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  • 1.
    Abas Hashmi, Zaynab
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Pettersson, Wilma
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Structural Brain Correlates of Psychopathy and Violent Crime2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a frequently reported personality trait among violent offenders, and psychopaths have a higher rate of recidivism than inmates without psychopathic features. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether structural brain differences, measured with magnetic resonance imaging, are observed in violent offenders with psychopathy compared to violent offenders without psychopathy or healthy non-violent controls. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search utilised the academic databases Web of Science and Medline EBSCO and included original peer-reviewed articles written in English and published between 2013 and 2023. Seven articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for the review. The findings indicated that there are structural differences between violent psychopaths compared to non-violent psychopaths and healthy controls, such as reduced grey matter volume in the prefrontal cortical areas, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and striatal and limbic regions. Further, the degree of structural brain differences in psychopaths correlated with the degree of psychopathic traits. The structural differences found in the brains of violent psychopaths can provide insight into the neurobiological basis and neural mechanisms of psychopathy and elucidate how changes in brain morphology relate to antisocial behaviour and psychopathic personality traits. In addition, the evidence of structural abnormalities in the brain of psychopaths may help develop targeted treatments that could reduce the risk of psychopathic individuals turning to crime and violence or committing repeated violent crimes. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neuroplasticity induced by exercise2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As opposed to earlier beliefs, the brain is altering itself throughout an individual’s life. The process of functional or structural alterations is referred to as plasticity, and can be induced by several factors such as experience or physical exercise. In this thesis, the research area of experience-dependent plasticity, with focus on exercise-induced plasticity is examined critically. Evidence from a vast array of studies are reviewed and compared in order to find whether physical exercise can induce neural plasticity in the human brain, how it may be beneficial, and what some of the plausible mediators of exercise-induced plasticity are. The findings demonstrated in this thesis suggest that although there are knowledge gaps and limitations in the literature, physical exercise can indeed result in exhibited plasticity as well as being beneficial for the human brain in several ways.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Abusabeib, Alyaa
    et al.
    Department of Bariatric Surgery/Bariatric Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    El Ansari, Walid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Alobaidan, Jassim
    Department of Bariatric Surgery/Bariatric Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Elhag, Wahiba
    Department of Bariatric Surgery/Bariatric Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    First Case Report of Fulminant Hepatitis After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Associated with Concomitant Maximal Therapeutic Dose of Acetaminophen Use, Protein Calorie Malnutrition, and Vitamins A and D, Selenium, and Glutathione Deficiencies2021Inngår i: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 899-903Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly being linked to obesity. Although laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is effective for weight loss that can ultimately resolve NAFLD, an initial transient deterioration of liver functions could be observed during the first few months post-operatively, after which a subsequent improvement of the liver functions might occur. Rapid weight loss, nutritional deficiencies, and protein malnutrition can all contribute to hepatic dysfunction and can affect the metabolism of medications such as acetaminophen leading to more insult to a compromised liver. We report acute liver failure after LSG associated with protein calorie malnutrition, multiple nutritional deficiencies in addition to concomitant use of therapeutic doses of acetaminophen. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine, and replacement of deficient multivitamins and trace elements resulted in significant improvement in liver functions. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 4.
    Adamovic, Tatjana
    et al.
    Med Coll Wisconsin, Human & Mol Genet Ctr, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA.
    Hamta, Achmad
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roshani, Leyla
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lü, Xuschun
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Röhme, Dan
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Helou, Khalil
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Oncol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Levan, Göran
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rearrangement and allelic imbalance on chromosome 5 leads to homozygous deletions in the CDKN2A/2B tumor suppressor gene region in rat endometrial cancer2008Inngår i: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, ISSN 0165-4608, E-ISSN 1873-4456, Vol. 184, nr 1, s. 9-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The inbred BDII rat is a valuable experimental model for the genetic analysis of hormone-dependent endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC). One common aberration detected previously by comparative genomic hybridization in rat EAC is loss affecting mostly the middle part of rat chromosome 5 (RNO5). First, we applied an RNO5-specific painting probe and four region-specific gene probes onto tumor cell metaphases from 21 EACs, and found that rearrangements involving RNO5 were common. The copy numbers of loci situated on RNO5 were found to be reduced, particularly for the CDKN2A/2B locus. Second, polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed with 22 genes and markers and homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A exon 1β and CDKN2B genes were detected in 13 EACs (62%) and of CDKN2A exon 1α in 12 EACs (57%) Third, the occurrence of allelic imbalance in RNO5 was analyzed using 39 microsatellite markers covering the entire chromosome and frequent loss of heterozygosity was detected. Even more intriguing was the repeated finding of allele switching in a narrow region of 7 Mb across the CDKN2A/2B locus. We conclude that genetic events affecting the middle part of RNO5 (including bands 5q31q33 and the CDKN2A locus) contribute to the development of EAC in rat, with the CDKN2A locus having a primary role.

  • 5.
    Adawi, Rahim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Preventing fatal effects of overworking: Product design solution2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    “Overworking to death” is a phenomenon that has been noticeable in developing countries. The cause of death is mainly through ischemic strokes. While the victims’ occupations differed, they all shared a common characteristic, being positioned in a sedentary work, ranging from IT workers to doctors. This project’s aim was to develop a product that prevented or decreased the strokes that derived from sedentary overwork. This was mainly tackled by preventing one of the three causes of developing blood props, slowed blood flow. In order to gather rich data of the phenomenon, a qualitative study was conducted in China, during two months. By doing an extensive structured sampling, information rich data could be gathered during a short period of time. Data were derived from observations, questionnaires and an interview, which then was interpreted to customer needs and the final product specification. The final product became a trouser with an in built dynamic compression mechanic, that can compress the veins mostly during sitting activities, in order to prevent blood stasis. The compression mechanic works like the Chinese finger trap; compressing the calves while sitting and stretching the legs forward. It is made only out of polysaccharides fibres; cotton and corn.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    PREVENTING FATAL EFFECTS OF OVERWORKING – PRODUCT DESIGN SOLUTION / Rahim_Adawi
  • 6.
    Agelii, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    TREATING HORROR WITH ECSTASY: Neurobiological Rationale for Treating Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder with 3,4- methylenedioxymethylamphetamine2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that afflicts 1-10% of the general population, with twice as high lifetime prevalence for women than men. Treatments exist, but none have proven reliable and consistent efficacy. A large minority of patients remain treatment-resistant despite undergoing several different types of treatment over extended periods of time. Recently completed studies in the U.S. and in Switzerland have demonstrated the potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for treatment-resistant PTSD. One of the major problems of treating PTSD is the patients’ fear state and inability to form a therapeutic alliance. Both these issues can be facilitated through administration of MDMA; the psychological effects - such as heightened empathy, increased openness and diminished anxiety – seem well-suited for therapeutic purposes. The rationale behind treating PTSD with MDMA has been indicated in neuroimaging studies; MDMA affects some of the neural structures altered in patients with PTSD, most notably the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Using the Schedule 1 substance MDMA for this purpose is however controversial; animal studies have indicated that MDMA is neurotoxic, although no adverse effects on humans related to incidental use of MDMA in a controlled setting have been found. In conclusion, the data support that MDMA may be an efficient tool for treating PTSD, as well as safe and effective to use in a clinical context.

