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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neuroplasticity induced by exercise2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As opposed to earlier beliefs, the brain is altering itself throughout an individual’s life. The process of functional or structural alterations is referred to as plasticity, and can be induced by several factors such as experience or physical exercise. In this thesis, the research area of experience-dependent plasticity, with focus on exercise-induced plasticity is examined critically. Evidence from a vast array of studies are reviewed and compared in order to find whether physical exercise can induce neural plasticity in the human brain, how it may be beneficial, and what some of the plausible mediators of exercise-induced plasticity are. The findings demonstrated in this thesis suggest that although there are knowledge gaps and limitations in the literature, physical exercise can indeed result in exhibited plasticity as well as being beneficial for the human brain in several ways.

  • 2.
    Adamovic, Tatjana
    et al.
    Med Coll Wisconsin, Human & Mol Genet Ctr, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA.
    Hamta, Achmad
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roshani, Leyla
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lü, Xuschun
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Röhme, Dan
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Helou, Khalil
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Oncol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Levan, Göran
    Univ Gothenburg, CMB Genet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rearrangement and allelic imbalance on chromosome 5 leads to homozygous deletions in the CDKN2A/2B tumor suppressor gene region in rat endometrial cancer2008In: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, ISSN 2210-7762, E-ISSN 2210-7770, Vol. 184, no 1, p. 9-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inbred BDII rat is a valuable experimental model for the genetic analysis of hormone-dependent endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC). One common aberration detected previously by comparative genomic hybridization in rat EAC is loss affecting mostly the middle part of rat chromosome 5 (RNO5). First, we applied an RNO5-specific painting probe and four region-specific gene probes onto tumor cell metaphases from 21 EACs, and found that rearrangements involving RNO5 were common. The copy numbers of loci situated on RNO5 were found to be reduced, particularly for the CDKN2A/2B locus. Second, polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed with 22 genes and markers and homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A exon 1β and CDKN2B genes were detected in 13 EACs (62%) and of CDKN2A exon 1α in 12 EACs (57%) Third, the occurrence of allelic imbalance in RNO5 was analyzed using 39 microsatellite markers covering the entire chromosome and frequent loss of heterozygosity was detected. Even more intriguing was the repeated finding of allele switching in a narrow region of 7 Mb across the CDKN2A/2B locus. We conclude that genetic events affecting the middle part of RNO5 (including bands 5q31q33 and the CDKN2A locus) contribute to the development of EAC in rat, with the CDKN2A locus having a primary role.

  • 3.
    Adawi, Rahim
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Preventing fatal effects of overworking: Product design solution2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Overworking to death” is a phenomenon that has been noticeable in developing countries. The cause of death is mainly through ischemic strokes. While the victims’ occupations differed, they all shared a common characteristic, being positioned in a sedentary work, ranging from IT workers to doctors. This project’s aim was to develop a product that prevented or decreased the strokes that derived from sedentary overwork. This was mainly tackled by preventing one of the three causes of developing blood props, slowed blood flow. In order to gather rich data of the phenomenon, a qualitative study was conducted in China, during two months. By doing an extensive structured sampling, information rich data could be gathered during a short period of time. Data were derived from observations, questionnaires and an interview, which then was interpreted to customer needs and the final product specification. The final product became a trouser with an in built dynamic compression mechanic, that can compress the veins mostly during sitting activities, in order to prevent blood stasis. The compression mechanic works like the Chinese finger trap; compressing the calves while sitting and stretching the legs forward. It is made only out of polysaccharides fibres; cotton and corn.

  • 4.
    Agelii, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    TREATING HORROR WITH ECSTASY: Neurobiological Rationale for Treating Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder with 3,4- methylenedioxymethylamphetamine2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that afflicts 1-10% of the general population, with twice as high lifetime prevalence for women than men. Treatments exist, but none have proven reliable and consistent efficacy. A large minority of patients remain treatment-resistant despite undergoing several different types of treatment over extended periods of time. Recently completed studies in the U.S. and in Switzerland have demonstrated the potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for treatment-resistant PTSD. One of the major problems of treating PTSD is the patients’ fear state and inability to form a therapeutic alliance. Both these issues can be facilitated through administration of MDMA; the psychological effects - such as heightened empathy, increased openness and diminished anxiety – seem well-suited for therapeutic purposes. The rationale behind treating PTSD with MDMA has been indicated in neuroimaging studies; MDMA affects some of the neural structures altered in patients with PTSD, most notably the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Using the Schedule 1 substance MDMA for this purpose is however controversial; animal studies have indicated that MDMA is neurotoxic, although no adverse effects on humans related to incidental use of MDMA in a controlled setting have been found. In conclusion, the data support that MDMA may be an efficient tool for treating PTSD, as well as safe and effective to use in a clinical context.

  • 5.
    Ahluwalia, Bani
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Calmino Group AB, Sahlgrenska Science Park, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Maria K.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Stefan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öhman, Lena
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of Aloe barbadensis Mill. extract (AVH200®) on human blood T cell activity in vitro2016In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 179, p. 301-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Aloe vera) is a widely used medicinal plant well reputed for its diverse therapeutic applications. It has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine to treat various conditions and the Aloe vera gel has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, the mode of action is still unclear.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was determine the effects of two well-defined A. barbadensis Mill. extracts AVH200® and AVE200 on human blood T cells in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were stimulated polyclonally in the presence or absence of AVH200® and AVE200. The T cell phenotype was investigated by flow cytometry, cell proliferation was determined by CFSE dye and thymidine assay, respectively and cytokine secretion was determined by MSD® Multi-Spot Assay system and ELISA.

    RESULTS: The presence of AVH200® resulted in a reduced expression of CD25 among CD3(+) T cells and suppression of T cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, AVH200® reduced the expression of CD28 on CD3(+) T cells. AVH200® also reduced the secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A in PBMC cultures. The AVH200® dose dependent reduction in T cell activation and proliferation recorded in the cell cultures was not due to apoptosis or cell death. Additionally, AVH200® was found to be more effective as compared to AVE200 in reducing T cell activation and proliferation.

    CONCLUSION: AVH200® has the potential to reduce the activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion of healthy human blood T cells. Our study suggests that AVH200® has a suppressive effect on human blood T cells in vitro.

