials: Children (n = 93), 79 boys and 14 girls, scheduled for elective day surgery requiring general anesthesia were randomly recruited into three groups: (i) standard perioperative care (n = 31), (ii) standard perioperative care including preoperative information (n = 31), and (iii) the PD (n = 31). Saliva was sampled for cortisol analysis at specific time points during the pre- and perioperative procedures. Results: The children who received the PD had significantly lower (P = 0.003) salivary cortisol concentrations postoperatively. Moreover, it continuously decreased during the day of surgery compared with the other two groups (P < 0.01). Among the children who received analgesics, the PD group received significantly less morphine (P = 0.014) related to body-weight: the mean dose was 0.1 mg.kg(-1) (n = 9) in the control group vs 0.04 mg.kg(-1) (n = 6) in the PD group. Irrespective of group, there was a positive correlation between the children's morphine consumption and salivary cortisol concentration (r = 0.56; P = 0.038). The W-B scale score was higher in the group that received morphine (median = 3 vs median = 1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The PD's caring, continuity, and on-going dialogues were associated with low concentrations of salivary cortisol postoperatively and reduced morphine consumption and thus appears to be a valuable complement to standard perioperative care in children undergoing day surgery.

  • 8.
    Widström, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Department of Woman's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Retzius väg 13 A, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lilja, Gunilla
    Division Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aaltomaa-Michalias, P.
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahllöf, A.
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lintula, M.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Newborn behaviour to locate the breast when skin-to-skin: a possible method for enabling early self-regulation2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 79-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to provide a more detailed analysis of the infant’s behavioural sequence that begins immediately after birth and terminates with grasping the nipple, suckling and then falling asleep. Method:Twenty-eight full-term infants were videotaped immediately after birth. A video protocol was developed to examine infant behaviours identified from five random videotapes. Results:When birth crying had stopped, the babies showed a short period of relaxation and then successively became alert. They went through an ‘awakening phase’, an ‘active phase’ with movements of limbs, rooting activity and looking at the mother’s face, a ‘crawling phase’ with soliciting sounds, a ‘familiarization phase’ with licking of the areola, and a ‘suckling phase’ and last a ‘sleeping phase’. Five factors related to the time spent to locate the breast: more number of looks at the breast 10–20 min after birth (p < 0.0001); and exposure to meperidine (p = 0.0006) related to increased time. Early start of crawling (p = 0,0040); increased number of ‘soliciting sounds’ (p = 0.0022); and performing hand–breast–mouth movements (p = 0.0105) related to shorter time. Conclusion:  Inborn breastfeeding reflexes were depressed at birth, possibly because of a depressed sensory system. It is hypothesized that when the infant is given the option to peacefully go through the nine behavioural phases birth cry, relaxation, awakening, activity, crawling, resting, familiarization, suckling and sleeping when skin-to-skin with its mother this results in early optimalself-regulation.

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