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  • 7.
    Agnvall, Anne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Unessi, Reza
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Emotional Intelligence: A Systematic Review2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional intelligence (EI) lies at the intersection of emotion and cognition and is seen as beneficial to our relationships and well-being. Yet, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the neural correlates of EI. There are three prevailing models defining the psychological construct of EI, the trait model, the ability model, and the mixed model. According to the ability model, EI consists of two facets - experiential and strategic EI. Experiential EI refers to abilities of perceiving and using emotions to facilitate thoughts, whereas strategic EI refers to abilities of understanding and managing emotions. This systematic review aims to investigate whether, and to what extent, the neural correlates of experiential and strategic EI rely on similar or different neural substrates. Five peer-reviewed studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. All the studies used Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test to measure EI. The brain imaging techniques used included structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. The findings of the review suggest that experiential and strategic EI rely partly on distinct and partly on common neural circuitry. Neural correlates associated primarily with strategic EI were gray matter volumes of ventromedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior and posterior insula. Both strategic and experiential EI were found to correlate with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex gray matter activation, and the effective connectivity of the anterior prefrontal cortex. Further research and development of measurement methodology are needed to deepen the understanding of strategic and experiential EI and their neural correlates.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Ahlström, Therese
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Contribution of Sleep for Declarative Memory Consolidation2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon far from fully known, but one important function is to improve memory. Sleep allows the brain to work with memory processes. Sleep consist of different sleep stages divided into two big parts: rapid-eye-movement sleep and non-rapid-eye movement sleep. Memory is an important cognitive function that can be divided into declarative and non-declarative memory. The aim of this thesis will be to investigate the relationship between sleep and declarative memory consolidation. There is compelling evidence that links sleep with better memory consolidation. Consolidation is an active process where the newly encoded information is being transferred to long-term memory, which is stored throughout the neocortex. Hippocampus serves as a temporal memory storage for new memories and is active in transferring to neocortex during sleep. Reactivation and reorganization of encoded information seem to play an essential role in successful consolidation. Memories become more resilient to interference after a reactivation. Different memory systems are supported by different sleep stages, for example, hippocampus-dependent memory is benefitted mostly by slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep for memory not dependent on the hippocampus. Sleep stages are producing different brain-waves patterns with several neurotransmitters that help memories to transfer to long-term memory. Slow oscillations in neocortex are dominant in slow-wave sleep and are beneficial for consolidation. Declarative memory retrieval is enhanced by a period of sleep compared to wakefulness, and this effect is not limited to the day after learning but lasts longer. Intense learning increases sleep spindles, which also is important for consolidation. Not enough sleep disturb memory processes.

  • 9.
    Ahluwalia, Bani
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Calmino Group AB, Sahlgrenska Science Park, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Maria K.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Stefan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öhman, Lena
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of Aloe barbadensis Mill. extract (AVH200®) on human blood T cell activity in vitro2016Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 179, s. 301-309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Aloe vera) is a widely used medicinal plant well reputed for its diverse therapeutic applications. It has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine to treat various conditions and the Aloe vera gel has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, the mode of action is still unclear.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was determine the effects of two well-defined A. barbadensis Mill. extracts AVH200® and AVE200 on human blood T cells in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were stimulated polyclonally in the presence or absence of AVH200® and AVE200. The T cell phenotype was investigated by flow cytometry, cell proliferation was determined by CFSE dye and thymidine assay, respectively and cytokine secretion was determined by MSD® Multi-Spot Assay system and ELISA.

    RESULTS: The presence of AVH200® resulted in a reduced expression of CD25 among CD3(+) T cells and suppression of T cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, AVH200® reduced the expression of CD28 on CD3(+) T cells. AVH200® also reduced the secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A in PBMC cultures. The AVH200® dose dependent reduction in T cell activation and proliferation recorded in the cell cultures was not due to apoptosis or cell death. Additionally, AVH200® was found to be more effective as compared to AVE200 in reducing T cell activation and proliferation.

    CONCLUSION: AVH200® has the potential to reduce the activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion of healthy human blood T cells. Our study suggests that AVH200® has a suppressive effect on human blood T cells in vitro.

  • 10.
    Albutihe, Ismael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Sense of Agency and Automation: A Systematic Review2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advancements have resulted in highly automated systems that are featured in many kinds of tools and devices, such as self-driving cars, autopilot in airplanes, and much more. Such systems have enabled tools to plan, decide, and act autonomously. This breakthrough resulted in a new manner of interacting with tools, known as "Human-Robot Joint Action" or "human-AI interaction," in which people and automated tools share control over the tasks that must be performed. However, little is known about the impact of such interactions on people and their sense of agency (SoA) as well as how much autonomy to grant to tools. As a result, the objective of this systematic review is to investigate and understand how automated tools affect human SoA, and if tools with different levels of automation affect our SoA differently. A search in two databases, Scopus, and MEDLINE EBSCO was conducted, and 8 articles were included. The findings suggest that the more automated the tool is, the less SoA participants experience, and that varied levels of automation may impact human SoA depending on the nature of the task. However, this topic is still in its infancy and more research is needed. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Alhardallo, Mutaz
    et al.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    El Ansari, Walid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar ; College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Baco, Abdul M.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Second ever reported case of central cause of unilateral foot drop due to cervical disc herniation: Case report and review of literature2021Inngår i: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports, E-ISSN 2210-2612, Vol. 83, artikkel-id 105928Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Foot drop is defined as a weakness in the ankle and foot dorsiflexors. A disruption of the neural pathway starting from the motor prefrontal cortex and ending in the peroneal nerve can lead to foot drop. Foot drop due to lower motor neuron injury is well documented. However, foot drop due to a central cause of cervical disc prolapse is very rare. Case presentation: A 55-year-old male presenting with neck pain, right and left arms radicular pain and numbness, and unilateral right foot drop following cervical disc prolapse. The patient presented with upper motor neuron lesion signs. MRI showed cervical disc prolapse at two levels, confirming central cause of foot drop. The patient underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery. Discussion: Following decompression and fusion of involved cervical spine disc pathology, the patient had complete recovery of his right foot drop. Conclusions: Central causes, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot drop. Causes could be due to the compression effect of the cortico-spinal tract of the cervical spinal cord. Satisfactory results can be achieved upon correcting the causative lesion. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Alvarez Svahn, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The hippocampal dependence of long-term declarative memory2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations into the neural correlates of memory have found the hippocampus to be a crucial structure for long-term declarative memories, but the exact nature of this contribution remains under debate. This paper covers three theories concerned with how the hippocampus is involved in long-term memory, namely the Standard Consolidation Model, the Multiple-Trace Theory, and the Distributed Reinstatement Theory. According to the Standard Consolidation Model, long-term declarative memories (both episodic and semantic) are dependent on the hippocampus for a limited time during which the memories undergo a process of consolidation, after which they become dependent on the neocortex. In contrast, the Multiple-Trace Theory argues that detailed and context-specific episodic (but not semantic) memories remain dependent on the hippocampus indefinitely. While both the aforementioned theories posit that memories are initially dependent on the hippocampus, the Distributed Reinstatement Theory does not. Advocates of this theory propose that several memory systems compete for the encoding of a memory, and that the hippocampus usually is the dominant system. However, it is also suggested that the other (unspecified) memory systems can overcome the hippocampal dominance through extensive and distributed learning sessions. In this paper, findings from both human and rodent studies focusing on the hippocampus are reviewed and used to evaluate the claims made by each theory on a systems level.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 13.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Liiver, Gladi
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The effects of mindfulness on emotion regulation during adolescence: A systematic review2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Emotion Regulation refers to the process of controlling our emotions. However, the brain regions which are involved in emotional processes, such as the prefrontal cortices, are the last regions to be developed throughout the human brain. Those who are most affected by this slow development are adolescents especially since they undergo hormonal and neural changes. Previous research has shown mindfulness meditation improves emotional stability and inhibitory control. Since our brain is not fully developed until the age of 25, it is particularly interesting to get knowledge of the effect of mindfulness on emotion regulation in adolescents, which is the aim of this thesis. A total of three studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. The results showed a larger reaction in the amplitude of P2, N2, and late positive potentials on both negative and positive stimuli but not neutral stimuli. Differences were observed in the high vs low mindfulness adolescents in frontal EEG asymmetry during emotion regulation tasks. These findings suggest that even brief mindfulness can have a positive effect on emotion regulation processes by enhancing prefrontal cortices. These findings contribute to the understanding of whether mindfulness affects emotional regulation in a developing brain. However, future research is needed to clarify the effects of mindfulness on emotion regulation in adolescents.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Pesonen, John
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av omvårdnaden av närstående i särskilt boende i Västra Götaland år 20102010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: När en äldre människa har ett stort omvårdnadsbehov finns möjligheten att flytta till ett särskilt boende. Då äldres vardag ser olika ut är det av yttersta vikt att omvårdnadspersonalen kan ge stöd och hjälp så att den äldre skall kunna anpassa sig till den nya situationen. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att belysa hur anhöriga upplever att deras närstående i särskilt boende får en god omvårdnad. Metod: En kvalitativ ansats med empiriskt inslag användes där anhörigas upplevelser av omvårdnad, delaktighet och bemötande insamlades med hjälp av intervjuer. Resultat: Tre olika kategorier Omvårdnad, Delaktighet och Bemötande med nio underkategorier. En betydelsefull del i omvårdnaden är att det skapas en god kontakt mellan anhöriga och omvårdnadspersonalen för att finna ett bra sätt att kommunicera på. Det framkom hur viktigt det är att som vårdtagare känna att de blir sedda för den de är och att de får vara delaktiga i de omvårdnadsåtgärder som beslutas av omvårdnadspersonalen. Diskussion: Resultatet kan bidra till en ökad förståelse för anhörigas upplevelser av hur omvårdnaden bedrivs i särskilt boende. När anhöriga göras mer delaktiga i omvårdnaden, kan det leda till en bättre omvårdnad för vårdtagaren i särskilt boende. Slutsats: Resultatet som författarna kom fram till skulle kunna användas i utbildningssyfte då omsorgen av äldre människor kräver att omvårdnadspersonalen ständigt förnyar sina kunskaper. Detta kan vara till gagn för sjuksköterskan, de anhöriga och de äldre som bor i särskilt boende.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 15.
    Andersson, Isak
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Brain activity during flow: A systematic review2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The flow state is a subjective experience that most people can relate to. It represents an optimal balance between skills and difficulty and is the state that people often refer to when performing their best, with phrases like: “I was in the zone” or “I was in the bubble”. The flow state has mainly been studied through its psychological and behavioral components; it is not until lately the neuroscientific aspects have been investigated. This review attempts to go through the existing literature and find potential neural signatures of the flow state. The studies indicate that flow is related to activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and putamen, but the findings are too divided to reach a conclusion. 