  • 6.
    Alvarez Svahn, Rodrigo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The hippocampal dependence of long-term declarative memory2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations into the neural correlates of memory have found the hippocampus to be a crucial structure for long-term declarative memories, but the exact nature of this contribution remains under debate. This paper covers three theories concerned with how the hippocampus is involved in long-term memory, namely the Standard Consolidation Model, the Multiple-Trace Theory, and the Distributed Reinstatement Theory. According to the Standard Consolidation Model, long-term declarative memories (both episodic and semantic) are dependent on the hippocampus for a limited time during which the memories undergo a process of consolidation, after which they become dependent on the neocortex. In contrast, the Multiple-Trace Theory argues that detailed and context-specific episodic (but not semantic) memories remain dependent on the hippocampus indefinitely. While both the aforementioned theories posit that memories are initially dependent on the hippocampus, the Distributed Reinstatement Theory does not. Advocates of this theory propose that several memory systems compete for the encoding of a memory, and that the hippocampus usually is the dominant system. However, it is also suggested that the other (unspecified) memory systems can overcome the hippocampal dominance through extensive and distributed learning sessions. In this paper, findings from both human and rodent studies focusing on the hippocampus are reviewed and used to evaluate the claims made by each theory on a systems level.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pesonen, John
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av omvårdnaden av närstående i särskilt boende i Västra Götaland år 20102010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: When a senior person has a large need for special care there is an option to relocate to a nursing home. The seniors every day varies there for it is of outmost importance the nursing care staff can support the senior that he maybe adapt to the new situation. Purpose: The purpose with this study is to enlighten how relatives experience their close ones in special nursing home receive good care treatment. Method: A quality approach with empirical elements is used where relatives experiences of care, being part of and recievment was collected with the help of interviews. Results: Three categories Care, Involvment and Recievment with nine sub categories. An important part in care is to create good contact between relatives and nursing care staff to evolve good ways for communication. It was revealed how important it is as a health care patient to feel they’re being looked upon for who they are and they be part of treatment measures and decisions made by nursing care staff. Discussion: The results can contribute to an increased understanding to how relatives experience care is being conducted in a special accommodation. When relatives are made more involved in care, may lead to a better care for care patient in a nursing home. Conclusion: The results which have been concluded could be used in educational purposes when the care of senior people demands that nursing care staff continuously renews their knowledges. This could be of use for the nurse, the relatives and the seniors living in a nursing home.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Psychedelic agents: Changes induced in subjective experience and brain activity2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis combines phenomenological and neuroscientific research to elucidate the effects of psychedelic agents on the human brain, mind and psychological well-being. Psychoactive plants have been used for thousands of years for ceremonial and ritual purposes. Psychedelics are psychoactive substances that affect cognitive processes and alter perception, thoughts, and mood. Illegalization of psychedelics in the 1960s rendered them impossible to study empirically but in the last couple of decades, relaxed legal restrictions regarding research purposes, renewed interest in the effects of psychedelic drugs and new brain imaging techniques have started to reveal the possibilities of these mind-altering substances. Psychedelics mainly affect the serotonin receptor 5-HT2A which in turn affect the functioning of largescale cortical areas by changing cerebral blood flow, alpha oscillations, and functional connectivity. These cortical changes not only induce immediate alterations in perception and cognition but have been shown to have positive effects in therapeutic interventions for depression, anxiety, and addiction, and also positively affect well-being in general. Although the pharmacology and neurobiology of psychedelics are still poorly understood, the potential benefits justify empirical research on psychedelics in humans.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sleep and Its Effects on Synaptic Strength2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Andersson Szabo, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    A Biological And Psychological Profile of Eudaimonia as High Psychological Well-Being2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aristotle (4th century B.C.E/1925) described eudaimonia as “the good life”, and is today commonly understood as eudaimonic well-being (EWB) within research. Despite the long history, the definitions and operationalizations of EWB are diverse and no coherent description or explanation for the biology of EWB exist. Hence, the present thesis reviews current neuroscientific- and additional biological research on EWB. This review reveals EWB to be most frequently operationalized as psychological well-being (PWB) (Ryff, 2014), and is here used as basis for an attempt to explain the biological and psychological profiles of EWB as high PWB. High PWB was characterized by brain activity linked to the reward circuitry, dorsolateral and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and grey matter (GM) volume in areas of the brainstem and insular cortex. High PWB was also positively related to lower levels of several harmful biomarkers. The proposed psychological profile of high PWB included the psychological functions goal directed behaviour and emotional control. It is hoped that the proposed profiles will serve as inspiration for further exploration of the biology and psychology of human well-being (WB).

  • 11.
    Andersérs, Caroline
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Effect that Exercise has on Cognitive Functions: A Review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My aim for this literature review is to present and discuss a possible relationship between physical exercise and different kinds of cognitive functions. With the increasing interest on the topic, more studies have been conducted and the results from the studies have been a little ambiguous. The most part of the studies has been showing that exercise has a positive effect on cognitive functions. The evidence from the studies also says that exercise can help the brain to regulate the production of new neurons and to increase brain volume in the prefrontal and temporal areas. That can be very beneficial for elderly people with dementia, Alzheimer's disease or other cognitive declines. Evidence of exercise combined with the right nutrition can enhance cognitive performance even more but to establish this more research is needed.  

  • 12.
    Aronsson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kan tacksamhet främja moraliskt beteende?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har undersökt om tacksamhet kan påverka vårt moraliska beteende, genom att se över studier som gjorts inom psykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mestadels på hur det kognitiva resonerandet påverkar ens moral. På senare tid har forskningen allt mer betonat specifika emotioners avgörande roll för om man agerar efter moraliska normer eller inte. Dessa emotioner benämns som moraliska emotioner. En av dessa moraliska emotioner är tacksamhet. Tacksamhet har i studier visats fungera som en moralisk barometer, stärka välgörares fortsatta moraliska beteende samt fungera som ett moraliskt motiv. Den neurala grunden för tacksamhet är ännu relativt outforskad. Emotioners generella påverkan på moraliskt beteende samt positiva emotioners tendenser till agerande (eng: action tendencies) kan dock ses som ett steg till ökad förståelse om hur tacksamheten påverkar vårt moraliska beteende.

  • 13.
    Arvidsson, Andrea
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Meditation, attention and the brain: function, structure and attentional performance2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meditation has been practiced around the world for thousands of years and has during the past decade become increasingly popular in the Western world. Meditation can be seen as a form of mental exercise and refers to a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory practices that involves different attentional, cognitive monitoring and awareness processes. Clinical research on meditation has demonstrated that meditation seem to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Recent interest in how meditation affect the human brain and body have lead to an increase in research regarding the neural correlates of meditation, structural changes induced by meditation, and the potential attentional and emotional benefits mediated by meditation. This thesis investigates expert related changes in neural activity, brain structure, and attentional performance induced by focused attention meditation (FAM) and open monitoring meditation (OMM). The research on meditation and the brain is still in its infancy but despite this, there seem to be some converging evidence of meditation’s impact on the human brain and mind. The results from the included studies in this thesis indicates that expert meditators show greater activation in some meditation related brain areas, as well as less activation in other areas when compared to novice meditators. The results also suggest that long-term meditation practice induce some structural changes in the brain and that meditation seem to enhance the practitioners’ attentional control. 

  • 14.
    Arvidsson, Tobias
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Emotion Regulation: Differences Between Adolescents and Adults2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The time of adolescence is marked by enhanced emotional experiences and difficulties with regulating one’s emotions. One way to improve the adolescent’s ability to regulate their emotions is to let them practice mindfulness meditation. The motivational drive behind this thesis is the question of what forms of mindfulness meditation are needed to give the highest increase in their emotion regulation-abilities. One problem is that while there exist neural studies on mindfulness meditation for adults, the research field of adolescent meditation lacks them. Because neural studies are needed to adequately answer this question, and the lack of brain imaging tools for this thesis, the focus here was to conduct some groundwork for this discussion. The first aim was to investigate the neural effects of mindfulness meditation on emotion regulation in adults and the second aim was to investigate to what extent we can generalize these neural effects to adolescents. To be able to theoretical discuss the second aim, neural and psychological studies on mindfulness meditation and emotion regulation were used as a base. The studies were grouped into five sub-categories based on age group and research field and then discussed with the help of developmental studies. Adult meditators had stronger functionality in regulatory brain regions than non-meditators during meditation and during the perception of negative stimuli. The discussion about the generalization of the adult neural patterns to adolescents showed that the findings were too diverse to come to any useful conclusions. Empirical and conceptual improvements, along with neural meditation studies on adolescents, are needed to improve the research field in both age groups.

  • 15.
    Asplund, Annika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pradip, Arvind
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    van Giezen, Mariska
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aspegren, Anders
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Choukair, Helena
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rehnström, Marie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghosheh, Nidal
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    El Hajjam, Dorra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Sandra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Benecke, Jörg
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Butron, Mariela
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wigander, Annelie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Noaksson, Karin
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca R&D, GMD CVMD GMed, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / NovaHep AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Arvid Wallgrens Backe 20, 413 46, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    One Standardized Differentiation Procedure Robustly Generates Homogenous Hepatocyte Cultures Displaying Metabolic Diversity from a Large Panel of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells2016In: Stem Cell Reviews, ISSN 1550-8943, E-ISSN 1558-6804, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 90-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human hepatocytes display substantial functional inter-individual variation regarding drug metabolizing functions. In order to investigate if this diversity is mirrored in hepatocytes derived from different human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, we evaluated 25 hPSC lines originating from 24 different donors for hepatic differentiation and functionality. Homogenous hepatocyte cultures could be derived from all hPSC lines using onestandardized differentiation procedure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a standardized hepatic differentiation procedure that is generally applicable across a large panel of hPSC lines without any adaptations to individual lines. Importantly, with regard to functional aspects, such as Cytochrome P450 activities, we observed that hepatocytes derived from different hPSC lines displayed inter-individual variation characteristic for primary hepatocytes obtained from different donors, while these activities were highly reproducible between repeated experiments using the same line. Taken together, these data demonstrate the emerging possibility to compile panels of hPSC-derived hepatocytes of particular phenotypes/genotypes relevant for drug metabolism and toxicity studies. Moreover, these findings are of significance for applications within the regenerative medicine field, since our stringent differentiation procedure allows the derivation of homogenous hepatocyte cultures from multiple donors which is a prerequisite for the realization of future personalized stem cell based therapies.

