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  • 1.
    Abas Hashmi, Zaynab
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Pettersson, Wilma
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Structural Brain Correlates of Psychopathy and Violent Crime2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a frequently reported personality trait among violent offenders, and psychopaths have a higher rate of recidivism than inmates without psychopathic features. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether structural brain differences, measured with magnetic resonance imaging, are observed in violent offenders with psychopathy compared to violent offenders without psychopathy or healthy non-violent controls. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search utilised the academic databases Web of Science and Medline EBSCO and included original peer-reviewed articles written in English and published between 2013 and 2023. Seven articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for the review. The findings indicated that there are structural differences between violent psychopaths compared to non-violent psychopaths and healthy controls, such as reduced grey matter volume in the prefrontal cortical areas, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and striatal and limbic regions. Further, the degree of structural brain differences in psychopaths correlated with the degree of psychopathic traits. The structural differences found in the brains of violent psychopaths can provide insight into the neurobiological basis and neural mechanisms of psychopathy and elucidate how changes in brain morphology relate to antisocial behaviour and psychopathic personality traits. In addition, the evidence of structural abnormalities in the brain of psychopaths may help develop targeted treatments that could reduce the risk of psychopathic individuals turning to crime and violence or committing repeated violent crimes. 

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  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neuroplasticity induced by exercise2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As opposed to earlier beliefs, the brain is altering itself throughout an individual’s life. The process of functional or structural alterations is referred to as plasticity, and can be induced by several factors such as experience or physical exercise. In this thesis, the research area of experience-dependent plasticity, with focus on exercise-induced plasticity is examined critically. Evidence from a vast array of studies are reviewed and compared in order to find whether physical exercise can induce neural plasticity in the human brain, how it may be beneficial, and what some of the plausible mediators of exercise-induced plasticity are. The findings demonstrated in this thesis suggest that although there are knowledge gaps and limitations in the literature, physical exercise can indeed result in exhibited plasticity as well as being beneficial for the human brain in several ways.

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  • 3.
    Agelii, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    TREATING HORROR WITH ECSTASY: Neurobiological Rationale for Treating Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder with 3,4- methylenedioxymethylamphetamine2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that afflicts 1-10% of the general population, with twice as high lifetime prevalence for women than men. Treatments exist, but none have proven reliable and consistent efficacy. A large minority of patients remain treatment-resistant despite undergoing several different types of treatment over extended periods of time. Recently completed studies in the U.S. and in Switzerland have demonstrated the potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for treatment-resistant PTSD. One of the major problems of treating PTSD is the patients’ fear state and inability to form a therapeutic alliance. Both these issues can be facilitated through administration of MDMA; the psychological effects - such as heightened empathy, increased openness and diminished anxiety – seem well-suited for therapeutic purposes. The rationale behind treating PTSD with MDMA has been indicated in neuroimaging studies; MDMA affects some of the neural structures altered in patients with PTSD, most notably the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Using the Schedule 1 substance MDMA for this purpose is however controversial; animal studies have indicated that MDMA is neurotoxic, although no adverse effects on humans related to incidental use of MDMA in a controlled setting have been found. In conclusion, the data support that MDMA may be an efficient tool for treating PTSD, as well as safe and effective to use in a clinical context.

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  • 4.
    Agnvall, Anne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Unessi, Reza
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Emotional Intelligence: A Systematic Review2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional intelligence (EI) lies at the intersection of emotion and cognition and is seen as beneficial to our relationships and well-being. Yet, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the neural correlates of EI. There are three prevailing models defining the psychological construct of EI, the trait model, the ability model, and the mixed model. According to the ability model, EI consists of two facets - experiential and strategic EI. Experiential EI refers to abilities of perceiving and using emotions to facilitate thoughts, whereas strategic EI refers to abilities of understanding and managing emotions. This systematic review aims to investigate whether, and to what extent, the neural correlates of experiential and strategic EI rely on similar or different neural substrates. Five peer-reviewed studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. All the studies used Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test to measure EI. The brain imaging techniques used included structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. The findings of the review suggest that experiential and strategic EI rely partly on distinct and partly on common neural circuitry. Neural correlates associated primarily with strategic EI were gray matter volumes of ventromedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior and posterior insula. Both strategic and experiential EI were found to correlate with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex gray matter activation, and the effective connectivity of the anterior prefrontal cortex. Further research and development of measurement methodology are needed to deepen the understanding of strategic and experiential EI and their neural correlates.

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  • 5.
    Ahlström, Therese
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Contribution of Sleep for Declarative Memory Consolidation2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon far from fully known, but one important function is to improve memory. Sleep allows the brain to work with memory processes. Sleep consist of different sleep stages divided into two big parts: rapid-eye-movement sleep and non-rapid-eye movement sleep. Memory is an important cognitive function that can be divided into declarative and non-declarative memory. The aim of this thesis will be to investigate the relationship between sleep and declarative memory consolidation. There is compelling evidence that links sleep with better memory consolidation. Consolidation is an active process where the newly encoded information is being transferred to long-term memory, which is stored throughout the neocortex. Hippocampus serves as a temporal memory storage for new memories and is active in transferring to neocortex during sleep. Reactivation and reorganization of encoded information seem to play an essential role in successful consolidation. Memories become more resilient to interference after a reactivation. Different memory systems are supported by different sleep stages, for example, hippocampus-dependent memory is benefitted mostly by slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep for memory not dependent on the hippocampus. Sleep stages are producing different brain-waves patterns with several neurotransmitters that help memories to transfer to long-term memory. Slow oscillations in neocortex are dominant in slow-wave sleep and are beneficial for consolidation. Declarative memory retrieval is enhanced by a period of sleep compared to wakefulness, and this effect is not limited to the day after learning but lasts longer. Intense learning increases sleep spindles, which also is important for consolidation. Not enough sleep disturb memory processes.

  • 6.
    Albutihe, Ismael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Sense of Agency and Automation: A Systematic Review2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advancements have resulted in highly automated systems that are featured in many kinds of tools and devices, such as self-driving cars, autopilot in airplanes, and much more. Such systems have enabled tools to plan, decide, and act autonomously. This breakthrough resulted in a new manner of interacting with tools, known as "Human-Robot Joint Action" or "human-AI interaction," in which people and automated tools share control over the tasks that must be performed. However, little is known about the impact of such interactions on people and their sense of agency (SoA) as well as how much autonomy to grant to tools. As a result, the objective of this systematic review is to investigate and understand how automated tools affect human SoA, and if tools with different levels of automation affect our SoA differently. A search in two databases, Scopus, and MEDLINE EBSCO was conducted, and 8 articles were included. The findings suggest that the more automated the tool is, the less SoA participants experience, and that varied levels of automation may impact human SoA depending on the nature of the task. However, this topic is still in its infancy and more research is needed. 