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  • 16.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group (SSORG), Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden ; Department of Surgery, Alingsås Hospital, Alingsås, Sweden.
    Angenete, Eva
    Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group (SSORG), Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group (SSORG), Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Angerås, Ulf
    Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group (SSORG), Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jess, Peter
    Roskilde Hospital, Roskilde,, Denmark.
    Rosenberg, Jacob
    Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Fürst, A.
    Department of Surgery, Caritas Clinic St Josef, Regensburg, Germany.
    Bonjer, J.
    VUmc University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Haglind, Eva
    Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group (SSORG), Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Health-related quality of life after laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer in a randomized trial2013Inngår i: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 100, nr 7, s. 941-949Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies comparing laparoscopic and open surgical techniques have reported improved health-related quality of life (HRQL). This analysis compared HRQL 12 months after laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer in a subset of a randomized trial.

    Methods: The setting was a multicentre randomized trial (COLOR II) comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer. Involvement in the HRQL study of COLOR II was optional. Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38, and EuroQol – 5D (EQ-5D™) before surgery, and 4 weeks, 6, 12 and 24 months after operation. Analysis was done according to the manual for each instrument.

    Results: Of 617 patients in hospitals participating in the HRQL study of COLOR II, 385 were included. The HRQL deteriorated to moderate/severe degrees after surgery, gradually returning to preoperative values over time. Changes in EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38, and EQ-5D™ were not significantly different between the groups regarding global health score or any of the dimensions or symptoms at 4 weeks, 6 or 12 months after surgery.

    Conclusion: In contrast to previous studies in patients with colonic cancer, HRQL after rectal cancer surgery was not affected by surgical approach.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Is there a Connection Between the Gut-Microbiota and Major Depression?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is rapidly growing and one of the most common causes of disability and mortality worldwide. People with MDD often display brain changes such as adisrupted balance in neurotransmitters, impaired neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Traditionally has MDD been treated with medications and talking therapies (psychotherapy). Studies have shown that just around 50 % of people with MDD get improvements from common traditional treatments.Therefore is there a great need for a better understanding of MDD and new treatments. There is now an emerging field of research that indicates that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in disturbing normal brain functioning in MDD. This connection between the gut and the brain is called the gutbrain axis.The thesis aims to investigate if there is a connection between gut microbiota disruption and MDD and if gut microbiota restoration can be a potential effective future treatment for MDD. Key findings of the thesis were, studies show that people with MDD often display gut microbiota disruption and chronic low grade inflammation. Studies also indicate that this inflammation can cause the specific brain change often displayed in people with MDD. One of the most critical findings in the thesis was that gut brain treatments affect tryptophan metabolism, which affects the risk of MDD. The research area of the gut brain axis is still new and many more studies are needed,particularly in humans.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Andersson, Louise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Psychedelic agents: Changes induced in subjective experience and brain activity2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis combines phenomenological and neuroscientific research to elucidate the effects of psychedelic agents on the human brain, mind and psychological well-being. Psychoactive plants have been used for thousands of years for ceremonial and ritual purposes. Psychedelics are psychoactive substances that affect cognitive processes and alter perception, thoughts, and mood. Illegalization of psychedelics in the 1960s rendered them impossible to study empirically but in the last couple of decades, relaxed legal restrictions regarding research purposes, renewed interest in the effects of psychedelic drugs and new brain imaging techniques have started to reveal the possibilities of these mind-altering substances. Psychedelics mainly affect the serotonin receptor 5-HT2A which in turn affect the functioning of largescale cortical areas by changing cerebral blood flow, alpha oscillations, and functional connectivity. These cortical changes not only induce immediate alterations in perception and cognition but have been shown to have positive effects in therapeutic interventions for depression, anxiety, and addiction, and also positively affect well-being in general. Although the pharmacology and neurobiology of psychedelics are still poorly understood, the potential benefits justify empirical research on psychedelics in humans.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Psychedelic agents
  • 19.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Sleep and Its Effects on Synaptic Strength2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Sleep_and_synaptic_strength
  • 20.
    Andersson Szabo, Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    A Biological And Psychological Profile of Eudaimonia as High Psychological Well-Being2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aristotle (4th century B.C.E/1925) described eudaimonia as “the good life”, and is today commonly understood as eudaimonic well-being (EWB) within research. Despite the long history, the definitions and operationalizations of EWB are diverse and no coherent description or explanation for the biology of EWB exist. Hence, the present thesis reviews current neuroscientific- and additional biological research on EWB. This review reveals EWB to be most frequently operationalized as psychological well-being (PWB) (Ryff, 2014), and is here used as basis for an attempt to explain the biological and psychological profiles of EWB as high PWB. High PWB was characterized by brain activity linked to the reward circuitry, dorsolateral and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and grey matter (GM) volume in areas of the brainstem and insular cortex. High PWB was also positively related to lower levels of several harmful biomarkers. The proposed psychological profile of high PWB included the psychological functions goal directed behaviour and emotional control. It is hoped that the proposed profiles will serve as inspiration for further exploration of the biology and psychology of human well-being (WB).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    A Biological And Psychological Profile of Eudaimonia as High Psychological Well-Being
  • 21.
    Andersérs, Caroline
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Effect that Exercise has on Cognitive Functions: A Review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    My aim for this literature review is to present and discuss a possible relationship between physical exercise and different kinds of cognitive functions. With the increasing interest on the topic, more studies have been conducted and the results from the studies have been a little ambiguous. The most part of the studies has been showing that exercise has a positive effect on cognitive functions. The evidence from the studies also says that exercise can help the brain to regulate the production of new neurons and to increase brain volume in the prefrontal and temporal areas. That can be very beneficial for elderly people with dementia, Alzheimer's disease or other cognitive declines. Evidence of exercise combined with the right nutrition can enhance cognitive performance even more but to establish this more research is needed.  