  • 16.
    Asplund Fromholz, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anspänning, oro och stress är tre begrepp som har studerats länge, vilket har gett upphov till flertalet modeller, teorier och domäner där dessa begrepp har studerats och fortfarande studeras. I denna uppsats så kommer dessa tre begrepp bland annat att redogöras för var för sig med koppling till mätmetoder, idrott och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva hur idrottsprestationer kan påverkas av anspänning, oro och stress för att utifrån det kunna redogöra för evidensbaserade metoder som kan appliceras för att främja en idrottsprestation. Först kommer anspänning att redogöras för, anspänning följs sedan av oro som i sin tur följs av stress som sista begrepp. Avslutningsvis så behandlas även problematik och möjligheter för dessa begrepp inom forskningsfältet och dess tillämpningsområden.

  • 17.
    Axelsson, K. F.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wallander, M.
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, H.
    Institute for Health and Ageing, Catholic University of Australia, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
    Lundh, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Lorentzon, M.
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and ClinicalNutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hip fracture risk and safety with alendronate treatment in the oldest-old2017In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 282, no 6, p. 546-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is high evidence for secondary prevention of fractures, including hip fracture, with alendronate treatment, but alendronate's efficacy to prevent hip fractures in the oldest-old (80 years old), the population with the highest fracture risk, has not been studied. Objective. To investigate whether alendronate treatment amongst the oldest-old with prior fracture was related to decreased hip fracture rate and sustained safety. Methods. Using a national database of men and women undergoing a fall risk assessment at a Swedish healthcare facility, we identified 90 795 patients who were 80 years or older and had a prior fracture. Propensity score matching (four to one) was then used to identify 7844 controls to 1961 alendronate-treated patients. The risk of incident hip fracture was investigated with Cox models and the interaction between age and treatment was investigated using an interaction term. Results. The case and control groups were well balanced in regard to age, sex, anthropometrics and comorbidity. Alendronate treatment was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture in crude (hazard ratio (HR) 0.62 (0.49-0.79), P < 0.001) and multivariable models (HR 0.66 (0.51-0.86), P < 0.01). Alendronate was related to reduced mortality risk (HR 0.88 (0.82-0.95) but increased risk of mild upper gastrointestinal symptoms (UGI) (HR 1.58 (1.12-2.24). The alendronate association did not change with age for hip fractures or mild UGI. Conclusion. In old patients with prior fracture, alendronate treatment reduces the risk of hip fracture with sustained safety, indicating that this treatment should be considered in these high-risk patients.

  • 18.
    Bachelet, Delphine
    et al.
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Albert, Thilo
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Germany.
    Mbogning, Cyprien
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Hässler, Signe
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Zhang, Yuan
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Schultze-Strasser, Stephan
    University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Department of Pediatrics, Molecular Haemostasis and Immunodeficiency, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Repessé, Yohann
    CHU Caen, Hématologie Biologique, Caen, Caen, France.
    Rayes, Julie
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
    Pavlova, Anna
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Pezeshkpoor, Behnaz
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Liphardt, Kerstin
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Davidson, Julie E.
    GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, Middlesex, United Kingdom.
    Hincelin-Méry, Agnès
    Sanofi, Chilly-Mazarin, France.
    Dönnes, Pierre
    SciCross AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
    Königs, Christoph
    University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Department of Pediatrics, Molecular Haemostasis and Immunodeficiency, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Oldenburg, Johannes
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Broët, Philippe
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France / AP-HP, Paris-Sud University Hospitals, Villejuif, France.
    Risk stratification integrating genetic data for factor VIII inhibitor development in patients with severe hemophilia A2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, article id e0218258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacement therapy in severe hemophilia A leads to factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors in 30% of patients. Factor VIII gene (F8) mutation type, a family history of inhibitors, ethnicity and intensity of treatment are established risk factors, and were included in two published prediction tools based on regression models. Recently investigated immune regulatory genes could also play a part in immunogenicity. Our objective is to identify bio-clinical and genetic markers for FVIII inhibitor development, taking into account potential genetic high order interactions. The study population consisted of 593 and 79 patients with hemophilia A from centers in Bonn and Frankfurt respectively. Data was collected in the European ABIRISK tranSMART database. A subset of 125 severely affected patients from Bonn with reliable information on first treatment was selected as eligible for risk stratification using a hybrid tree-based regression model (GPLTR). In the eligible subset, 58 (46%) patients developed FVIII inhibitors. Among them, 49 (84%) were "high risk" F8 mutation type. 19 (33%) had a family history of inhibitors. The GPLTR model, taking into account F8 mutation risk, family history of inhibitors and product type, distinguishes two groups of patients: a high-risk group for immunogenicity, including patients with positive HLA-DRB1*15 and genotype G/A and A/A for IL-10 rs1800896, and a low-risk group of patients with negative HLA-DRB1*15 / HLA-DQB1*02 and T/T or G/T for CD86 rs2681401. We show associations between genetic factors and the occurrence of FVIII inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A patients taking into account for high-order interactions using a generalized partially linear tree-based approach.

  • 19.
    Backström, Linus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Establishing a biopsychosocial model for conspiracy theory ideation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide the grounds for a biopsychosocial understanding of the underpinnings of conspiracy theorist ideation by studying research articles from different scientific disciplines. Cross-disciplinary concurring results are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of how conspiracy theories have been used during the 20th century. Also discussed is how this is used in political discourse in the populist climate of today, with the rise of radical right-wing movements, the justification of “alternative facts” from higher governmental ranks, and religious fundamentalism, making it a societal issue of possible big magnitude. Neurological similarities was found between religiousness and proneness to conspiracy theory ideation, and the articles concerning neural correlates therefore stem from research on religious individuals due to the lack of neuro-biopsychological research on actual conspiracy theorists. Since conspiracy theory ideation has shown the ability to cause negative consequences it is also advised that governmental agencies and society as a whole revise its stance on populism and the spread of flawed information, in order to maintain an open society. Also presented are a few ideas on how to begin countering the rise of populism.

  • 20.
    Bahrd, Phillie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Blacked Out Brain: Neural Mechanisms of Unconsciousness in General Anesthesia and Disorders of Consciousness2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness is a pursuit with significance to both the scientific study of consciousness as well as for the improvement of clinical diagnosis of patients with severe structural brain damage that has resulted in disorders of consciousness (DOC), such as coma or vegetative state . This literature review gives an account for what consciousness studies have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness, focusing on experiments using anesthetic agents to investigate the loss and return of consciousness. Mechanisms that frequently correlate with the loss of consciousness are modulation of the brainstem, the thalamus, and the cortex, but different anesthetic drugs act on different areas. According to a bottom-up approach unconsciousness can be induced by sleep-circuits in the brainstem, and according to a top-down approach unconsciousness can be induced by cortical and thalamocortical disruption. But the mechanisms involved during loss of consciousness are not the same as for return of consciousness, and this paper includes evidence for the mechanisms involved during the return being closer to what research should be further investigating. The mechanisms involved in return from anesthesia-induced unconsciousness resemble those mechanisms involved in recovery from DOC. Studying mechanisms of unconsciousness can further our understanding of consciousness, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DOC.

  • 21.
    Bays, Harold E.
    et al.
    Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc., Louisville, KY, USA.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Global Medicines Development, CVMD, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Xu, John
    Biometrics and Information Sciences, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
    Sjöström, Carl David
    Global Medicines Development, CVMD, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Underberg, James A.
    Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine & NYU Center for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, New York, NY, USA.
    Dapagliflozin in patients with type II diabetes mellitus, with and without elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels2017In: Journal of Clinical Lipidology, ISSN 1933-2874, E-ISSN 1876-4789, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 450-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin is a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that improves glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by reducing renal glucose reabsorption.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the lipid effects of dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo in patients with T2DM with/without baseline elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels.

    METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of 10 phase 3, placebo-controlled studies of dapagliflozin 10 mg (N = 2237) or placebo (N = 2164) administered for 24 weeks in patients with T2DM. Patients with elevated triglyceride (>= 150 mg/dL [1.69 mmol/L]) and reduced HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL [1.04 mmol/L] in men; <50 mg/dL [1.29 mmol/L] in women) were included (group A). The reference group (group B) included patients who did not meet the defined lipid criteria.