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  • 7.
    Alhardallo, Mutaz
    et al.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    El Ansari, Walid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar ; College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Baco, Abdul M.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Second ever reported case of central cause of unilateral foot drop due to cervical disc herniation: Case report and review of literature2021Ingår i: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports, E-ISSN 2210-2612, Vol. 83, artikel-id 105928Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Foot drop is defined as a weakness in the ankle and foot dorsiflexors. A disruption of the neural pathway starting from the motor prefrontal cortex and ending in the peroneal nerve can lead to foot drop. Foot drop due to lower motor neuron injury is well documented. However, foot drop due to a central cause of cervical disc prolapse is very rare. Case presentation: A 55-year-old male presenting with neck pain, right and left arms radicular pain and numbness, and unilateral right foot drop following cervical disc prolapse. The patient presented with upper motor neuron lesion signs. MRI showed cervical disc prolapse at two levels, confirming central cause of foot drop. The patient underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery. Discussion: Following decompression and fusion of involved cervical spine disc pathology, the patient had complete recovery of his right foot drop. Conclusions: Central causes, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot drop. Causes could be due to the compression effect of the cortico-spinal tract of the cervical spinal cord. Satisfactory results can be achieved upon correcting the causative lesion. 

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  • 8.
    Alvarez Svahn, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The hippocampal dependence of long-term declarative memory2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations into the neural correlates of memory have found the hippocampus to be a crucial structure for long-term declarative memories, but the exact nature of this contribution remains under debate. This paper covers three theories concerned with how the hippocampus is involved in long-term memory, namely the Standard Consolidation Model, the Multiple-Trace Theory, and the Distributed Reinstatement Theory. According to the Standard Consolidation Model, long-term declarative memories (both episodic and semantic) are dependent on the hippocampus for a limited time during which the memories undergo a process of consolidation, after which they become dependent on the neocortex. In contrast, the Multiple-Trace Theory argues that detailed and context-specific episodic (but not semantic) memories remain dependent on the hippocampus indefinitely. While both the aforementioned theories posit that memories are initially dependent on the hippocampus, the Distributed Reinstatement Theory does not. Advocates of this theory propose that several memory systems compete for the encoding of a memory, and that the hippocampus usually is the dominant system. However, it is also suggested that the other (unspecified) memory systems can overcome the hippocampal dominance through extensive and distributed learning sessions. In this paper, findings from both human and rodent studies focusing on the hippocampus are reviewed and used to evaluate the claims made by each theory on a systems level.

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  • 9.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Liiver, Gladi
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The effects of mindfulness on emotion regulation during adolescence: A systematic review2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotion Regulation refers to the process of controlling our emotions. However, the brain regions which are involved in emotional processes, such as the prefrontal cortices, are the last regions to be developed throughout the human brain. Those who are most affected by this slow development are adolescents especially since they undergo hormonal and neural changes. Previous research has shown mindfulness meditation improves emotional stability and inhibitory control. Since our brain is not fully developed until the age of 25, it is particularly interesting to get knowledge of the effect of mindfulness on emotion regulation in adolescents, which is the aim of this thesis. A total of three studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. The results showed a larger reaction in the amplitude of P2, N2, and late positive potentials on both negative and positive stimuli but not neutral stimuli. Differences were observed in the high vs low mindfulness adolescents in frontal EEG asymmetry during emotion regulation tasks. These findings suggest that even brief mindfulness can have a positive effect on emotion regulation processes by enhancing prefrontal cortices. These findings contribute to the understanding of whether mindfulness affects emotional regulation in a developing brain. However, future research is needed to clarify the effects of mindfulness on emotion regulation in adolescents.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Isak
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Brain activity during flow: A systematic review2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow state is a subjective experience that most people can relate to. It represents an optimal balance between skills and difficulty and is the state that people often refer to when performing their best, with phrases like: “I was in the zone” or “I was in the bubble”. The flow state has mainly been studied through its psychological and behavioral components; it is not until lately the neuroscientific aspects have been investigated. This review attempts to go through the existing literature and find potential neural signatures of the flow state. The studies indicate that flow is related to activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and putamen, but the findings are too divided to reach a conclusion. 

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  • 11.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Is there a Connection Between the Gut-Microbiota and Major Depression?2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is rapidly growing and one of the most common causes of disability and mortality worldwide. People with MDD often display brain changes such as adisrupted balance in neurotransmitters, impaired neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Traditionally has MDD been treated with medications and talking therapies (psychotherapy). Studies have shown that just around 50 % of people with MDD get improvements from common traditional treatments.Therefore is there a great need for a better understanding of MDD and new treatments. There is now an emerging field of research that indicates that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in disturbing normal brain functioning in MDD. This connection between the gut and the brain is called the gutbrain axis.The thesis aims to investigate if there is a connection between gut microbiota disruption and MDD and if gut microbiota restoration can be a potential effective future treatment for MDD. Key findings of the thesis were, studies show that people with MDD often display gut microbiota disruption and chronic low grade inflammation. Studies also indicate that this inflammation can cause the specific brain change often displayed in people with MDD. One of the most critical findings in the thesis was that gut brain treatments affect tryptophan metabolism, which affects the risk of MDD. The research area of the gut brain axis is still new and many more studies are needed,particularly in humans.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Louise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Psychedelic agents: Changes induced in subjective experience and brain activity2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis combines phenomenological and neuroscientific research to elucidate the effects of psychedelic agents on the human brain, mind and psychological well-being. Psychoactive plants have been used for thousands of years for ceremonial and ritual purposes. Psychedelics are psychoactive substances that affect cognitive processes and alter perception, thoughts, and mood. Illegalization of psychedelics in the 1960s rendered them impossible to study empirically but in the last couple of decades, relaxed legal restrictions regarding research purposes, renewed interest in the effects of psychedelic drugs and new brain imaging techniques have started to reveal the possibilities of these mind-altering substances. Psychedelics mainly affect the serotonin receptor 5-HT2A which in turn affect the functioning of largescale cortical areas by changing cerebral blood flow, alpha oscillations, and functional connectivity. These cortical changes not only induce immediate alterations in perception and cognition but have been shown to have positive effects in therapeutic interventions for depression, anxiety, and addiction, and also positively affect well-being in general. Although the pharmacology and neurobiology of psychedelics are still poorly understood, the potential benefits justify empirical research on psychedelics in humans.

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    Psychedelic agents
  • 13.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Sleep and Its Effects on Synaptic Strength2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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    Sleep_and_synaptic_strength
  • 14.
    Andersson Szabo, Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    A Biological And Psychological Profile of Eudaimonia as High Psychological Well-Being2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Aristotle (4th century B.C.E/1925) described eudaimonia as “the good life”, and is today commonly understood as eudaimonic well-being (EWB) within research. Despite the long history, the definitions and operationalizations of EWB are diverse and no coherent description or explanation for the biology of EWB exist. Hence, the present thesis reviews current neuroscientific- and additional biological research on EWB. This review reveals EWB to be most frequently operationalized as psychological well-being (PWB) (Ryff, 2014), and is here used as basis for an attempt to explain the biological and psychological profiles of EWB as high PWB. High PWB was characterized by brain activity linked to the reward circuitry, dorsolateral and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and grey matter (GM) volume in areas of the brainstem and insular cortex. High PWB was also positively related to lower levels of several harmful biomarkers. The proposed psychological profile of high PWB included the psychological functions goal directed behaviour and emotional control. It is hoped that the proposed profiles will serve as inspiration for further exploration of the biology and psychology of human well-being (WB).