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Anell, Jesper
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Rubber hand illusion and affective touch: A systematic review2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The feeling of owning a body part is often investigated by conducting and manipulating the rubber hand illusion, a three-way integration of vision, touch, and proprioception. In the last decade, more research on the role of interoception, the sense of the body's’ internal state, in the illusion has been made. One of the studied factors has been the affective touch, a caress-like, gentle, touch that is performed at a slow specific speed (1-10 cm/sec). Affective touch activates the C tactile afferents which send interoceptive signals to the brain, specifically the insula. The present systematic review investigated the role affective touch has on the strength of the rubber hand illusion. A range of electronic databases was searched for papers reporting research findings published in English before March 20, 2020. Twelve different articles were identified, but only five papers met the inclusion criteria. This thesis looked at the results from these five different studies and compared the effect of affective touch and discriminative, regular, touch have on the rubber hand illusion to see whether there is a significant difference. The results could not show a main effect of stroking velocity, site of stimulation, or social touch, which are components of affective touch. The results was based on four different measurements, the subjective experience of the illusion, pleasantness ratings, proprioceptive drift, and temperature difference in the skin. Opposed what was hypothesized, it could not be demonstrated that affective touch would induce a stronger rubber hand illusion than discriminative touch.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Annerud Awrohum, Elin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Default Mode Network’s Role in Perceived Social Isolation and Social Connection: A Systematic Review2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Feelings of social connection are important to maintain physical and psychological well-being. Perceived social isolation, or loneliness, is the subjective experience of feeling socially isolated and may be a direct threat to our health. During recent years, an increasing amount of people report high levels of loneliness, potentially brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions. Recent research suggests that the brain’s default mode network (DMN), a neural network active at wakeful rest, is related to these experiences. This paper aimed to systematically review alterations in the DMN in socially connected and lonely individuals. I searched PubMed and Scopus to find studies using self-report measures of social connection or loneliness, and functional or structural neuroimaging methods on healthy adults. Nine studies were included in this review. Generally, core regions of the DMN typically involved in episodic memory and self-referential processing showed increased activity in lonely individuals and decreased activity in socially connected individuals. These findings may reflect how lonely individuals ruminate about past social events while socially connected individuals attend less to the self. However, methodological heterogeneity between studieslimits the conclusions that can be drawn based on these results.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Annerud Awrohum, Shabo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Psychedelic oscillations: A systematic review of the electrophysiological correlates of classic psychedelics2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently there has been a revitalization in research on classic psychedelic substances. This class of drugs has been found to produce intense and profoundly meaningful experiences, and offers a unique opportunity to study the neural correlates of the sense of self. The objective of this research was to systematically review the effects of classic psychedelics on spontaneous brain activity, as measured on three electrophysiological modalities: spectral analysis, signal diversity, and functional connectivity. Method: We searched Pubmed to identify papers in English, published between January 1990 to May 2021, where electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate the effects of classic psychedelics in healthy individuals during non-task resting states. Results: Sixteen papers were included. Classic psychedelic substances generally decrease spectral power in most frequency bands, mainly in the alpha range, increase signal diversity, and decrease the flow of information throughout the brain. Conclusion: Decreases in alpha power, increased signal diversity, and decreases in default mode network activity might be important neural correlates of the psychedelic state. However, inconsistencies in the results and heterogeneity in study design are some of the limitations that have to be considered when interpreting these results.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C.
    et al.
    Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands / Radboud Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Neurology, The State University of New York Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, USA.
    Leijsen, Esther M. C.
    Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    de Leeuw, Frank-Erik
    Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Kiliaan, Amanda J.
    Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands / Radboud Alzheimer Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Adiposity is related to cerebrovascular and brain volumetry outcomes in the RUN DMC study2019Inngår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 93, nr 9, s. e864-e878Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Adiposity predictors, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood leptin and total adiponectin levels were associated with components of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and brain volumetry in 503 adults with CSVD who were ≥50 years of age and enrolled in the Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cohort (RUN DMC).

    METHODS: RUN DMC participants were followed up for 9 years (2006-2015). BMI, WC, brain imaging, and dementia diagnoses were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Adipokines were measured at baseline. Brain imaging outcomes included CSVD components, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, gray and white matter, hippocampal, total brain, and intracranial volumes.

    RESULTS: Cross-sectionally among men at baseline, higher BMI, WC, and leptin were associated with lower gray matter and total brain volumes, and higher BMI and WC were associated with lower hippocampal volume. At follow-up 9 years later, higher BMI was cross-sectionally associated with lower gray matter volume, and an obese WC (>102 cm) was protective for ≥1 lacune or ≥1 microbleed in men. In women, increasing BMI and overweight or obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or WC >88 cm) were associated with ≥1 lacune. Longitudinally, over 9 years, a baseline obese WC was associated with decreasing hippocampal volume, particularly in men, and increasing white matter hyperintensity volume in women and men.

    CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric and metabolic adiposity predictors were differentially associated with CSVD components and brain volumetry outcomes by sex. Higher adiposity is associated with a vascular-neurodegenerative spectrum among adults at risk for vascular forms of cognitive impairment and dementias.

  • 26.
    Arntz, Joakim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Ownership in passive and active movements: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the moving rubber hand illusion2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The rubber hand illusion is an experimental paradigm that induces the illusion of ownership over a fake hand. The illusion was originally induced using visuotactile stimulation but can also be induced using movements. Self-produced movements are active movements, and if they are produced by external force, they are passive movements. According to the comparator model, only active movements produce a sense of agency. As both passive and active movements can be used to induce the sense of ownership in the rubber hand illusion, but only active induce a sense of agency, they can be compared to determine the effect agency has on bodily ownership. This meta-analysis included nine studies with a total of 359 participants that compared the induced sense of ownership using active and passive movements in the rubber hand illusion to determine these effects. The results show that agency has a small but significant effect on body ownership.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Aronsson, Christopher
    et al.
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jury, Michael
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Naeimipour, Sajjad
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Boroojeni, Fatemeh Rasti
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Christoffersson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Division of Biotechnology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lifwergren, Philip
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Division of Biotechnology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Selegård, Robert
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Aili, Daniel
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dynamic peptide-folding mediated biofunctionalization and modulation of hydrogels for 4D bioprinting2020Inngår i: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikkel-id 035031Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogels are used in a wide range of biomedical applications, including three-dimensional (3D) cell culture, cell therapy and bioprinting. To enable processing using advanced additive fabrication techniques and to mimic the dynamic nature of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the properties of the hydrogels must be possible to tailor and change over time with high precision. The design of hydrogels that are both structurally and functionally dynamic, while providing necessary mechanical support is challenging using conventional synthesis techniques. Here, we show a modular and 3D printable hydrogel system that combines a robust but tunable covalent bioorthogonal cross-linking strategy with specific peptide-folding mediated interactions for dynamic modulation of cross-linking and functionalization. The hyaluronan-based hydrogels were covalently cross-linked by strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition using multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol). In addition, a de novo designed helix-loop-helix peptide was conjugated to the hyaluronan backbone to enable specific peptide-folding modulation of cross-linking density and kinetics, and hydrogel functionality. An array of complementary peptides with different functionalities was developed and used as a toolbox for supramolecular tuning of cell-hydrogel interactions and for controlling enzyme-mediated biomineralization processes. The modular peptide system enabled dynamic modifications of the properties of 3D printed structures, demonstrating a novel route for design of more sophisticated bioinks for four-dimensional bioprinting. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Aronsson, Emelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Kan tacksamhet främja moraliskt beteende?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har undersökt om tacksamhet kan påverka vårt moraliska beteende, genom att se över studier som gjorts inom psykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mestadels på hur det kognitiva resonerandet påverkar ens moral. På senare tid har forskningen allt mer betonat specifika emotioners avgörande roll för om man agerar efter moraliska normer eller inte. Dessa emotioner benämns som moraliska emotioner. En av dessa moraliska emotioner är tacksamhet. Tacksamhet har i studier visats fungera som en moralisk barometer, stärka välgörares fortsatta moraliska beteende samt fungera som ett moraliskt motiv. Den neurala grunden för tacksamhet är ännu relativt outforskad. Emotioners generella påverkan på moraliskt beteende samt positiva emotioners tendenser till agerande (eng: action tendencies) kan dock ses som ett steg till ökad förståelse om hur tacksamheten påverkar vårt moraliska beteende.