    RESULTS: The effects of dapagliflozin on fasting lipid profiles were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups (ie, groups A and B) and, compared with placebo, were associated with minor increases in non-HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol levels. The effects on triglyceride levels were inconsistent. The incidence of adverse events (AEs)/serious AEs, and AEs of genital infection, urinary tract infection, volume reduction, renal function, and hypoglycemia were similar in the 2 lipid groups.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with T2DM treated with dapagliflozin experienced minor changes in lipid levels; the changes were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups. The clinical significance of these changes in lipids is unclear, especially in view of the positive effects of dapagliflozin on other cardiovascular disease risk factors. 

  • 22.
    Bennet, Sean M. P.
    et al.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Polster, Annikka
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Törnblom, Hans
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Stefan
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Capronnier, Sandrine
    Department of Life Science, Danone Nutricia Research, Palaiseau, France.
    Tessier, Aurore
    Department of Life Science, Danone Nutricia Research, Palaiseau, France.
    Le Nevé, Boris
    Department of Life Science, Danone Nutricia Research, Palaiseau, France.
    Simrén, Magnus
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Center for Functional GI and Motility Disorders, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Öhman, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Global Cytokine Profiles and Association With Clinical Characteristics in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome2016In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0002-9270, E-ISSN 1572-0241, Vol. 111, no 8, p. 1165-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have an altered cytokine profile, although it is unclear whether cytokines are linked with symptom severity. We aimed to determine whether global serum and mucosal cytokine profiles differ between IBS patients and healthy subjects and whether cytokines are associated with IBS symptoms.

    METHODS: Serum from 144 IBS patients and 42 healthy subjects was analyzed for cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by MSD MULTI-ARRAY. In total, 109 IBS and 36 healthy sigmoid colon biopsies were analyzed for mRNA expression of IL-8, IL-10, TNF, and FOXP3 by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Multivariate discrimination analysis evaluated global cytokine profiles. Rectal sensitivity, oroanal transit time, and psychological and gastrointestinal symptom severity were also assessed.

    RESULTS: Global cytokine profiles of IBS patients and healthy subjects overlapped, but cytokine levels varied more in IBS patients. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 tended to be increased and levels of IFN-γ tended to be decreased in IBS patients. Mucosal mRNA expression of IL-10 and FOXP3 tended to be decreased in IBS patients. Within both the full study cohort and IBS patients alone, serum level of TNF was associated with looser stool pattern, while subjects with more widespread somatic symptoms had increased serum levels of IL-6. Although neither IBS bowel habit subgroups nor patients with possible post-infectious IBS were associated with distinct cytokine profiles, a small cluster of IBS patients with comparatively elevated immune markers was identified.

    CONCLUSIONS: Global cytokine profiles did not discriminate IBS patients from healthy subjects, but cytokine profiles were more varied among IBS patients than among healthy subjects, and a small subgroup of patients with enhanced immune activity was identified. Also, association of inflammatory cytokines with some clinical symptoms suggests that immune activation may be of importance in a subset of IBS patients.

  • 23.
    Benrick, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chanclón, Belén
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Micallef, Peter
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wu, Yanling
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hadi, Laila
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shelton, John M.
    Molecular Pathology Core, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Stener-Victorin, Elisabet
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adiponectin protects against development of metabolic disturbances in a PCOS mouse model2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 34, p. E7187-E7196, article id 201708854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adiponectin, together with adipocyte size, is the strongest factor associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigates the causal relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic and reproductive functions in PCOS. Prepubertal mice overexpressing adiponectin from adipose tissue (APNtg), adiponectin knockouts (APNko), and their wild-type (WT) littermate mice were continuously exposed to placebo or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to induce PCOS-like traits. As expected, DHT exposure led to reproductive dysfunction, as judged by continuous anestrus, smaller ovaries with a decreased number of corpus luteum, and an increased number of cystic/atretic follicles. A two-way between-groups analysis showed that there was a significant main effect for DHT exposure, but not for genotype, indicating adiponectin does not influence follicle development. Adiponectin had, however, some protective effects on ovarian function. Similar to in many women with PCOS, DHT exposure led to reduced adiponectin levels, larger adipocyte size, and reduced insulin sensitivity in WTs. APNtg mice remained metabolically healthy despite DHT exposure, while APNko-DHT mice were even more insulin resistant than their DHT-exposed littermate WTs. DHT exposure also reduced the mRNA expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways in gonadal adipose tissue of WT and APNko, but this effect of DHT was not observed in APNtg mice. Moreover, APNtg-DHT mice displayed increased pancreatic mRNA levels of insulin receptors, Pdx1 and Igf1R, suggesting adiponectin stimulates beta cell viability/hyperplasia in the context of PCOS. In conclusion, adiponectin improves metabolic health but has only minor effects on reproductive functions in this PCOS-like mouse model.

  • 24.
    Benrick, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kokosar, Milana
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hu, Min
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Martin
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Maliqueo, Manuel
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Laboratory, West Division, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Marcondes, Rodrigo Rodrigues
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Disciplina de Ginecologia, Laboratório de Ginecologia Estrutural e Molecular (LIM 58), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Soligo, Marzia
    Institute of Translational Pharmacology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, Italy.
    Protto, Virginia
    Institute of Translational Pharmacology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, Italy.
    Jerlhag, Elisabet
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sazonova, Antonina
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Behre, Carl Johan
    Department of Cardiology, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Højlund, Kurt
    Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Thorén, Peter
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stener-Victorin, Elisabet
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Autonomic nervous system activation mediates the increase in whole-body glucose uptake in response to electroacupuncture2017In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 3288-3297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A single bout of low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) causing muscle contractions increases whole-body glucose uptake in insulin-resistant rats. We explored the underlying mechanism of this finding and whether it can be translated into clinical settings. Changes in glucose infusion rate (GIR) were measured by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp during and after 45 min of low-frequency EA in 21 overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 21 controls matched for age, weight, and body mass index (experiment 1) and in rats receiving autonomic receptor blockers (experiment 2). GIR was higher after EA in controls and women with PCOS. Plasma serotonin levels and homovanillic acid, markers of vagal activity, decreased in both controls and patients with PCOS. Adipose tissue expression of pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) decreased, and the mature NGF/proNGF ratio increased after EA in PCOS, but not in controls, suggesting increased sympathetic-driven adipose tissue metabolism. Administration of alpha-/beta-adrenergic receptor blockers in rats blocked the increase in GIR in response to EA. Muscarinic and dopamine receptor antagonist also blocked the response but with slower onset. In conclusion, a single bout of EA increases whole-body glucose uptake by activation of the sympathetic and partly the parasympathetic nervous systems, which could have important clinical implications for the treatment of insulin resistance.

  • 25.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Neurovetenskaplig psykiatri2018In: Psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, no 2, p. 47-49Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Bergsten, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    1,25(OH)2D3 and Prostate Cancer: The Effects on cAMP/PKA-dependent Gene Expression in LnCaP cells2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer is the leading male cancer form i Sweden and maybe worldwide as well. Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin following the exposure to sunlight. Researcers have long been aware of the positive effect that vitamin D3 has on prostate tumour growth. 1,25(OH)2D3 have for a long time been the target of these studies and have shown good results. The steroid hormone induces cAMP accumulation and activiates the cAMP dependent protein kinaseA (PKA). PKA is then able to activate a transcription regulating protein. 1,25(OH)2D3 is known to cause LNCaP cells to accumulate in the G1 phase ofthe cell cycle. It has also been shown that 1,25(OH)2D3 is under negativefeedback control via 24-hydroxylase. In this study, PKA activity was observed by transfecting LNCaP cells with a viral vector carrying firefly and Renillaluciferase genes. The successfully transfected LNCaP cells would then express luciferase as a response to PKA gene expression. The LNCaP cells were then treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and GDP-β-S (100μM), a G-protein coupled receptorinhibitor, in order to examine if 1,25(OH)2D3 regulate PKA dependent gene expression through a G-protein coupled receptor. The study could show that 1,25(OH)2D3 regulate gene expression in LNCaP cells through a PKAdependent pathway. Furthermore, the PKA dependent gene expression was demonstrated to be independent of G-protein coupled recpetor activation.