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    A Biological And Psychological Profile of Eudaimonia as High Psychological Well-Being
  • 15.
    Andersérs, Caroline
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Effect that Exercise has on Cognitive Functions: A Review2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    My aim for this literature review is to present and discuss a possible relationship between physical exercise and different kinds of cognitive functions. With the increasing interest on the topic, more studies have been conducted and the results from the studies have been a little ambiguous. The most part of the studies has been showing that exercise has a positive effect on cognitive functions. The evidence from the studies also says that exercise can help the brain to regulate the production of new neurons and to increase brain volume in the prefrontal and temporal areas. That can be very beneficial for elderly people with dementia, Alzheimer's disease or other cognitive declines. Evidence of exercise combined with the right nutrition can enhance cognitive performance even more but to establish this more research is needed.  

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  • 16.
    Anell, Jesper
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Rubber hand illusion and affective touch: A systematic review2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The feeling of owning a body part is often investigated by conducting and manipulating the rubber hand illusion, a three-way integration of vision, touch, and proprioception. In the last decade, more research on the role of interoception, the sense of the body's’ internal state, in the illusion has been made. One of the studied factors has been the affective touch, a caress-like, gentle, touch that is performed at a slow specific speed (1-10 cm/sec). Affective touch activates the C tactile afferents which send interoceptive signals to the brain, specifically the insula. The present systematic review investigated the role affective touch has on the strength of the rubber hand illusion. A range of electronic databases was searched for papers reporting research findings published in English before March 20, 2020. Twelve different articles were identified, but only five papers met the inclusion criteria. This thesis looked at the results from these five different studies and compared the effect of affective touch and discriminative, regular, touch have on the rubber hand illusion to see whether there is a significant difference. The results could not show a main effect of stroking velocity, site of stimulation, or social touch, which are components of affective touch. The results was based on four different measurements, the subjective experience of the illusion, pleasantness ratings, proprioceptive drift, and temperature difference in the skin. Opposed what was hypothesized, it could not be demonstrated that affective touch would induce a stronger rubber hand illusion than discriminative touch.

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  • 17.
    Annerud Awrohum, Elin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Default Mode Network’s Role in Perceived Social Isolation and Social Connection: A Systematic Review2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Feelings of social connection are important to maintain physical and psychological well-being. Perceived social isolation, or loneliness, is the subjective experience of feeling socially isolated and may be a direct threat to our health. During recent years, an increasing amount of people report high levels of loneliness, potentially brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions. Recent research suggests that the brain’s default mode network (DMN), a neural network active at wakeful rest, is related to these experiences. This paper aimed to systematically review alterations in the DMN in socially connected and lonely individuals. I searched PubMed and Scopus to find studies using self-report measures of social connection or loneliness, and functional or structural neuroimaging methods on healthy adults. Nine studies were included in this review. Generally, core regions of the DMN typically involved in episodic memory and self-referential processing showed increased activity in lonely individuals and decreased activity in socially connected individuals. These findings may reflect how lonely individuals ruminate about past social events while socially connected individuals attend less to the self. However, methodological heterogeneity between studieslimits the conclusions that can be drawn based on these results.

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  • 18.
    Annerud Awrohum, Shabo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Psychedelic oscillations: A systematic review of the electrophysiological correlates of classic psychedelics2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently there has been a revitalization in research on classic psychedelic substances. This class of drugs has been found to produce intense and profoundly meaningful experiences, and offers a unique opportunity to study the neural correlates of the sense of self. The objective of this research was to systematically review the effects of classic psychedelics on spontaneous brain activity, as measured on three electrophysiological modalities: spectral analysis, signal diversity, and functional connectivity. Method: We searched Pubmed to identify papers in English, published between January 1990 to May 2021, where electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate the effects of classic psychedelics in healthy individuals during non-task resting states. Results: Sixteen papers were included. Classic psychedelic substances generally decrease spectral power in most frequency bands, mainly in the alpha range, increase signal diversity, and decrease the flow of information throughout the brain. Conclusion: Decreases in alpha power, increased signal diversity, and decreases in default mode network activity might be important neural correlates of the psychedelic state. However, inconsistencies in the results and heterogeneity in study design are some of the limitations that have to be considered when interpreting these results.

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  • 19.
    Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C.
    et al.
    Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands / Radboud Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Neurology, The State University of New York Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, USA.
    Leijsen, Esther M. C.
    Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    de Leeuw, Frank-Erik
    Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Kiliaan, Amanda J.
    Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands / Radboud Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Adiposity is related to cerebrovascular and brain volumetry outcomes in the RUN DMC study2019Ingår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 93, nr 9, s. e864-e878Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Adiposity predictors, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood leptin and total adiponectin levels were associated with components of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and brain volumetry in 503 adults with CSVD who were ≥50 years of age and enrolled in the Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cohort (RUN DMC).

    METHODS: RUN DMC participants were followed up for 9 years (2006-2015). BMI, WC, brain imaging, and dementia diagnoses were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Adipokines were measured at baseline. Brain imaging outcomes included CSVD components, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, gray and white matter, hippocampal, total brain, and intracranial volumes.

    RESULTS: Cross-sectionally among men at baseline, higher BMI, WC, and leptin were associated with lower gray matter and total brain volumes, and higher BMI and WC were associated with lower hippocampal volume. At follow-up 9 years later, higher BMI was cross-sectionally associated with lower gray matter volume, and an obese WC (>102 cm) was protective for ≥1 lacune or ≥1 microbleed in men. In women, increasing BMI and overweight or obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or WC >88 cm) were associated with ≥1 lacune. Longitudinally, over 9 years, a baseline obese WC was associated with decreasing hippocampal volume, particularly in men, and increasing white matter hyperintensity volume in women and men.

    CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric and metabolic adiposity predictors were differentially associated with CSVD components and brain volumetry outcomes by sex. Higher adiposity is associated with a vascular-neurodegenerative spectrum among adults at risk for vascular forms of cognitive impairment and dementias.