  • 29.
    Arvidsson, Andrea
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Meditation, attention and the brain: function, structure and attentional performance2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Meditation has been practiced around the world for thousands of years and has during the past decade become increasingly popular in the Western world. Meditation can be seen as a form of mental exercise and refers to a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory practices that involves different attentional, cognitive monitoring and awareness processes. Clinical research on meditation has demonstrated that meditation seem to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Recent interest in how meditation affect the human brain and body have lead to an increase in research regarding the neural correlates of meditation, structural changes induced by meditation, and the potential attentional and emotional benefits mediated by meditation. This thesis investigates expert related changes in neural activity, brain structure, and attentional performance induced by focused attention meditation (FAM) and open monitoring meditation (OMM). The research on meditation and the brain is still in its infancy but despite this, there seem to be some converging evidence of meditation’s impact on the human brain and mind. The results from the included studies in this thesis indicates that expert meditators show greater activation in some meditation related brain areas, as well as less activation in other areas when compared to novice meditators. The results also suggest that long-term meditation practice induce some structural changes in the brain and that meditation seem to enhance the practitioners’ attentional control. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    MEDITATION, ATTENTION AND THE BRAIN: FUNCTION, STRUCTURE AND ATTENTIONAL PERFORMANCE
  • 30.
    Arvidsson, Tobias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Indirect subjective measurements of applied reappraisal and distraction: An online study2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The struggle to regulate one's emotions can sometimes be difficult. Two emotion regulation strategies are to reappraise an emotional stimulus or to distract oneself from the stimulus. While there have been many investigations of both strategies, previous research suffers from methodological problems. Reappraisal conditions might be confounded by non-reappraisal-related cognitive processes, resulting in effects of distraction rather than reappraisal. In the current exploratory within-subjects study, participants completed an online survey where the conditions were held as equal as possible to avoid any differences in non-task-related cognitive processes. I measured variables that have been associated with an electrophysiological response correlated to the intensity level of emotions: the late positive potential. First, participants watched emotionally negative film clips in a reappraisal, distraction, and control condition, followed by ratings of experienced feeling. Second, participants rated the threat level of angry and neutral faces. It was hypothesized that applying ER during emotion induction compared to no ER should result in more positive ratings of experienced feeling after induction and lower threat-ratings of angry faces due to a more positive emotional state. The results showed no significant differences between conditions, most likely due to either methodological limitations or an actual lack of emotion regulation effects. I discuss future directions and improvements of the method.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Arvidsson, Tobias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Emotion Regulation: Differences Between Adolescents and Adults2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The time of adolescence is marked by enhanced emotional experiences and difficulties with regulating one’s emotions. One way to improve the adolescent’s ability to regulate their emotions is to let them practice mindfulness meditation. The motivational drive behind this thesis is the question of what forms of mindfulness meditation are needed to give the highest increase in their emotion regulation-abilities. One problem is that while there exist neural studies on mindfulness meditation for adults, the research field of adolescent meditation lacks them. Because neural studies are needed to adequately answer this question, and the lack of brain imaging tools for this thesis, the focus here was to conduct some groundwork for this discussion. The first aim was to investigate the neural effects of mindfulness meditation on emotion regulation in adults and the second aim was to investigate to what extent we can generalize these neural effects to adolescents. To be able to theoretical discuss the second aim, neural and psychological studies on mindfulness meditation and emotion regulation were used as a base. The studies were grouped into five sub-categories based on age group and research field and then discussed with the help of developmental studies. Adult meditators had stronger functionality in regulatory brain regions than non-meditators during meditation and during the perception of negative stimuli. The discussion about the generalization of the adult neural patterns to adolescents showed that the findings were too diverse to come to any useful conclusions. Empirical and conceptual improvements, along with neural meditation studies on adolescents, are needed to improve the research field in both age groups.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Asp, Julia
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jonsson, Marianne
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dellgren, Goran
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden ; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Anders
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden ; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Comparison of human cardiac gene expression profiles in paired samples of right atrium and left ventricle collected in vivo2012Inngår i: Physiological Genomics, ISSN 1094-8341, E-ISSN 1531-2267, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 89-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of expressed genes in human heart provide insight into both physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. This is of importance for extended understanding of cardiac function as well as development of new therapeutic drugs. Heart tissue for gene expression studies is generally hard to obtain, particularly from the ventricles. Since different parts of the heart have different functions, expression profiles should likely differ between these parts. The aim of the study was therefore to compare the global gene expression in cardiac tissue from the more accessible auricula of the right atrium to expression in tissue from the left ventricle. Tissue samples were collected from five men undergoing aortic valve replacement or coronary artery bypass grafting. Global gene expression analysis identified 542 genes as differentially expressed between the samples extracted from these two locations, corresponding to similar to 2% of the genes covered by the microarray; 416 genes were identified as abundantly expressed in right atrium, and 126 genes were abundantly expressed in left ventricle. Further analysis of the differentially expressed genes according to available annotations, information from curated pathways and known protein interactions, showed that genes with higher expression in the ventricle were mainly associated with contractile work of the heart. Transcription in biopsies from the auricula of the right atrium on the other hand indicated a wider area of functions, including immunity and defense. In conclusion, our results suggest that biopsies from the auricula of the right atrium may be suitable for various genetic studies, but not studies directly related to muscle work.

  • 33.
    Asplund, Annika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pradip, Arvind
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    van Giezen, Mariska
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aspegren, Anders
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Choukair, Helena
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rehnström, Marie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghosheh, Nidal
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    El Hajjam, Dorra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Sandra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Benecke, Jörg
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Butron, Mariela
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wigander, Annelie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Noaksson, Karin
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. AstraZeneca R&D, GMD CVMD GMed, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / NovaHep AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Arvid Wallgrens Backe 20, 413 46, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    One Standardized Differentiation Procedure Robustly Generates Homogenous Hepatocyte Cultures Displaying Metabolic Diversity from a Large Panel of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells2016Inngår i: Stem Cell Reviews, ISSN 1550-8943, E-ISSN 1558-6804, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 90-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human hepatocytes display substantial functional inter-individual variation regarding drug metabolizing functions. In order to investigate if this diversity is mirrored in hepatocytes derived from different human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, we evaluated 25 hPSC lines originating from 24 different donors for hepatic differentiation and functionality. Homogenous hepatocyte cultures could be derived from all hPSC lines using onestandardized differentiation procedure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a standardized hepatic differentiation procedure that is generally applicable across a large panel of hPSC lines without any adaptations to individual lines. Importantly, with regard to functional aspects, such as Cytochrome P450 activities, we observed that hepatocytes derived from different hPSC lines displayed inter-individual variation characteristic for primary hepatocytes obtained from different donors, while these activities were highly reproducible between repeated experiments using the same line. Taken together, these data demonstrate the emerging possibility to compile panels of hPSC-derived hepatocytes of particular phenotypes/genotypes relevant for drug metabolism and toxicity studies. Moreover, these findings are of significance for applications within the regenerative medicine field, since our stringent differentiation procedure allows the derivation of homogenous hepatocyte cultures from multiple donors which is a prerequisite for the realization of future personalized stem cell based therapies.