  • 27.
    Bergström, Natalie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal stress resilience2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience refers to the fact that some individuals cope well with stressful experiences. Many factors contribute to this sort of resilience, such as the early environment, the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTPLR), the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axis, and emotion regulation techniques. The aim of this thesis is to investigate which factors contribute to resilience, with a particular focus on the emotion regulation technique of cognitive reappraisal. The results show that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala each play a crucial role when it comes to stress regulation. Studies have found that the PFC inhibits the amygdala response, but that the PFC is vulnerable to exposure to chronic stress. As a result, the PFC might fail to inhibit the amygdala response. Individuals who use cognitive reappraisal techniques – which has been associated particularly with frontal and parietal brain activity – seem to be less prone to this sort of problem, and, as a result, more resilient to stress.

  • 28.
    Berthenet, Elvire
    et al.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Yahara, Koji
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Japan.
    Thorell, Kaisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pascoe, Ben
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Meric, Guillaume
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Mikhail, Jane M.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom / Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Burette, Alain
    Centre Hospitalier Interrégional Edith Cavell/Site de la Basilique, Brussels, Belgium.
    Megraud, Francis
    Centre National de Référence des Campylobacters et des Hélicobacters, Bordeaux, France / University Bordeaux, France.
    Varon, Christine
    University Bordeaux, France.
    Atherton, John C.
    Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Smith, Sinead
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Wilkinson, Thomas S.
    Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Microbiology and Infectious Disease Group, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Hitchings, Matthew D.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Falush, Daniel
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Sheppard, Samuel K.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    A GWAS on Helicobacter pylori strains points to genetic variants associated with gastric cancer risk2018In: BMC Biology, ISSN 1741-7007, E-ISSN 1741-7007, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Helicobacter pylori are stomach-dwelling bacteria that are present in about 50% of the global population. Infection is asymptomatic in most cases, but it has been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Epidemiological evidence shows that progression to cancer depends upon the host and pathogen factors, but questions remain about why cancer phenotypes develop in a minority of infected people. Here, we use comparative genomics approaches to understand how genetic variation amongst bacterial strains influences disease progression.

    RESULTS:

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 173 H. pylori isolates from the European population (hpEurope) with known disease aetiology, including 49 from individuals with gastric cancer. We identified SNPs and genes that differed in frequency between isolates from patients with gastric cancer and those with gastritis. The gastric cancer phenotype was associated with the presence of babA and genes in the cag pathogenicity island, one of the major virulence determinants of H. pylori, as well as non-synonymous variations in several less well-studied genes. We devised a simple risk score based on the risk level of associated elements present, which has the potential to identify strains that are likely to cause cancer but will require refinement and validation.

    CONCLUSION:

    There are a number of challenges to applying GWAS to bacterial infections, including the difficulty of obtaining matched controls, multiple strain colonization and the possibility that causative strains may not be present when disease is detected. Our results demonstrate that bacterial factors have a sufficiently strong influence on disease progression that even a small-scale GWAS can identify them. Therefore, H. pylori GWAS can elucidate mechanistic pathways to disease and guide clinical treatment options, including for asymptomatic carriers.

  • 29.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Vicente, Raquel Perez
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Mulinari, Shai
    Department of Sociology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Merlo, Juan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden / Center for Primary Health Care Research, Region Skåne, Malmö, Sweden.
    Overuse of methylphenidate: an analysis of Swedish pharmacy dispensing data2018In: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 10, p. 1657-1665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify overuse of methylphenidate and to investigate patterns of overuse in relation to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Patients and methods: Swedish national, pharmacy dispensing data were analyzed for all 56,922 individuals aged 6-79 years, who filled a methylphenidate prescription between 2010 and 2011. Overuse was defined as having above 150% days covered by the dispensed amount during 365 days from the first prescription fill, assuming use at the maximum recommended daily dose. Results: In total, 4,304 individuals (7.6% of the methylphenidate users) were categorized as overusers. The risk of overuse increased with age (OR for 46-65 years vs 6-12 years 17.5, 95% CI 14.3-21.3), and was higher in men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.5) and individuals with low income (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2), as well as in individuals with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), health care visits (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4), previous ADHD medication use (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.4-2.8), and previous diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (OR 2.1 95% CI 2.0-2.3). Conclusion: Among individuals using methylphenidate in Sweden, 7.6% receive amounts that are larger than what they should have a medical need for, assuming that they were using the maximum recommended daily dose 365 days per year. Notably, the prevalence of overuse was associated with previous diagnosis of alcohol and drug misuse. The prevalence was also positively associated with higher age and previous use of ADHD medication. These findings may point toward a link between exposure time and overuse. However, future studies with long-term data are needed to investigate this.

  • 30.
    Bjurberg, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Academic achievement and personality traits: an empirical and neurobiological investigation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis explores how personality traits are connected to academic achievement. First, a theoretical discussion on the neurobiological basis of different personality traits is presented, where variance in brain- activity, volume and chemistry describes possible differences in personality. Traits previously linked to academic achievement is also described in terms of neurobiology. This is followed by an empirical investigation of the connection between personality traits and academic achievement. Previous research suggest the Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) personality traits of conscientiousness, order and self-discipline to be positively associated with academic achievement. Also, similar suggestions have been put forward concerning the Values in Action (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) character strengths of love of learning, self-regulation and persistence and academic achievement. 90 students in a medium sized Swedish senior high school completed the two personality inventories and their grades were collected. Positive correlations were found for the personality traits conscientiousness, order, and self-discipline and for the character strengths persistence, love of learning, perspective and open-mindedness. The results partly supported the hypotheses as well as extended the knowledge about what factors contribute to academic achievement. Discussion of the results and suggestions for further research concludes the thesis.

    Keywords: personality trait, character strength, neurobiology, academic achievement, BFI, VIA-IS

  • 31.
    Boberg, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Szekeres, Ferenc L. M.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Arner, Anders
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Signaling and metabolic properties of fast and slow smooth muscle types from mice2018In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 470, no 4, p. 681-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to improve the classification of smooth muscle types to better understand their normal and pathological functional phenotypes. Four different smooth muscle tissues (aorta, muscular arteries, intestine, urinary bladder) with a 5-fold difference in maximal shortening velocity were obtained from mice and classified according to expression of the inserted myosin heavy chain (SMHC-B). Western blotting and quantitative PCR analyses were used to determine 15 metabolic and 8 cell signaling key components in each tissue. The slow muscle type (aorta) with a 12 times lower SMHC-B had 6-fold lower expression of the phosphatase subunit MYPT1, a 7-fold higher expression of Rhokinase 1, and a 3-fold higher expression of the PKC target CPI17, compared to the faster (urinary bladder) smooth muscle. The slow muscle had higher expression of components involved in glucose uptake and glycolysis (type 1 glucose transporter, 3 times; hexokinase, 13 times) and in gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, 43 times), but lower expression of the metabolic sensing AMP-activated kinase, alpha 2 isoform (5 times). The slow type also had higher expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (hormone-sensitive lipase, 10 times; lipoprotein lipase, 13 times; fatty acid synthase, 6 times; type 2 acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, 8 times). We present a refined division of smooth muscle into muscle types based on the analysis of contractile, metabolic, and signaling components. Slow compared to fast smooth muscle has a lower expression of the deactivating phosphatase and upregulated Ca2+ sensitizing pathways and is more adapted for sustained glucose and lipid metabolism. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 32.
    Boldeanu, Silvia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Merging brain-computer interfaces and virtual reality: A neuroscientific exploration2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) blend methods and concepts researched by cognitive neuroscience, electrophysiology, computer science and engineering, resulting in systems of bi-directional information exchange directly between brain and computer. BCIs contribute to medical applications that restore communication and mobility for disabled patients and provide new forms of sending information to devices for enhancement and entertainment. Virtual reality (VR) introduces humans into a computer-generated world, tackling immersion and involvement. VR technology extends the classical multimedia experience, as the user is able to move within the environment, interact with other virtual participants, and manipulate objects, in order to generate the feeling of presence. This essay presents the possibilities of merging BCI with VR and the challenges to be tackled in the future. Current attempts to combine BCI and VR technology have shown that VR is a useful tool to test the functioning of BCIs, with safe, controlled and realistic experiments; there are better outcomes for VR and BCI combinations used for medical purposes compared to solely BCI training; and, enhancement systems for healthy users seem promising with VR-BCIs designed for home users. Future trends include brain-to-brain communication, sharing of several users’ brain signals within the virtual environment, and better and more efficient interfaces.