  • 20.
    Arntz, Joakim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Ownership in passive and active movements: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the moving rubber hand illusion2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The rubber hand illusion is an experimental paradigm that induces the illusion of ownership over a fake hand. The illusion was originally induced using visuotactile stimulation but can also be induced using movements. Self-produced movements are active movements, and if they are produced by external force, they are passive movements. According to the comparator model, only active movements produce a sense of agency. As both passive and active movements can be used to induce the sense of ownership in the rubber hand illusion, but only active induce a sense of agency, they can be compared to determine the effect agency has on bodily ownership. This meta-analysis included nine studies with a total of 359 participants that compared the induced sense of ownership using active and passive movements in the rubber hand illusion to determine these effects. The results show that agency has a small but significant effect on body ownership.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Aronsson, Emelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Kan tacksamhet främja moraliskt beteende?2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har undersökt om tacksamhet kan påverka vårt moraliska beteende, genom att se över studier som gjorts inom psykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mestadels på hur det kognitiva resonerandet påverkar ens moral. På senare tid har forskningen allt mer betonat specifika emotioners avgörande roll för om man agerar efter moraliska normer eller inte. Dessa emotioner benämns som moraliska emotioner. En av dessa moraliska emotioner är tacksamhet. Tacksamhet har i studier visats fungera som en moralisk barometer, stärka välgörares fortsatta moraliska beteende samt fungera som ett moraliskt motiv. Den neurala grunden för tacksamhet är ännu relativt outforskad. Emotioners generella påverkan på moraliskt beteende samt positiva emotioners tendenser till agerande (eng: action tendencies) kan dock ses som ett steg till ökad förståelse om hur tacksamheten påverkar vårt moraliska beteende.

  • 22.
    Arvidsson, Andrea
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Meditation, attention and the brain: function, structure and attentional performance2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Meditation has been practiced around the world for thousands of years and has during the past decade become increasingly popular in the Western world. Meditation can be seen as a form of mental exercise and refers to a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory practices that involves different attentional, cognitive monitoring and awareness processes. Clinical research on meditation has demonstrated that meditation seem to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Recent interest in how meditation affect the human brain and body have lead to an increase in research regarding the neural correlates of meditation, structural changes induced by meditation, and the potential attentional and emotional benefits mediated by meditation. This thesis investigates expert related changes in neural activity, brain structure, and attentional performance induced by focused attention meditation (FAM) and open monitoring meditation (OMM). The research on meditation and the brain is still in its infancy but despite this, there seem to be some converging evidence of meditation’s impact on the human brain and mind. The results from the included studies in this thesis indicates that expert meditators show greater activation in some meditation related brain areas, as well as less activation in other areas when compared to novice meditators. The results also suggest that long-term meditation practice induce some structural changes in the brain and that meditation seem to enhance the practitioners’ attentional control. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    MEDITATION, ATTENTION AND THE BRAIN: FUNCTION, STRUCTURE AND ATTENTIONAL PERFORMANCE
  • 23.
    Arvidsson, Tobias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Indirect subjective measurements of applied reappraisal and distraction: An online study2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The struggle to regulate one's emotions can sometimes be difficult. Two emotion regulation strategies are to reappraise an emotional stimulus or to distract oneself from the stimulus. While there have been many investigations of both strategies, previous research suffers from methodological problems. Reappraisal conditions might be confounded by non-reappraisal-related cognitive processes, resulting in effects of distraction rather than reappraisal. In the current exploratory within-subjects study, participants completed an online survey where the conditions were held as equal as possible to avoid any differences in non-task-related cognitive processes. I measured variables that have been associated with an electrophysiological response correlated to the intensity level of emotions: the late positive potential. First, participants watched emotionally negative film clips in a reappraisal, distraction, and control condition, followed by ratings of experienced feeling. Second, participants rated the threat level of angry and neutral faces. It was hypothesized that applying ER during emotion induction compared to no ER should result in more positive ratings of experienced feeling after induction and lower threat-ratings of angry faces due to a more positive emotional state. The results showed no significant differences between conditions, most likely due to either methodological limitations or an actual lack of emotion regulation effects. I discuss future directions and improvements of the method.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Arvidsson, Tobias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Emotion Regulation: Differences Between Adolescents and Adults2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The time of adolescence is marked by enhanced emotional experiences and difficulties with regulating one’s emotions. One way to improve the adolescent’s ability to regulate their emotions is to let them practice mindfulness meditation. The motivational drive behind this thesis is the question of what forms of mindfulness meditation are needed to give the highest increase in their emotion regulation-abilities. One problem is that while there exist neural studies on mindfulness meditation for adults, the research field of adolescent meditation lacks them. Because neural studies are needed to adequately answer this question, and the lack of brain imaging tools for this thesis, the focus here was to conduct some groundwork for this discussion. The first aim was to investigate the neural effects of mindfulness meditation on emotion regulation in adults and the second aim was to investigate to what extent we can generalize these neural effects to adolescents. To be able to theoretical discuss the second aim, neural and psychological studies on mindfulness meditation and emotion regulation were used as a base. The studies were grouped into five sub-categories based on age group and research field and then discussed with the help of developmental studies. Adult meditators had stronger functionality in regulatory brain regions than non-meditators during meditation and during the perception of negative stimuli. The discussion about the generalization of the adult neural patterns to adolescents showed that the findings were too diverse to come to any useful conclusions. Empirical and conceptual improvements, along with neural meditation studies on adolescents, are needed to improve the research field in both age groups.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Asplund Fromholz, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Anspänning, oro och stress är tre begrepp som har studerats länge, vilket har gett upphov till flertalet modeller, teorier och domäner där dessa begrepp har studerats och fortfarande studeras. I denna uppsats så kommer dessa tre begrepp bland annat att redogöras för var för sig med koppling till mätmetoder, idrott och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva hur idrottsprestationer kan påverkas av anspänning, oro och stress för att utifrån det kunna redogöra för evidensbaserade metoder som kan appliceras för att främja en idrottsprestation. Först kommer anspänning att redogöras för, anspänning följs sedan av oro som i sin tur följs av stress som sista begrepp. Avslutningsvis så behandlas även problematik och möjligheter för dessa begrepp inom forskningsfältet och dess tillämpningsområden.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker
  • 26.
    Backlund, Andreas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Stress Measured by Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a global health issue and effective stress management techniques are much needed. Mindfulness meditation in the form of mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective interventions for self-reported stress reduction. However, the effects of mindfulness meditation on the objective physiological markers of stress are less clear. Heart rate variability, the variation in time between each consecutive heartbeat has been shown to be such an objective physiological marker of stress. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate how mindfulness-based interventions affect heart rate variability to better understand the utility of mindfulness meditation as a stress management technique. A literature search was conducted on March 8th, 2022, with the databases Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE EBSCO to identify randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on heart rate variability. A total of 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 970 participants. The results from the systematic review were mixed and indicate inconsistencies across the literature. Thus, there are uncertainties on how mindfulness-based interventions affect heart rate variability. Although the systematic review was limited by a small sample of studies, it highlights that further research on how mindfulness-based interventions affect heart rate variability is needed to better understand the utility of mindfulness meditation as a stress management technique.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Bahrd, Phillie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Blacked Out Brain: Neural Mechanisms of Unconsciousness in General Anesthesia and Disorders of Consciousness2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness is a pursuit with significance to both the scientific study of consciousness as well as for the improvement of clinical diagnosis of patients with severe structural brain damage that has resulted in disorders of consciousness (DOC), such as coma or vegetative state . This literature review gives an account for what consciousness studies have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness, focusing on experiments using anesthetic agents to investigate the loss and return of consciousness. Mechanisms that frequently correlate with the loss of consciousness are modulation of the brainstem, the thalamus, and the cortex, but different anesthetic drugs act on different areas. According to a bottom-up approach unconsciousness can be induced by sleep-circuits in the brainstem, and according to a top-down approach unconsciousness can be induced by cortical and thalamocortical disruption. But the mechanisms involved during loss of consciousness are not the same as for return of consciousness, and this paper includes evidence for the mechanisms involved during the return being closer to what research should be further investigating. The mechanisms involved in return from anesthesia-induced unconsciousness resemble those mechanisms involved in recovery from DOC. Studying mechanisms of unconsciousness can further our understanding of consciousness, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DOC.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    theblackedoutbrain
  • 28.
    Banaee, Hadi
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Billing, ErikHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Proceedings of the 17th SweCog Conference: Örebro 2022, 16-17 June2022Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Behrens, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Sleep disturbance predicts worse cognitive performance in subsequent years: A longitudinal population-based cohort study2023Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 106, artikel-id 104899Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poor sleep is a potential modifiable risk factor for later life development cognitive impairment. The aim of this study is to examine if subjective measures of sleep duration and sleep disturbance predict future cognitive decline in a population-based cohort of 60, 66, 72 and 78-year-olds with a maximal follow up time of 18 years. Methods: This study included participants from the Swedish National Study on Ageing and Care – Blekinge, with assessments 2001–2021. A cohort of 60 (n = 478), 66 (n = 623), 72 (n = 662) and 78 (n = 548) year-olds, were assessed at baseline and every 6 years until 78 years of age. Longitudinal associations between sleep disturbance (sleep scale), self-reported sleep duration and cognitive tests (Mini Mental State Examination and the Clock drawing test) were examined together with typical confounders (sex, education level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking status, physical inactivity and depression). Results: There was an association between sleep disturbance at age 60 and worse cognitive function at ages 60, 66 and 72 years in fully adjusted models. The association was attenuated after bootstrap-analysis for the 72-year-olds. The items of the sleep scale most predictive of later life cognition regarded nightly awakenings, pain and itching and daytime naps. Long sleep was predictive of future worse cognitive function. Conclusion: Sleep disturbance was associated with worse future cognitive performance for the 60-year-olds, which suggests poor sleep being a risk factor for later life cognitive decline. Questions regarding long sleep, waking during the night, pain and itching and daytime naps should be further explored in future research and may be targets for intervention. 