  • 34.
    Asplund Fromholz, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Anspänning, oro och stress är tre begrepp som har studerats länge, vilket har gett upphov till flertalet modeller, teorier och domäner där dessa begrepp har studerats och fortfarande studeras. I denna uppsats så kommer dessa tre begrepp bland annat att redogöras för var för sig med koppling till mätmetoder, idrott och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva hur idrottsprestationer kan påverkas av anspänning, oro och stress för att utifrån det kunna redogöra för evidensbaserade metoder som kan appliceras för att främja en idrottsprestation. Först kommer anspänning att redogöras för, anspänning följs sedan av oro som i sin tur följs av stress som sista begrepp. Avslutningsvis så behandlas även problematik och möjligheter för dessa begrepp inom forskningsfältet och dess tillämpningsområden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker
  • 35.
    Axelsson, K. F.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wallander, M.
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, H.
    Institute for Health and Ageing, Catholic University of Australia, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
    Lundh, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Lorentzon, M.
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and ClinicalNutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hip fracture risk and safety with alendronate treatment in the oldest-old2017Inngår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 282, nr 6, s. 546-559Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is high evidence for secondary prevention of fractures, including hip fracture, with alendronate treatment, but alendronate's efficacy to prevent hip fractures in the oldest-old (80 years old), the population with the highest fracture risk, has not been studied. Objective. To investigate whether alendronate treatment amongst the oldest-old with prior fracture was related to decreased hip fracture rate and sustained safety. Methods. Using a national database of men and women undergoing a fall risk assessment at a Swedish healthcare facility, we identified 90 795 patients who were 80 years or older and had a prior fracture. Propensity score matching (four to one) was then used to identify 7844 controls to 1961 alendronate-treated patients. The risk of incident hip fracture was investigated with Cox models and the interaction between age and treatment was investigated using an interaction term. Results. The case and control groups were well balanced in regard to age, sex, anthropometrics and comorbidity. Alendronate treatment was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture in crude (hazard ratio (HR) 0.62 (0.49-0.79), P < 0.001) and multivariable models (HR 0.66 (0.51-0.86), P < 0.01). Alendronate was related to reduced mortality risk (HR 0.88 (0.82-0.95) but increased risk of mild upper gastrointestinal symptoms (UGI) (HR 1.58 (1.12-2.24). The alendronate association did not change with age for hip fractures or mild UGI. Conclusion. In old patients with prior fracture, alendronate treatment reduces the risk of hip fracture with sustained safety, indicating that this treatment should be considered in these high-risk patients.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Baar, Linn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Gray matter volume in medication-naïve individuals with ADHD: A systematic review of voxel-based morphometry MRI-studies2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting around 7% of the worldwide population in their everyday life. It has been suggested that individuals with ADHD differ in gray matter volume from typically developing controls. However, findings on in which brain areas these differences are located, as well as how gray matter volume is affected by stimulant medication, remain inconclusive. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to investigate any potential differences in gray matter volume in medication-naïve individuals with ADHD compared to controls, focusing on studies using voxel-based morphometry applied to MRI-imaging data A keyword search in the databases Web of Science, Scopus and Medline EBSCO resulted in 349 studies, of which seven met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The results included a total of 169 participants diagnosed with ADHD and 148 typically developing controls. Findings suggested decreased cerebellar gray matter volume, potential gender-wise volume differences in the anterior cingulate cortex, and a decrease in caudate gray matter volume, specifically in adults with ADHD. Some limitations include small sample sizes, possible effects of age on gray matter volume, and the overall heterogeneous nature of the disorder. The present review agrees that individuals with ADHD exhibit differences in gray matter volume, but also highlights the importance of expanding research on medication-naïve subjects, to be able to draw more robust scientific conclusions about the neural correlates of ADHD in the future.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Bachelet, Delphine
    et al.
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Albert, Thilo
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Germany.
    Mbogning, Cyprien
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Hässler, Signe
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Zhang, Yuan
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Schultze-Strasser, Stephan
    University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Department of Pediatrics, Molecular Haemostasis and Immunodeficiency, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Repessé, Yohann
    CHU Caen, Hématologie Biologique, Caen, Caen, France.
    Rayes, Julie
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
    Pavlova, Anna
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Pezeshkpoor, Behnaz
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Liphardt, Kerstin
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Davidson, Julie E.
    GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, Middlesex, United Kingdom.
    Hincelin-Méry, Agnès
    Sanofi, Chilly-Mazarin, France.
    Dönnes, Pierre
    SciCross AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
    Königs, Christoph
    University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Department of Pediatrics, Molecular Haemostasis and Immunodeficiency, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Oldenburg, Johannes
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Broët, Philippe
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France / AP-HP, Paris-Sud University Hospitals, Villejuif, France.
    Risk stratification integrating genetic data for factor VIII inhibitor development in patients with severe hemophilia A2019Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 6, artikkel-id e0218258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacement therapy in severe hemophilia A leads to factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors in 30% of patients. Factor VIII gene (F8) mutation type, a family history of inhibitors, ethnicity and intensity of treatment are established risk factors, and were included in two published prediction tools based on regression models. Recently investigated immune regulatory genes could also play a part in immunogenicity. Our objective is to identify bio-clinical and genetic markers for FVIII inhibitor development, taking into account potential genetic high order interactions. The study population consisted of 593 and 79 patients with hemophilia A from centers in Bonn and Frankfurt respectively. Data was collected in the European ABIRISK tranSMART database. A subset of 125 severely affected patients from Bonn with reliable information on first treatment was selected as eligible for risk stratification using a hybrid tree-based regression model (GPLTR). In the eligible subset, 58 (46%) patients developed FVIII inhibitors. Among them, 49 (84%) were "high risk" F8 mutation type. 19 (33%) had a family history of inhibitors. The GPLTR model, taking into account F8 mutation risk, family history of inhibitors and product type, distinguishes two groups of patients: a high-risk group for immunogenicity, including patients with positive HLA-DRB1*15 and genotype G/A and A/A for IL-10 rs1800896, and a low-risk group of patients with negative HLA-DRB1*15 / HLA-DQB1*02 and T/T or G/T for CD86 rs2681401. We show associations between genetic factors and the occurrence of FVIII inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A patients taking into account for high-order interactions using a generalized partially linear tree-based approach.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Backlund, Andreas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Stress Measured by Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a global health issue and effective stress management techniques are much needed. Mindfulness meditation in the form of mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective interventions for self-reported stress reduction. However, the effects of mindfulness meditation on the objective physiological markers of stress are less clear. Heart rate variability, the variation in time between each consecutive heartbeat has been shown to be such an objective physiological marker of stress. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate how mindfulness-based interventions affect heart rate variability to better understand the utility of mindfulness meditation as a stress management technique. A literature search was conducted on March 8th, 2022, with the databases Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE EBSCO to identify randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on heart rate variability. A total of 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 970 participants. The results from the systematic review were mixed and indicate inconsistencies across the literature. Thus, there are uncertainties on how mindfulness-based interventions affect heart rate variability. Although the systematic review was limited by a small sample of studies, it highlights that further research on how mindfulness-based interventions affect heart rate variability is needed to better understand the utility of mindfulness meditation as a stress management technique.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Badam, Tejaswi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Bioinformatics Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hellberg, Sandra
    Bioinformatics Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden ; Division of Inflammation and Infection, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mehta, Ratnesh B.
    Division of Inflammation and Infection, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lechner-Scott, Jeannette
    School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia ; Centre for Brain and Mental Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, Australia ; Department of Neurology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, Australia.
    Lea, Rodney A.
    School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia ; Centre for Brain and Mental Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, Australia ; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovations, Genomics Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia.
    Tost, Jorg
    Laboratory of Epigenetics and Environment, Centre National De Recherche En Génomique Humaine, CEA-Institut De Biologie Francois Jacob, Evry, France.
    Mariette, Xavier
    Université Paris-Saclay, AP-HP-Université Paris-Saclay, Hôpital Bicêtre, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (Inserm) U1184, Center for Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases, France.
    Svensson-Arvelund, Judit
    Division of Inflammation and Infection, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nestor, Colm E.
    The Centre for Individualized Medicine, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Benson, Mikael
    The Centre for Individualized Medicine, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berg, Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Division of Inflammation and Infection, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Mika
    Bioinformatics Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    CD4(+) T-cell DNA methylation changes during pregnancy significantly correlate with disease-associated methylation changes in autoimmune diseases2022Inngår i: Epigenetics, ISSN 1559-2294, E-ISSN 1559-2308, Vol. 17, nr 9, s. 1040-1055Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetics may play a central, yet unexplored, role in the profound changes that the maternal immune system undergoes during pregnancy and could be involved in the pregnancy-induced modulation of several autoimmune diseases. We investigated changes in the methylome in isolated circulating CD4(+) T-cells in non-pregnant and pregnant women, during the 1(st) and 2(nd) trimester, using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K array, and explored how these changes were related to autoimmune diseases that are known to be affected during pregnancy. Pregnancy was associated with several hundreds of methylation differences, particularly during the 2(nd) trimester. A network-based modular approach identified several genes, e.g., CD28, FYN, VAV1 and pathways related to T-cell signalling and activation, highlighting T-cell regulation as a central component of the observed methylation alterations. The identified pregnancy module was significantly enriched for disease-associated methylation changes related to multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. A negative correlation between pregnancy-associated methylation changes and disease-associated changes was found for multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, diseases that are known to improve during pregnancy whereas a positive correlation was found for systemic lupus erythematosus, a disease that instead worsens during pregnancy. Thus, the directionality of the observed changes is in line with the previously observed effect of pregnancy on disease activity. Our systems medicine approach supports the importance of the methylome in immune regulation of T-cells during pregnancy. Our findings highlight the relevance of using pregnancy as a model for understanding and identifying disease-related mechanisms involved in the modulation of autoimmune diseases.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Badam, Tejaswi V. S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping university, Sweden.