  • 33.
    Boman, Kajsa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Heart rate variability: A possible measure of subjective wellbeing?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wellbeing and subjective wellbeing (SWB) has become some the most important goals of our time, both individually and societally. Thus, there is a need for reliable ways to measure SWB, as concerns regarding many current measures have been raised. Due to the interwoven nature of physiology and psychology, heart rate variability (HRV) has the potential to assess psychological processes in a physiological manner. HRV is an attractive measure since it is inexpensive, easy and non-invasive. Hence, the aim is to, from a cognitive neuroscientific standpoint, investigate whether HRV could serve as an objective measure to assess SWB. Most studies demonstrate associations between HRV and SWB, in particular between high frequency (HF)-HRV and positive affect (PA). However, the one study fully matching the theoretical framework only showed an inverse correlation between HRV and negative affect (NA). Plausibly implying that HRV does not serve as a reliable measure of SWB, but may be able to indicate inverse associations with NA, and possibly index certain aspect of SWB such as deactivated PA. The study of the relationship between HRV and SWB is still in its infancy and results are inconsistent. The lack of common standards regarding measurements, implementation details, and variable values, make results difficult to compare and generalize. Further standardizations and research are much needed before accurate conclusions can be drawn.

  • 34.
    Borgström, Juliana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cyclical Women: Menstrual Cycle Effects on Mood and Neuro-Cognitive Performance2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During roughly forty years of a woman’s life-span, the fertile female human body prepares itself monthly for the possibility of pregnancy. Science has shown that the fluctuation of the sex steroids progesterone and estrogen have a crucial role in the female body's physiology, determining the menstrual cycle and its general phases. This biological dance of hormones governing the cycle influences a lot of physical, mental and cognitive aspects of life for a fertile ovulating woman. Although the question of whether these changes also affect women's cognitive performance is still unclear, some evidence has been gathered that could bring us closer to answers. Recent research findings show that this hormonal interplay might have a significant role in cognitive and psychological development - modulating brain activity, cognitive performance, higher cognition, emotional status, sensory processing, appetite and more. This thesis aims to uncover to what extent the menstrual cycle affects brain functions, neurobiology, mood, well-being and cognitive performance in menstruating cisgender women.

  • 35.
    Boström, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The key to understanding PTSD: Contrasting post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic incidences happen all around the globe. Some of the people who experience trauma

    develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while some do not. Even more interesting is

    that some also experience growth afterwards (post-traumatic growth; PTG). The purpose of

    this paper is to look at neural aspects of why some people develop PTSD and others PTG after

    a traumatic event. To fulfill the aim, both PTSD and PTG will be reviewed to create an image

    of the existing research in behavioral and neurological terms. In addition to looking at the

    constructs separately, a chapter will also look at studies where both PTSD and PTG are

    acknowledged collaterally in participants. When looking deeper into the theories of PTSD

    divisions occur, and more research is needed to establish the most prominent explanation of

    PTSD. PTG on the other hand has only been studied for a short period of time but yields

    important insights into trauma-related outcomes. These fields need to be submerged and new

    multidisciplinary definitions are needed for future research. The key to PTSD is suggested to

    emerge within the new field.

  • 36.
    Bourghardt, Johan
    et al.
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bergström, Göran
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Sara
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Borén, Jan
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Tivesten, Åsa
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden / Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The endogenous estradiol metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol reduces atherosclerotic lesion formation in female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice2007In: Endocrinology, ISSN 0013-7227, E-ISSN 1945-7170, Vol. 148, no 9, p. 4128-4132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estradiol, the major endogenous estrogen, reduces experimental atherosclerosis and metabolizes to 2-methoxyestradiol in vascular cells. Currently undergoing evaluation in clinical cancer trials, 2-methoxyestradiol potently inhibits cell proliferation independently of the classical estrogen receptors. This study examined whether 2-methoxyestradiol affects atherosclerosis development in female mice. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, a well-established mouse model of atherosclerosis, were ovariectomized and treated through slow-release pellets with placebo, 17beta-estradiol (6 microg/d), or 2-methoxyestradiol [6.66 microg/d (low-dose) or 66.6 microg/d (high-dose)]. After 90 d, body weight gain decreased and uterine weight increased in the high-dose but not low-dose 2-methoxyestradiol group. En face analysis showed that the fractional area of the aorta covered by atherosclerotic lesions decreased in the high-dose 2-methoxyestradiol (52%) but not in the low-dose 2-methoxyestradiol group. Total serum cholesterol levels decreased in the high- and low-dose 2-methoxyestradiol groups (19%, P < 0.05 and 21%, P = 0.062, respectively). Estradiol treatment reduced the fractional atherosclerotic lesion area (85%) and decreased cholesterol levels (42%). In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that 2-methoxyestradiol reduces atherosclerotic lesion formation in vivo. The antiatherogenic activity of an estradiol metabolite lacking estrogen receptor activating capacity may argue that trials on cardiovascular effects of hormone replacement therapy should use estradiol rather than other estrogens. Future research should define the role of 2-methoxyestradiol as a mediator of the antiatherosclerotic actions of estradiol. Furthermore, evaluation of the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol on cardiovascular disease endpoints in ongoing clinical trials is of great interest.

  • 37.
    Bourghardt, Johan
    et al.
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wilhelmson, Anna S. K.
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alexanderson, Camilla
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    De Gendt, Karel
    Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Verhoeven, Guido
    Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Claes
    Center for Bone Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tivesten, Åsa
    Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Androgen receptor-dependent and independent atheroprotection by testosterone in male mice2010In: Endocrinology, ISSN 0013-7227, E-ISSN 1945-7170, Vol. 151, no 11, p. 5428-5437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atheroprotective effect of testosterone is thought to require aromatization of testosterone to estradiol, but no study has adequately addressed the role of the androgen receptor (AR), the major pathway for the physiological effects of testosterone. We used AR knockout (ARKO) mice on apolipoprotein E-deficient background to study the role of the AR in testosterone atheroprotection in male mice. Because ARKO mice are testosterone deficient, we sham operated or orchiectomized (Orx) the mice before puberty, and Orx mice were supplemented with placebo or a physiological testosterone dose. From 8 to 16 wk of age, the mice consumed a high-fat diet. In the aortic root, ARKO mice showed increased atherosclerotic lesion area (+80%, P < 0.05). Compared with placebo, testosterone reduced lesion area both in Orx wild-type (WT) mice (by 50%, P < 0.001) and ARKO mice (by 24%, P < 0.05). However, lesion area was larger in testosterone-supplemented ARKO compared with testosterone-supplemented WT mice (+57%, P < 0.05). In WT mice, testosterone reduced the presence of a necrotic core in the plaque (80% among placebo-treated vs. 12% among testosterone-treated mice; P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant effect in ARKO mice (P = 0.20). In conclusion, ARKO mice on apolipoprotein E-deficient background display accelerated atherosclerosis. Testosterone treatment reduced atherosclerosis in both WT and ARKO mice. However, the effect on lesion area and complexity was more pronounced in WT than in ARKO mice, and lesion area was larger in ARKO mice even after testosterone supplementation. These results are consistent with an AR-dependent as well as an AR-independent component of testosterone atheroprotection in male mice.

  • 38.
    Brackmann, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Molecular Microscopy, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Esguerra, Maricris
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Surgery, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Daniel
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Surgery, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Delbro, Dick
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Surgery, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Polymer Science, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Enejder, Annika
    Chalmers University of Technology, Molecular Microscopy, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of human smooth muscle cells in bioengineered tissue scaffolds2011In: Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN 1083-3668, E-ISSN 1560-2281, Vol. 16, no 2, article id 021115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of living, human smooth muscle cells in biosynthesized cellulose scaffolds was monitored by nonlinear microscopy toward contractile artificial blood vessels. Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was applied for studies of the cell interaction with the biopolymer network. CARS microscopy probing CH(2)-groups at 2845 cm(-1) permitted three-dimensional imaging of the cells with high contrast for lipid-rich intracellular structures. SHG microscopy visualized the fibers of the cellulose scaffold, together with a small signal obtained from the cytoplasmic myosin of the muscle cells. From the overlay images we conclude a close interaction between cells and cellulose fibers. We followed the cell migration into the three-dimensional structure, illustrating that while the cells submerge into the scaffold they extrude filopodia on top of the surface. A comparison between compact and porous scaffolds reveals a migration depth of <10 μm for the former, whereas the porous type shows cells further submerged into the cellulose. Thus, the scaffold architecture determines the degree of cell integration. We conclude that the unique ability of nonlinear microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional composition of living, soft matter makes it an ideal instrument within tissue engineering.