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    fulltext
  • 30.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Neurovetenskaplig psykiatri2018Ingår i: Psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, nr 2, s. 47-49Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Bergström, Natalie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal stress resilience2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience refers to the fact that some individuals cope well with stressful experiences. Many factors contribute to this sort of resilience, such as the early environment, the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTPLR), the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axis, and emotion regulation techniques. The aim of this thesis is to investigate which factors contribute to resilience, with a particular focus on the emotion regulation technique of cognitive reappraisal. The results show that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala each play a crucial role when it comes to stress regulation. Studies have found that the PFC inhibits the amygdala response, but that the PFC is vulnerable to exposure to chronic stress. As a result, the PFC might fail to inhibit the amygdala response. Individuals who use cognitive reappraisal techniques – which has been associated particularly with frontal and parietal brain activity – seem to be less prone to this sort of problem, and, as a result, more resilient to stress.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Kalckert, AndreasHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Proceedings of the 16th SweCog Conference2021Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We welcome you to the 16’th SweCog conference! After the 2020 meeting had to be cancelled, due to the unusual circumstances of facing a worldwide pandemic, we look forward to finally meet again, although the pandemic makes us meet virtually and not in person. 

    Fittingly, an emerging theme of this year’s meeting is virtual reality. A technology which creates new ways of interacting with each other and with the world. It is not only a subject of active research, but increasingly also a medium for new creative experiments or applications, as evidenced by one of our keynote speakers this year. VR has become now a more widely available tool in different areas of research, and probably has made its full and final impact not yet. 

    SweCog 2021 also features a nod to the word usability day. As technology becomes increasingly present in our daily lives, not the least emphasized through the pandemic, we believe that cognitive science has an important role as a field of research informing the design of usable digital artifacts. As the University of Skövde stands as one example of the close relation between cognitive science and user experience design, we take the opportunity to celebrate the topic of Cognitoon and UX

    This meeting has been organized jointly by the Interaction lab and the Cognitive Neuroscience lab of the University of Skövde. We are glad to see this interaction happening between the two labs and the two fields. We hope this is not perceived as an “invasion” of the brain scientists documenting the failure of cognitive science as a field (see Nunez et al., 2019), but rather a collaborative move of finding synergies in our research. In this spirit, we hope our meetings continue to bring people together from different parts of Sweden, from different departments, and maybe also from more different disciplines, to discuss our latest research. And despite our enthusiasm for virtual reality, we sincerely hope the next meeting will allow us to meet again in person. 

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    fulltext
  • 33.
    Bjurberg, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Academic achievement and personality traits: an empirical and neurobiological investigation2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis explores how personality traits are connected to academic achievement. First, a theoretical discussion on the neurobiological basis of different personality traits is presented, where variance in brain- activity, volume and chemistry describes possible differences in personality. Traits previously linked to academic achievement is also described in terms of neurobiology. This is followed by an empirical investigation of the connection between personality traits and academic achievement. Previous research suggest the Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) personality traits of conscientiousness, order and self-discipline to be positively associated with academic achievement. Also, similar suggestions have been put forward concerning the Values in Action (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) character strengths of love of learning, self-regulation and persistence and academic achievement. 90 students in a medium sized Swedish senior high school completed the two personality inventories and their grades were collected. Positive correlations were found for the personality traits conscientiousness, order, and self-discipline and for the character strengths persistence, love of learning, perspective and open-mindedness. The results partly supported the hypotheses as well as extended the knowledge about what factors contribute to academic achievement. Discussion of the results and suggestions for further research concludes the thesis.