    de Weerd, Hendrik A.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping university, Sweden.
    Martínez-Enguita, David
    Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping university, Sweden.
    Olsson, Tomas
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden ; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kockum, Ingrid
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jagodic, Maja
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lubovac-Pilav, Zelmina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Gustafsson, Mika
    Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping university, Sweden.
    A validated generally applicable approach using the systematic assessment of disease modules by GWAS reveals a multi-omic module strongly associated with risk factors in multiple sclerosis2021Inngår i: BMC Genomics, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikkel-id 631Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There exist few, if any, practical guidelines for predictive and falsifiable multi-omic data integration that systematically integrate existing knowledge. Disease modules are popular concepts for interpreting genome-wide studies in medicine but have so far not been systematically evaluated and may lead to corroborating multi-omic modules. Result: We assessed eight module identification methods in 57 previously published expression and methylation studies of 19 diseases using GWAS enrichment analysis. Next, we applied the same strategy for multi-omic integration of 20 datasets of multiple sclerosis (MS), and further validated the resulting module using both GWAS and risk-factor-associated genes from several independent cohorts. Our benchmark of modules showed that in immune-associated diseases modules inferred from clique-based methods were the most enriched for GWAS genes. The multi-omic case study using MS data revealed the robust identification of a module of 220 genes. Strikingly, most genes of the module were differentially methylated upon the action of one or several environmental risk factors in MS (n = 217, P = 10− 47) and were also independently validated for association with five different risk factors of MS, which further stressed the high genetic and epigenetic relevance of the module for MS. Conclusions: We believe our analysis provides a workflow for selecting modules and our benchmark study may help further improvement of disease module methods. Moreover, we also stress that our methodology is generally applicable for combining and assessing the performance of multi-omic approaches for complex diseases. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Bahrd, Phillie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Blacked Out Brain: Neural Mechanisms of Unconsciousness in General Anesthesia and Disorders of Consciousness2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness is a pursuit with significance to both the scientific study of consciousness as well as for the improvement of clinical diagnosis of patients with severe structural brain damage that has resulted in disorders of consciousness (DOC), such as coma or vegetative state . This literature review gives an account for what consciousness studies have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness, focusing on experiments using anesthetic agents to investigate the loss and return of consciousness. Mechanisms that frequently correlate with the loss of consciousness are modulation of the brainstem, the thalamus, and the cortex, but different anesthetic drugs act on different areas. According to a bottom-up approach unconsciousness can be induced by sleep-circuits in the brainstem, and according to a top-down approach unconsciousness can be induced by cortical and thalamocortical disruption. But the mechanisms involved during loss of consciousness are not the same as for return of consciousness, and this paper includes evidence for the mechanisms involved during the return being closer to what research should be further investigating. The mechanisms involved in return from anesthesia-induced unconsciousness resemble those mechanisms involved in recovery from DOC. Studying mechanisms of unconsciousness can further our understanding of consciousness, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DOC.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    theblackedoutbrain
  • 42.
    Banaee, Hadi
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Billing, ErikHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Proceedings of the 17th SweCog Conference: Örebro 2022, 16-17 June2022Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Marco
    et al.
    Department of Physiology/Metabolic Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Peris, Eduard
    Department of Physiology/Metabolic Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zamani, Shabnam
    Department of Physiology/Metabolic Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Micallef, Peter
    Department of Physiology/Metabolic Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Paul, Alexandra
    Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Division of Chemical Biology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden ; The Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, TX, United States.
    Bartesaghi, Stefano
    Bioscience Metabolism, Research and Early Development Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism, BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Benrick, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering. Department of Physiology/Metabolic Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid
    Department of Physiology/Metabolic Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    NRF2 is essential for adaptative browning of white adipocytes2023Inngår i: Redox Biology, E-ISSN 2213-2317, Vol. 68, artikkel-id 102951Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    White adipose tissue browning, defined by accelerated mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis, is considered a promising mean to treat or prevent obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. We hypothesize that redox stress acutely leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which activate electrophile sensor nuclear factor erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (NRF2) that over time results in an adaptive adipose tissue browning process. To test this, we have exploited adipocyte-specific NRF2 knockout mice and cultured adipocytes and analyzed time- and dose-dependent effect of NAC and lactate treatment on antioxidant expression and browning-like processes. We found that short-term antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) induced reductive stress as evident from increased intracellular NADH levels, increased ROS-production, reduced oxygen consumption rate (OCR), and increased NRF2 levels in white adipocytes. In contrast, and in line with our hypothesis, longer-term NAC treatment led to a NRF2-dependent browning response. Lactate treatment elicited similar effects as NAC, and mechanistically, these NRF2-dependent adipocyte browning responses in vitro were mediated by increased heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) activity. Moreover, this NRF2-HMOX1 axis was also important for β3-adrenergic receptor activation-induced adipose tissue browning in vivo. In conclusion, our findings show that administration of exogenous antioxidants can affect biological function not solely through ROS neutralization, but also through reductive stress. We also demonstrate that NRF2 is essential for white adipose tissue browning processes. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Marco
    et al.
    Unit for Metabolic Physiology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vujičić, Milica
    Unit for Metabolic Physiology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chanclón, Belén
    Unit for Metabolic Physiology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palsdottir, Vilborg
    Unit for Endocrine Physiology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pillon, Nicolas J.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Benrick, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering. Unit for Metabolic Physiology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid
    Unit for Metabolic Physiology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adiponectin stimulates Sca1+CD34-adipocyte precursor cells associated with hyperplastic expansion and beiging of brown and white adipose tissue2024Inngår i: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 151, artikkel-id 155716Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The adipocyte hormone adiponectin improves insulin sensitivity and there is an inverse correlation between adiponectin levels and type-2 diabetes risk. Previous research shows that adiponectin remodels the adipose tissue into a more efficient metabolic sink. For instance, mice that overexpress adiponectin show increased capacity for hyperplastic adipose tissue expansion as evident from smaller and metabolically more active white adipocytes. In contrast, the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of these mice looks “whiter” possibly indicating reduced metabolic activity. Here, we aimed to further establish the effect of adiponectin on adipose tissue expansion and adipocyte mitochondrial function as well as to unravel mechanistic aspects in this area. Methods: Brown and white adipose tissues from adiponectin overexpressing (APN tg) mice and littermate wildtype controls, housed at room and cold temperature, were studied by histological, gene/protein expression and flow cytometry analyses. Metabolic and mitochondrial functions were studied by radiotracers and Seahorse-based technology. In addition, mitochondrial function was assessed in cultured adiponectin deficient adipocytes from APN knockout and heterozygote mice. Results: APN tg BAT displayed increased proliferation prenatally leading to enlarged BAT. Postnatally, APN tg BAT turned whiter than control BAT, confirming previous reports. Furthermore, elevated adiponectin augmented the sympathetic innervation/activation within adipose tissue. APN tg BAT displayed reduced metabolic activity and reduced mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR). In contrast, APN tg inguinal white adipose tissue (IWAT) displayed enhanced metabolic activity. These metabolic differences between genotypes were apparent also in cultured adipocytes differentiated from BAT and IWAT stroma vascular fraction, and the OCR was reduced in both brown and white APN heterozygote adipocytes. In both APN tg BAT and IWAT, the mesenchymal stem cell-related genes were upregulated along with an increased abundance of Lineage−Sca1+CD34− “beige-like” adipocyte precursor cells. In vitro, the adiponectin receptor agonist Adiporon increased the expression of the proliferation marker Pcna and decreased the expression of Cd34 in Sca1+ mesenchymal stem cells. Conclusions: We propose that the seemingly opposite effect of adiponectin on BAT and IWAT is mediated by a common mechanism; while reduced adiponectin levels are linked to lower adipocyte OCR, elevated adiponectin levels stimulate expansion of adipocyte precursor cells that produce adipocytes with intrinsically higher metabolic rate than classical white but lower metabolic rate than classical brown adipocytes. Moreover, adiponectin can modify the adipocytes' metabolic activity directly and by enhancing the sympathetic innervation within a fat depot. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Bays, Harold E.
    et al.
    Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc., Louisville, KY, USA.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Global Medicines Development, CVMD, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Xu, John
    Biometrics and Information Sciences, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
    Sjöström, Carl David
    Global Medicines Development, CVMD, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Underberg, James A.
    Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine & NYU Center for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, New York, NY, USA.
    Dapagliflozin in patients with type II diabetes mellitus, with and without elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels2017Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Lipidology, ISSN 1933-2874, E-ISSN 1876-4789, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 450-458Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin is a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that improves glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by reducing renal glucose reabsorption.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the lipid effects of dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo in patients with T2DM with/without baseline elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels.

    METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of 10 phase 3, placebo-controlled studies of dapagliflozin 10 mg (N = 2237) or placebo (N = 2164) administered for 24 weeks in patients with T2DM. Patients with elevated triglyceride (>= 150 mg/dL [1.69 mmol/L]) and reduced HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL [1.04 mmol/L] in men; <50 mg/dL [1.29 mmol/L] in women) were included (group A). The reference group (group B) included patients who did not meet the defined lipid criteria.

    RESULTS: The effects of dapagliflozin on fasting lipid profiles were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups (ie, groups A and B) and, compared with placebo, were associated with minor increases in non-HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol levels. The effects on triglyceride levels were inconsistent. The incidence of adverse events (AEs)/serious AEs, and AEs of genital infection, urinary tract infection, volume reduction, renal function, and hypoglycemia were similar in the 2 lipid groups.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with T2DM treated with dapagliflozin experienced minor changes in lipid levels; the changes were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups. The clinical significance of these changes in lipids is unclear, especially in view of the positive effects of dapagliflozin on other cardiovascular disease risk factors. 

  • 46.
    Behboudi, Afrouz
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology - Genetics, Lundberg Laboratory, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cytogenetic and Molecular Changes Involving Rat Chromosome 10 in Experimental Endometrial Adenocarcinoma2002Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 47.
    Behboudi, Afrouz
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Stenman, Göran
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Skin: Clear cell hidradenoma of the skin (CCH)2006Inngår i: Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology, E-ISSN 1768-3262, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 285-287Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Behboudi, Afrouz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Thelander, Tilia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Yazici, Duygu
    Koc University Research Center for Translational Medicine (KUTTAM), Koc University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Celik, Yeliz
    Koc University Research Center for Translational Medicine (KUTTAM), Koc University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay
    Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thunström, Erik
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Peker, Yüksel
    Koc University Research Center for Translational Medicine (KUTTAM), Koc University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey ; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden ; Department of Clinical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden ; Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USA.
    Association of TNF-alpha (-308G/A) Gene Polymorphism with Circulating TNF-alpha Levels and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Adults with Coronary Artery Disease and Concomitant Obstructive Sleep Apnea2021Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Medicine, E-ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 10, nr 15, artikkel-id 3413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), in which inflammatory activity has a crucial role. The manifestation of OSA varies significantly between individuals in clinical cohorts; not all adults with OSA demonstrate the same set of symptoms; i.e., excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and/or increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers. The further exploration of the molecular basis of these differences is therefore essential for a better understanding of the OSA phenotypes in cardiac patients. In this current secondary analysis of the Randomized Intervention with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in CAD and OSA (RICCADSA) trial (Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No: NCT 00519597), we aimed to address the association of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-308G/A gene polymorphism with circulating TNF-α levels and EDS among 326 participants. CAD patients with OSA (apnea–hypopnea-index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h; n = 256) were categorized as having EDS (n = 100) or no-EDS (n = 156) based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score with a cut-off of 10. CAD patients with no-OSA (AHI < 5 events/h; n = 70) were included as a control group. The results demonstrated no significant differences regarding the distribution of the TNF-α alleles and genotypes between CAD patients with vs. without OSA. In a multivariate analysis, the oxygen desaturation index and TNF-α genotypes from GG to GA and GA to AA as well as the TNF-α-308A allele carriage were significantly associated with the circulating TNF-α levels. Moreover, the TNF-α-308A allele was associated with a decreased risk for EDS (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.41–0.99; p = 0.043) independent of age, sex, obesity, OSA severity and the circulating TNF-α levels. We conclude that the TNF-α-308A allele appears to modulate circulatory TNF-α levels and mitigate EDS in adults with CAD and concomitant OSA.

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    fulltext
  • 49.
    Behrens, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Sleep disturbance predicts worse cognitive performance in subsequent years: A longitudinal population-based cohort study2023Inngår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 106, artikkel-id 104899Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poor sleep is a potential modifiable risk factor for later life development cognitive impairment. The aim of this study is to examine if subjective measures of sleep duration and sleep disturbance predict future cognitive decline in a population-based cohort of 60, 66, 72 and 78-year-olds with a maximal follow up time of 18 years. Methods: This study included participants from the Swedish National Study on Ageing and Care – Blekinge, with assessments 2001–2021. A cohort of 60 (n = 478), 66 (n = 623), 72 (n = 662) and 78 (n = 548) year-olds, were assessed at baseline and every 6 years until 78 years of age. Longitudinal associations between sleep disturbance (sleep scale), self-reported sleep duration and cognitive tests (Mini Mental State Examination and the Clock drawing test) were examined together with typical confounders (sex, education level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking status, physical inactivity and depression). Results: There was an association between sleep disturbance at age 60 and worse cognitive function at ages 60, 66 and 72 years in fully adjusted models. The association was attenuated after bootstrap-analysis for the 72-year-olds. The items of the sleep scale most predictive of later life cognition regarded nightly awakenings, pain and itching and daytime naps. Long sleep was predictive of future worse cognitive function. Conclusion: Sleep disturbance was associated with worse future cognitive performance for the 60-year-olds, which suggests poor sleep being a risk factor for later life cognitive decline. Questions regarding long sleep, waking during the night, pain and itching and daytime naps should be further explored in future research and may be targets for intervention. 

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  • 50.
    Bengtson, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Nordin, Ida
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Minding mortality: A systematic review of the neural processing of death-related stimuli2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The human relationship with mortality has been widely studied in psychology research, with an extensive record suggesting that death-related stimuli impact behavior, even without conscious awareness. Yet, little is known about the underlying brain activity. In this systematic review, we aimed to examine whether there is something distinctive about the neural processing of death-related stimuli. We conducted a literature search to find studies where participants had been presented with death-related vs. other negatively valenced stimuli while undergoing functional brain imaging scanning. Seven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies with a total of 204 participants adhered to our criteria. Five of six studies that used whole-brain analysis found that unpleasant stimuli consistently elicited increased insular activity, but only when it was unrelated to mortality. This suggests a difference between the neural processing of death and other threats. We discuss possible interpretations and speculate that it is related to the insula’s role in sense of self and assessment of threat. Further research is needed to determine whether this marker is robust and what its function and consequences may be. A better understanding of how individuals process death-related information promises deeper insight into the human relationship with mortality. Bringing to light the nature of this relationship has significant implications for individuals and society, not least for mental health interventions and end-of-life care.

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