  • 39.
    Brundin, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Binge Eating Disorder: Neural correlates and treatments2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent of all eating disorders and is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating a large amount of food in the absence of control. There have been various kinds of research of BED, but the phenomenon remains poorly understood. This thesis reviews the results of research on BED to provide a synthetic view of the current general understanding on BED, as well as the neural correlates of the disorder and treatments. Research has so far identified several risk factors that may underlie the onset and maintenance of the disorder, such as emotion regulation deficits and body shape and weight concerns. However, neuroscientific research suggests that BED may characterize as an impulsive/compulsive disorder, with altered reward sensitivity and increased attentional biases towards food cues, as well as cognitive dysfunctions due to alterations in prefrontal, insular, and orbitofrontal cortices and the striatum. The same alterations as in addictive disorders. Genetic and animal studies have found changes in dopaminergic and opioidergic systems, which may contribute to the severities of the disorder. Research investigating neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches as neural treatment, suggests that these are innovative tools that may modulate food-related reward processes and thereby suppress the binges. In order to predict treatment outcomes of BED, future studies need to further examine emotion regulation and the genetics of BED, the altered neurocircuitry of the disorder, as well as the role of neurotransmission networks relatedness to binge eating behavior.

  • 40.
    Bryde, Jonathan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Affect and Attention: An Empirical Study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In daily life there are numerous experiences and events that divert people's attention and cause stress, which may be linked with aspects of ill-being and lowered well-being. Mindfulness meditation may alleviate such issues. Mindfulness can be summarized as a form of awareness and attention in the present that is characterized by an open-minded and non-judgemental perspective, and meditation as a group of practices that engage many of the same processes and may involve mindfulness. There is evidence that both mindfulness and mindfulness meditation are associated with activity in brain regions relating to, for example, attention, emotion-regulation, and bodily awareness. Consequently, mindfulness meditation was hypothesized in the present study to improve attention as measured by the Attention Network Test, and decrease negative affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule when compared to a control condition. The mindfulness meditation instructions employed were largely based on the work of Kabat-Zinn (1982). 14 participants were recruited to the study, and 7 of them completed the experiment. 3 participants were randomized to the experimental group, and 4 to the control group. Results were largely contrary to the hypotheses, with only executive attention having statistical significance (p < .05) and supporting one hypothesis. Although effect sizes were on average large for the variables of the study, the small sample size may have limited the power and increased the risk for type-II errors.

  • 41.
    Carlsson, Veronica
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Emotional attention: A cognitive neuroscience perspective2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention is a cognitive mechanism that guides our perception in order to prioritize the limited resources to the most relevant information while ignoring distracting information. Attention can be voluntarily deployed to stimuli during tasks or goals, or the features of the stimulus can capture our attention either by being salient or being emotionally induced. Emotions affect multiple different cognitive processes such as attention because emotional stimuli can be relevant for defending or sustain life. This relationship between attention and emotion indicates that there should be interactive but distinct networks between these cognitive mechanisms as well as a modulative effect on perceptional and attentional systems. Emotions were in general demonstrating a facilitation affect on attentional and saccadic processes as well as broadening or narrowing the scope of attention. The reason behind emotions impact on attention was proposed to be for eliciting a change in the application of resources in order to solve the limited capacity problem and possibly to protect and sustain life. Inconsistent findings as well as limitations for emotional attention studies are discussed.

  • 42.
    Chamorro, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Theories of Nightmares in Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dreaming is a complex, multimodal and sequentially organized model of the waking world (Metzinger, 2003). Nightmares are a category of dreams involving threatening scenarios, anxiety and other negative emotions (Hartmann, 1998; Nielsen & Levin, 2007). Dreams and nightmares are explored in this present thesis in the light of psychology and modern cognitive neuroscience as to their nature, function and neural correlates. The three main dream theories and their leading investigations are reviewed to evaluate their evidence and overall explanatory power to account for the function of dreams and nightmares. Random Activation Theories (RATs) claim dreams are biological epiphenomena and by-products of sleep underlying mechanisms (Crick & Mitchison, 1983; Flanagan, 1995, 2000a, 2000b, Hobson & McCarley, 1997). Mood regulation theories consider that the psychological function of dreams is to regulate mood and help with the adaptation of individuals to their current environment such as solving daily concerns and recovery after trauma exposure (Hartmann, 1996; Levin, 1998; Stickgold, 2008; Kramer, 1991a, 1991b, 2014). Threat Simulation Theories of dreams present the evolutionary function for dreaming as a simulating off-line model of the world used to rehearse threatening events encountered in the human ancestral environment (Revonsuo, 2000a). With the threat-simulation system, threats were likely to be recognized and avoidance skills developed to guarantee reproductive success. TST consider nightmares to reflect the threat-simulation system fully activated (Revonsuo, 2000a). Supported by a robust body of evidence TST is concluded to be the most plausible theory at the moment to account as a theoretical explanation of dreams and nightmares

  • 43.
    Chaudhari, Aditi
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Wettergren, Yvonne
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Kahn, Ronald
    Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, United States.
    Rotter Sopasakis, Victoria
    University of Gothenburg / Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, United states.
    Hepatic deletion of p110α and p85α results in insulin resistance despite sustained IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity2017In: F1000 Research, E-ISSN 2046-1402, Vol. 6, article id 1600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Class IA phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) is an integral mediator of insulin signaling. The p110 catalytic and p85 regulatory subunits of PI3K are the products of separate genes, and while they come together to make the active heterodimer, they have opposing roles in insulin signaling and action. Deletion of hepatic p110α results in an impaired insulin signal and severe insulin resistance, whereas deletion of hepatic p85α results in improved insulin sensitivity due to sustained levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Here, we created mice with combined hepatic deletion of p110α and p85α (L-DKO) to study the impact on insulin signaling and whole body glucose homeostasis.Methods: Six-week old male flox control and L-DKO mice were studied over a period of 18 weeks, during which weight and glucose levels were monitored, and glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance test and pyruvate tolerance test were performed. Fasting insulin, insulin signaling mediators, PI3K activity and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity were examined at 10 weeks. Liver, muscle and white adipose tissue weight was recorded at 10 weeks and 25 weeks.Results: The L-DKO mice showed a blunted insulin signal downstream of PI3K, developed markedly impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and had decreased liver and adipose tissue weights. Surprisingly, however, these mice displayed normal hepatic glucose production, normal insulin tolerance, and intact IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase activity without compensatory upregulated signaling of other classes of PI3K.Conclusions: The data demonstrate an unexpectedly overall mild metabolic phenotype of the L-DKO mice, suggesting that lipid kinases other than PI3Ks might partially compensate for the loss of p110α/p85α by signaling through other nodes than Akt/Protein Kinase B.

  • 44.
    Chaudhari, Aditi
    et al.
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krumlinde, Daniel
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Annika
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Akyürek, Levent M.
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bandaru, Sashidhar
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skålén, Kristina
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ståhlman, Marcus
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Borén, Jan
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wettergren, Yvonne
    Department of Surgery, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rotter Sopasakis, Victoria
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    p110α hot spot mutations E545K and H1047R exert metabolic reprogramming independently of p110α kinase activity2015In: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 35, no 19, p. 3258-3273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit p110α is the most frequently mutated kinase in human cancer, and the hot spot mutations E542K, E545K, and H1047R are the most common mutations in p110α. Very little is known about the metabolic consequences of the hot spot mutations of p110α in vivo. In this study, we used adenoviral gene transfer in mice to investigate the effects of the E545K and H1047R mutations on hepatic and whole-body glucose metabolism. We show that hepatic expression of these hot spot mutations results in rapid hepatic steatosis, paradoxically accompanied by increased glucose tolerance, and marked glycogen accumulation. In contrast, wild-type p110α expression does not lead to hepatic accumulation of lipids or glycogen despite similar degrees of upregulated glycolysis and expression of lipogenic genes. The reprogrammed metabolism of the E545K and H1047R p110α mutants was surprisingly not dependent on altered p110α lipid kinase activity.