    Keywords: personality trait, character strength, neurobiology, academic achievement, BFI, VIA-IS

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Academic Achievement and Personality Traits: An empirical and neurobioogical investigation
  • 34.
    Blom, Emma-Clara
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Ketamine for treatment-resistant depression: Moving away from conventional antidepressants2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing amount of research suggests Ketamine in subanaesthetic doses to be an effective antidepressant for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Treatment-Resistant Disorder (TRD). After the finding that NMDA-receptor antagonists may hold antidepressant effect, several studies have suggested Ketamine to have great effect in relief of depressive symptoms. A time lag between biological and behavioural effects have been shown in currently available antidepressants and are not guaranteed to be efficient; only 30% of patients reach adequate response. The aim for this thesis is to systematically review available studies on the efficiency of Ketamine's antidepressant effects in patients with TRD. Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed were the databases searched for relevant research regarding the subject. Six articles were included in the analysis. A compilation of the results presented a moderate to large effect size for Ketamine compared to placebo at 24 hours through day seven. It is of immense weight that prolonged adverse effects and possible abuse are taken into consideration for future research, as well as how to sustain the dramatic acute antidepressant effect of Ketamine.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Boklund, Elin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Cognitive Dissonance in the Brain: A Systematic Review2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive dissonance is the uncomfortable psychological feeling that arises when something is perceived as contradictory. In 1957, Leon Festinger first developed the theory of cognitive dissonance, which has since continued to be of interest for, among other things, decision-making, moral reasoning, motivation, politics, and science. This systematic review summarises six peer-reviewed studies that use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure if there is increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during cognitive dissonance in adults. Four studies tested cognitive dissonance during forced choices and two during counter-attitudinal behaviours. The overall fMRI results indicate increased activity in ACC and dACC to dissonance versus control conditions, but with some inconsistency on the exact locations in the brain.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Boldeanu, Silvia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Merging brain-computer interfaces and virtual reality: A neuroscientific exploration2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) blend methods and concepts researched by cognitive neuroscience, electrophysiology, computer science and engineering, resulting in systems of bi-directional information exchange directly between brain and computer. BCIs contribute to medical applications that restore communication and mobility for disabled patients and provide new forms of sending information to devices for enhancement and entertainment. Virtual reality (VR) introduces humans into a computer-generated world, tackling immersion and involvement. VR technology extends the classical multimedia experience, as the user is able to move within the environment, interact with other virtual participants, and manipulate objects, in order to generate the feeling of presence. This essay presents the possibilities of merging BCI with VR and the challenges to be tackled in the future. Current attempts to combine BCI and VR technology have shown that VR is a useful tool to test the functioning of BCIs, with safe, controlled and realistic experiments; there are better outcomes for VR and BCI combinations used for medical purposes compared to solely BCI training; and, enhancement systems for healthy users seem promising with VR-BCIs designed for home users. Future trends include brain-to-brain communication, sharing of several users’ brain signals within the virtual environment, and better and more efficient interfaces.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Boman, Kajsa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Heart rate variability: A possible measure of subjective wellbeing?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Wellbeing and subjective wellbeing (SWB) has become some the most important goals of our time, both individually and societally. Thus, there is a need for reliable ways to measure SWB, as concerns regarding many current measures have been raised. Due to the interwoven nature of physiology and psychology, heart rate variability (HRV) has the potential to assess psychological processes in a physiological manner. HRV is an attractive measure since it is inexpensive, easy and non-invasive. Hence, the aim is to, from a cognitive neuroscientific standpoint, investigate whether HRV could serve as an objective measure to assess SWB. Most studies demonstrate associations between HRV and SWB, in particular between high frequency (HF)-HRV and positive affect (PA). However, the one study fully matching the theoretical framework only showed an inverse correlation between HRV and negative affect (NA). Plausibly implying that HRV does not serve as a reliable measure of SWB, but may be able to indicate inverse associations with NA, and possibly index certain aspect of SWB such as deactivated PA. The study of the relationship between HRV and SWB is still in its infancy and results are inconsistent. The lack of common standards regarding measurements, implementation details, and variable values, make results difficult to compare and generalize. Further standardizations and research are much needed before accurate conclusions can be drawn.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Borgström, Juliana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Cyclical Women: Menstrual Cycle Effects on Mood and Neuro-Cognitive Performance2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    During roughly forty years of a woman’s life-span, the fertile female human body prepares itself monthly for the possibility of pregnancy. Science has shown that the fluctuation of the sex steroids progesterone and estrogen have a crucial role in the female body's physiology, determining the menstrual cycle and its general phases. This biological dance of hormones governing the cycle influences a lot of physical, mental and cognitive aspects of life for a fertile ovulating woman. Although the question of whether these changes also affect women's cognitive performance is still unclear, some evidence has been gathered that could bring us closer to answers. Recent research findings show that this hormonal interplay might have a significant role in cognitive and psychological development - modulating brain activity, cognitive performance, higher cognition, emotional status, sensory processing, appetite and more. This thesis aims to uncover to what extent the menstrual cycle affects brain functions, neurobiology, mood, well-being and cognitive performance in menstruating cisgender women.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Boström, Kristina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The key to understanding PTSD: Contrasting post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic incidences happen all around the globe. Some of the people who experience trauma

    develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while some do not. Even more interesting is

    that some also experience growth afterwards (post-traumatic growth; PTG). The purpose of

    this paper is to look at neural aspects of why some people develop PTSD and others PTG after

    a traumatic event. To fulfill the aim, both PTSD and PTG will be reviewed to create an image

    of the existing research in behavioral and neurological terms. In addition to looking at the

    constructs separately, a chapter will also look at studies where both PTSD and PTG are

    acknowledged collaterally in participants. When looking deeper into the theories of PTSD

    divisions occur, and more research is needed to establish the most prominent explanation of

    PTSD. PTG on the other hand has only been studied for a short period of time but yields

    important insights into trauma-related outcomes. These fields need to be submerged and new

    multidisciplinary definitions are needed for future research. The key to PTSD is suggested to

    emerge within the new field.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Brorsson, David
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Training attention with video games: How playing and training with video games impact attentional networks2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Video games as an entertainment form are very popular. Understanding what video games do to us in a long-term and short-term manner is therefore of interest. Attention is a widely studied field and research into how attentional networks are affected by video is a research field on the rise. Here, I will be investigating how video game play affects our attentional networks and if it is possible for elderly individuals to train their attentional networks with video games. Video game players have high performance in reaction time and accuracy in different attentional, working memory, and cognitive control tasks. As the difficulty of video games increase video game players seem to more efficiently utilize their attentional networks. Whilst some articles cannot replicate findings in other articles this irregularity might be explained with by level of difficulty or load during task performance. Studies see group differences only when the task difficulty is high. Therefore, an important part of video game research is to find an effective and replicable standard for video game research. Measuring video game play with EEG shows that players better can forgo distracting stimuli in central and peripheral view and discriminating stimuli giving video game players more confidence when making decisions. Video game players also seem to have more efficient processes and functional connectivity in attentional networks but utilizing these networks more as non-video game players as mental load increases. Not only does video game players have more efficient attentional networks, but attentional benefits from video games is also something that can be trained with those who do not play video games. Suggesting that older individuals can utilize video games to train attentional networks.

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  • 41.
    Broström, Jakob
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Ketamine for depression: The role of dissociative effects2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Several trials have reported rapid antidepressant response from the anesthetic drug ketamine although the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. Research has focused mainly on ketamine’s action in the brain, including its effects on chemical balance, connections between brain cells and networks, and cognition. Trials with psychedelic drugs have had similar antidepressant results as ketamine, and the quality of the subjective psychedelic experience seems to mediate antidepressant action. Ketamine causes similar alterations of consciousness, which have been viewed as side effects. This thesis examines whether ketamine works in a similar way as psychedelics, where the ketamine-induced dissociative-like experience has a relationship to antidepressant response. Leading theories of depression and ketamine’s action in the brain are presented, and eight studies examining the relationship between ketamine-induced subjective experience and antidepressant response are reviewed. Three included studies found a relationship between psychedelic- and dissociative-like symptoms and reduction in depression, while five did not. The supposed relationship between psychedelic- and dissociative-like symptoms and antidepressant action has not been adequately explored and needs further examination in clinical trials.

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  • 42.
    Brundin, Malin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Binge Eating Disorder: Neural correlates and treatments2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent of all eating disorders and is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating a large amount of food in the absence of control. There have been various kinds of research of BED, but the phenomenon remains poorly understood. This thesis reviews the results of research on BED to provide a synthetic view of the current general understanding on BED, as well as the neural correlates of the disorder and treatments. Research has so far identified several risk factors that may underlie the onset and maintenance of the disorder, such as emotion regulation deficits and body shape and weight concerns. However, neuroscientific research suggests that BED may characterize as an impulsive/compulsive disorder, with altered reward sensitivity and increased attentional biases towards food cues, as well as cognitive dysfunctions due to alterations in prefrontal, insular, and orbitofrontal cortices and the striatum. The same alterations as in addictive disorders. Genetic and animal studies have found changes in dopaminergic and opioidergic systems, which may contribute to the severities of the disorder. Research investigating neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches as neural treatment, suggests that these are innovative tools that may modulate food-related reward processes and thereby suppress the binges. In order to predict treatment outcomes of BED, future studies need to further examine emotion regulation and the genetics of BED, the altered neurocircuitry of the disorder, as well as the role of neurotransmission networks relatedness to binge eating behavior.

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  • 43.
    Brundin, Malin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The rubber hand illusion effectiveness on body ownership induced by self-produced movements: A Meta-Analysis2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Body ownership can be studied via the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which an artificial limb can be perceived as belonging to oneself. In the so-called moving RHI paradigm, both body ownership and sense of agency, induced by self-produced movements, can be investigated. The key question of this approach is whether movements generated by oneself increase the illusion of body ownership. Thus far, the results from moving RHI studies are inconsistent.This has led to uncertainty regarding the influences of the motor control mechanism on body ownership. Therefore, this study will present the first meta-analysis on moving RHI to estimate the illusory effectiveness induced by self-produced movements. A total of 23 experimental comparisons with 821 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the overall illusory effect induced by self-produced movements was superior toits control (e.g., asynchronous active movements) (Hedge’s g = 1.38, p < 0.001). However, due to dissimilarity in results between the studies, the sample size in the meta-analysis may not represent the general population. The subgroup analysis showed that studies using physical hands, such as wooden hands, yielded the largest effect compared to studies using a virtual projected hand or a video recorded image of the participant’s own hands. It can be speculated whether a three-dimensional hand with “realness” has an illusory advantage compared to hands presented in virtual or video image settings. Future studies need to apply aunified framework, particularly in experimental setups and measurements. This would obtain consistent results of the strength of the illusion within the moving RHI paradigm.

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  • 44.
    Bryde, Jonathan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Affect and Attention: An Empirical Study2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In daily life there are numerous experiences and events that divert people's attention and cause stress, which may be linked with aspects of ill-being and lowered well-being. Mindfulness meditation may alleviate such issues. Mindfulness can be summarized as a form of awareness and attention in the present that is characterized by an open-minded and non-judgemental perspective, and meditation as a group of practices that engage many of the same processes and may involve mindfulness. There is evidence that both mindfulness and mindfulness meditation are associated with activity in brain regions relating to, for example, attention, emotion-regulation, and bodily awareness. Consequently, mindfulness meditation was hypothesized in the present study to improve attention as measured by the Attention Network Test, and decrease negative affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule when compared to a control condition. The mindfulness meditation instructions employed were largely based on the work of Kabat-Zinn (1982). 14 participants were recruited to the study, and 7 of them completed the experiment. 3 participants were randomized to the experimental group, and 4 to the control group. Results were largely contrary to the hypotheses, with only executive attention having statistical significance (p < .05) and supporting one hypothesis. Although effect sizes were on average large for the variables of the study, the small sample size may have limited the power and increased the risk for type-II errors.

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  • 45.
    Budajeva, Snezjana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    OCD as behavioral addiction and the reward process: A systematic review2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that aberrant activity in some brain regions involved in the pathology of OCD overlaps similarly with individuals with addiction disorders. The reduced anxiety following a compulsion together with findings of diminished activation in the striatum during reward anticipation proposes a view of OCD being a behavior addiction. To investigate if there are consistent results across studies that support this view a systematic search of the literature was conducted. The keywords in the final search string used were: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, OCD, reward, risk, functional MRI, MRI, fMRI. Databases used for the search were Web of Science and PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies that compared the neural activity during the anticipation phase of reward between OCD patients and healthy controls. The intervention and brain imaging used in the included studies were the monetary incentive delay task and fMRI. The main data extracted were the alterations in the striatum. Four studies were included in this review with inconsistent results. Three studies did not find any significant difference between OCD and healthy controls and therefore the findings in principle did not support the view of OCD being a behavior addiction. However, differences in study design between studies could be an explanation for the conflicting findings.

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  • 46.
    Carlsson, Veronica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Emotional attention: A cognitive neuroscience perspective2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention is a cognitive mechanism that guides our perception in order to prioritize the limited resources to the most relevant information while ignoring distracting information. Attention can be voluntarily deployed to stimuli during tasks or goals, or the features of the stimulus can capture our attention either by being salient or being emotionally induced. Emotions affect multiple different cognitive processes such as attention because emotional stimuli can be relevant for defending or sustain life. This relationship between attention and emotion indicates that there should be interactive but distinct networks between these cognitive mechanisms as well as a modulative effect on perceptional and attentional systems. Emotions were in general demonstrating a facilitation affect on attentional and saccadic processes as well as broadening or narrowing the scope of attention. The reason behind emotions impact on attention was proposed to be for eliciting a change in the application of resources in order to solve the limited capacity problem and possibly to protect and sustain life. Inconsistent findings as well as limitations for emotional attention studies are discussed.

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  • 47.
    Carlvret, Nicole
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Stress: A Systematic Review2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic review aimed to examine if there is a reduction of stress after participating in the Mindfulness-based stress reduction eight-week program. Stress is a global health  problem and statistical measures present a year-to-year increase in stress levels (Gallup,  2022; WHO, 2023). MBSR is an eight-week program with roots in Eastern culture and was  developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn (2013) to reduce stress and increase well-being. The search  string used for this systematic review was carried out in Web of Science and Scopus to  identify original research and peer review papers. Three studies met the inclusion criteria and  are included in this review. The three studies used heart rate variability (HRV) and  questionnaires to measure the effect of MBSR on stress. Findings in this systematic review  highlights significant results related to stress reduction from participating in the MBSR  program. Conclusively, the MBSR program contributes to more possibilities to reduce stress  in society. This is of great importance since stress is growing extensively on a global scale.  Thus, it is of greater importance to find and develop more evidence-based methods and  resources which are easily accessible to the general population with low or no cost which  MBSR offer.