  • 45.
    Christersson, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Psychedelic Altered State of Consciousness: An Assessment of the Current Status of Psychedelic Research2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Classic psychedelic substances, such as lysergic acid diethylamide and the active compound in magic mushrooms, psilocybin, are being studied again in a renaissance of psychedelic research. Psychedelic substances have profound effects on perception, emotion, and cognition, as well as the capacity to induce mystical-type experiences and ego-dissolution. Recent clinical studies indicate that these substances have positive effects on patient populations and healthy participants, both acutely and long-term. Neuroimaging studies show that psychedelics alter neural integration, by the disintegration of normally stable resting state networks, and increasing network connectivity between normally anticorrelated networks. This thesis will review the phenomenological characteristics of the psychedelic-induced altered state of consciousness, the therapeutic potential of the psychedelic-induced altered state of consciousness, and neuroimaging studies on the psychedelic state. Two theoretical accounts are compared on the brain basis of psychedelic-induced altered state of consciousness. From the recent research on psychedelics a novel theory of conscious states has evolved, the entropic brain theory. This theory will be compared to the integrated information theory, a well-established theory of consciousness within cognitive neuroscience.

  • 46.
    Dahl-Halvarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pokrzywa, Malgorzata
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rauthan, Manish
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pilon, Marc
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Myosin Storage Myopathy in C. elegans and Human Cultured Muscle Cells2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e0170613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myosin storage myopathy is a protein aggregate myopathy associated with the characteristic subsarcolemmal accumulation of myosin heavy chain in muscle fibers. Despite similar histological findings, the clinical severity and age of onset are highly variable, ranging from no weakness to severe impairment of ambulation, and usually childhood-onset to onset later in life. Mutations located in the distal end of the tail of slow/beta-cardiac myosin heavy chain are associated with myosin storage myopathy. Four missense mutations (L1793P, R1845W, E1883K and H1901L), two of which have been reported in several unrelated families, are located within or closed to the assembly competence domain. This location is critical for the proper assembly of sarcomeric myosin rod filaments. To assess the mechanisms leading to protein aggregation in myosin storage myopathy and to evaluate the impact of these mutations on myosin assembly and muscle function, we expressed mutated myosin proteins in cultured human muscle cells and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. While L1793P mutant myosin protein efficiently incorporated into the sarcomeric thick filaments, R1845W and H1901L mutants were prone to formation of myosin aggregates without assembly into striated sarcomeric thick filaments in cultured muscle cells. In C. elegans, mutant alleles of the myosin heavy chain gene unc-54 corresponding to R1845W, E1883K and H1901L, were as effective as the wild-type myosin gene in rescuing the null mutant worms, indicating that they retain functionality. Taken together, our results suggest that the basis for the pathogenic effect of the R1845W and H1901L mutations are primarily structural rather than functional. Further analyses are needed to identify the primary trigger for the histological changes seen in muscle biopsies of patients with L1793P and E1883K mutations.

  • 47.
    Dalile, Boushra
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Is the High Probability of Type II Error an Issue in Error Awareness ERP Studies?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When researchers began addressing the electrophysiology of conscious error awareness more than a decade ago, the role of the error-related negativity (ERN), alongside the subsequently occurring error positivity (Pe), was an obvious locus of attention given the fact that they are taken as indices of cortical error processing. In contrast to the clear-cut findings that link the amplitude of the Pe to error awareness, the association between the ERN amplitude and error awareness is vastly unclear, with a range of studies reporting significant differences in the ERN amplitude with respect to error awareness, while others observing no modulation of the ERN amplitude. One problem in the studies obtaining null findings is the fact that conclusions are drawn based on small sample sizes, increasing the probability of type II error, especially given the fact that the ERN elicited using various error awareness paradigms tends to be small. The aim of the present study was to therefore address the issue of type II error in order to draw more certain conclusions about the modulation of the ERN amplitude by conscious error awareness. Forty participants performed a manual response inhibition task optimised to examine error awareness. While the early and late Pe amplitudes showed the expected sensitivity to error awareness, the ERN results depicted a more complex picture. The ERN amplitude for unaware errors appeared more negative than that of aware errors, both numerically and on the grand average ERP. The unexpected findings were explained in terms of (a) latency issues in the present data, (b) characteristics of the manual response inhibition task used and the possibility that it elicits variation in neurocognitive processing, and (c), in relation to possible contamination by the contingent negative variation (CNV), an ERP component elicited during response preparation. Suggestions for future research on how to address the issues raised in the present paper are also discussed.

  • 48.
    Davidsson, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Role of Major Life Events and Brain Development on Personality Trait Change in Adulthood: Insights from Personality Neuroscience2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between personality trait change and major life events is currently undergoing extensive investigations within the field of personality psychology. A debate has risen regarding whether or not major life events can bring about trait change, and how typical trait change patterns over the adult lifespan can be explained. It is valuable to understand how traits change because they predict important future outcomes. The Five-Factor Theory described by McCrae and Costa (2008a) states that traits are purely biological entities, and trait change is explained to result from processes of intrinsic biological maturation, unaffected by life events. This thesis reviewed the literature regarding the relationship of trait change and life events, and the research of potential biological bases of traits in the brain together with a brain developmental perspective of intrinsic maturation. Gaining an insight in the relationship between personality traits and the brain is a goal within a young field of research called personality neuroscience, and an agenda of the Five-Factor Theory. Major life events do cause trait change, but the relationship is complex. A brain developmental perspective of intrinsic maturation did not entirely correspond with patterns of typical trait change in young adulthood. The Five-Factor Theory is challenged and modifications are suggested. Neurobiological correlates of five-factor traits reveal issues and potentials for future research.

  • 49.
    Degerfeldt, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    It's About a Day: The Effect of Glucocorticoids on Shifting and Re-entraining the Circadian Rhythm in Peripheral Cells: A Review and Meta-Analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The circadian rhythm is a rhythm which permeates all aspects of biological life and follows the hours of the sun. The pace of the rhythm is controlled by a collection of neurons in the hypothalamus, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), whose signals affect rhythms throughout the body as can be seen in aspects of life from behavior down to oscillations of proteins in the cells. A disruption of this rhythm such as what happens during jet lag, where the rhythm of the SCN is out of synch with the rhythm of the rest of the body, is something that can have adverse effects on mental and physical health. To realign the SCN and the rhythm of the body, different methods and be implemented. This thesis investigated the effectiveness of glucocorticoids on re-aligning the rhythms of the body following a disruption through a meta-analysis and a qualitative review. The meta-analysis and review incorporated experiments from six articles investigating the hours of circadian rhythm shifts in the mouse model, after administering glucocorticoids. What was found was that the individual experiments presented results with high effect sizes; however, the direction of said effects was not uniform as the rhythms shifted in different directions. The lack of uniform direction caused no significant combined effect size to be found by this meta-analysis (MES=0.11 ± 0.06), showing that a statistical analysis based on hours shifted could not find a significant combined effect. The qualitative review, however, indicates that the administration of glucocorticoids shows an effect in re-entraining the rhythm of the peripheral parts of the body to that of the environmental cues and the SCN. Though no significant statistical effect was found in this analysis, the effect of glucocorticoids should not be discounted and could still prove a promising treatment for circadian disruptions, such as jet lag.

  • 50.
    Delsing, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Discovery Biology, Discovery Sciences, R&D, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Kallur, Therese
    BioLamina, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK / UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, UK.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Biology, Discovery Sciences, R&D, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Enhanced xeno-free differentiation of hiPSC-derived astroglia applied in a blood-brain barrier model2019In: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, ISSN 2045-8118, E-ISSN 2045-8118, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) hold great promise for use in cell therapy applications and for improved in vitro models of human disease. So far, most hiPSC differentiation protocols to astroglia use undefined, animal-containing culture matrices. Laminins, which play an essential role in the regulation of cell behavior, offer a source of defined, animal-free culture matrix. Methods In order to understand how laminins affect astroglia differentiation, recombinant human laminin-521 (LN521), was compared to a murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma derived laminin (L2020). Astroglia expression of protein and mRNA together with glutamate uptake and protein secretion function, were evaluated. Finally, these astroglia were evaluated in a coculture model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Results Astroglia of good quality were generated from hiPSC on both LN521 and L2020. However, astroglia differentiated on human LN521 showed higher expression of several astroglia specific mRNAs and proteins such as GFAP, S100B, Angiopoietin-1, and EAAT1, compared to astroglia differentiated on murine L2020. In addition, glutamate uptake and ability to induce expression of junction proteins in endothelial cells were affected by the culture matrix for differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest that astroglia differentiated on LN521 display an improved phenotype and are suitable for coculture in a hiPSC-derived BBB model. This provides a starting point for a more defined and robust derivation of astroglia for use in BBB coculture models.

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