  • 48.
    Cederholm, Emil
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The vine of the soul: Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of Ayahuasca2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression and anxiety are two of the most common psychiatric disorders and leading causes of disability. Antidepressants and anxiolytics, though revolutionary, do not treat all those suffering from these diseases satisfactorily. Psychedelics are currently under investigation as remedies for several ailments, including depression and anxiety. One classical psychedelic, Ayahuasca, is a concoction of the plants Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis and has historically been used by Amazonian natives for therapeutic and ritual purposes. The brew contains monoamine oxidase-A inhibitors (MAOI) and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), producing an altered state of consciousness characterized by visions and introspection. In this systematic review, I aimed to determine the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of Ayahuasca. Sixteen articles out of 687 hits on electronic databases (Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed) were finally included after closer examination. The studies range in quality and are performed on healthy volunteers and volunteers with self-reported depression or anxiety and patients suffering from treatment-resistant and major depression. Ayahuasca seems to be well tolerated and safe to administer and consistently produce antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in the studies. However, the description of the sometimes arbitrary results vary, and higher-quality research is needed before we can be certain of Ayahuasca as a remedy.

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  • 49.
    Chamorro, Emilia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Theories of Nightmares in Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Dreaming is a complex, multimodal and sequentially organized model of the waking world (Metzinger, 2003). Nightmares are a category of dreams involving threatening scenarios, anxiety and other negative emotions (Hartmann, 1998; Nielsen & Levin, 2007). Dreams and nightmares are explored in this present thesis in the light of psychology and modern cognitive neuroscience as to their nature, function and neural correlates. The three main dream theories and their leading investigations are reviewed to evaluate their evidence and overall explanatory power to account for the function of dreams and nightmares. Random Activation Theories (RATs) claim dreams are biological epiphenomena and by-products of sleep underlying mechanisms (Crick & Mitchison, 1983; Flanagan, 1995, 2000a, 2000b, Hobson & McCarley, 1997). Mood regulation theories consider that the psychological function of dreams is to regulate mood and help with the adaptation of individuals to their current environment such as solving daily concerns and recovery after trauma exposure (Hartmann, 1996; Levin, 1998; Stickgold, 2008; Kramer, 1991a, 1991b, 2014). Threat Simulation Theories of dreams present the evolutionary function for dreaming as a simulating off-line model of the world used to rehearse threatening events encountered in the human ancestral environment (Revonsuo, 2000a). With the threat-simulation system, threats were likely to be recognized and avoidance skills developed to guarantee reproductive success. TST consider nightmares to reflect the threat-simulation system fully activated (Revonsuo, 2000a). Supported by a robust body of evidence TST is concluded to be the most plausible theory at the moment to account as a theoretical explanation of dreams and nightmares

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    Nightmare theories thesis
  • 50.
    Chatron, Nicolas
    et al.
    Genetics Department, Lyon University Hospital, France / Institut NeuroMyoGène CNRS UMR 5310 - INSERM U1217 Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Becker, Felicitas
    Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Germany / University of Tübingen, Department of Neurology and Epileptology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Germany.
    Morsy, Heba
    Human Genetics Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Schmidts, Miriam
    Genome Research Division, Human Genetics Department, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands / Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands / Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg University Faculty of Medicine, Germany.
    Hardies, Katia
    Neurogenetics Group, VIB-Center for Molecular Neurology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Tuysuz, Beyhan
    Department of Pediatric Genetics, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Medical Faculty, Turkey.
    Roselli, Sandra
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Najafi, Maryam
    Genome Research Division, Human Genetics Department, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands / Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Alkaya, Dilek Uludag
    Department of Pediatric Genetics, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Medical Faculty, Turkey.
    Ashrafzadeh, Farah
    Department of Paediatric Neurology, Ghaem Medical Centre, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Nabil, Amira
    Human Genetics Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Omar, Tarek
    Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Maroofian, Reza
    Genetics Research Centre, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Institute, St George’s, University of London, UK.
    Karimiani, Ehsan Ghayoor
    Genetics Research Centre, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Institute, St George’s, University of London, UK / Innovative medical research center, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.
    Hussien, Haytham
    Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Kok, Fernando
    Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Ramos, Luiza
    Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Gunes, Nilay
    Department of Pediatric Genetics, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Medical Faculty, Turkey.
    Bilguvar, Kaya
    Department of Genetics, Yale Center for Genome Analysis (YCGA), Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Labalme, Audrey
    Genetics Department, Lyon University Hospital, France.
    Alix, Eudeline
    Genetics Department, Lyon University Hospital, France.
    Sanlaville, Damien
    Institut NeuroMyoGène CNRS UMR 5310 - INSERM U1217 Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    de Bellescize, Julitta
    Department of Pediatric Clinical Epileptology, Sleep Disorders and Functional Neurology, ERN EpiCARE, University Hospitals of Lyon, France.
    Poulat, Anne-Lise
    Department of Pediatric Neurology, Lyon University Hospital, Lyon, France.
    Moslemi, Ali-Reza
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lerche, Holger
    University of Tübingen, Department of Neurology and Epileptology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Germany.
    May, Patrick
    Luxemburg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, Belvaux, Luxembourg.
    Lesca, Gaetan
    Genetics Department, Lyon University Hospital, France / Institut NeuroMyoGène CNRS UMR 5310 - INSERM U1217 Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Weckhuysen, Sarah
    Neurogenetics Group, VIB-Center for Molecular Neurology, University of Antwerp, Belgium / Department of Neurology, University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Bi-allelic GAD1 variants cause a neonatal onset syndromic developmental and epileptic encephalopathy2020Ingår i: Brain, ISSN 0006-8950, E-ISSN 1460-2156, Vol. 143, nr 5, s. 1447-1461Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of early-onset epilepsy syndromes dramatically impairing neurodevelopment. Modern genomic technologies have revealed a number of monogenic origins and opened the door to therapeutic hopes. Here we describe a new syndromic developmental and epileptic encephalopathy caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in GAD1, as presented by 11 patients from six independent consanguineous families. Seizure onset occurred in the first 2 months of life in all patients. All 10 patients, from whom early disease history was available, presented with seizure onset in the first month of life, mainly consisting of epileptic spasms or myoclonic seizures. Early EEG showed suppression-burst or pattern of burst attenuation or hypsarrhythmia if only recorded in the post-neonatal period. Eight patients had joint contractures and/or pes equinovarus. Seven patients presented a cleft palate and two also had an omphalocele, reproducing the phenotype of the knockout Gad1-/- mouse model. Four patients died before 4 years of age. GAD1 encodes the glutamate decarboxylase enzyme GAD67, a critical actor of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism as it catalyses the decarboxylation of glutamic acid to form GABA. Our findings evoke a novel syndrome related to GAD67 deficiency, characterized by the unique association of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, cleft palate, joint contractures and/or omphalocele. © The Author(s) (2020). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

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