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  • 1.
    Abril, Daniel
    et al.
    IIIA, Institut d'Investigació en Intel·ligència Artificial, CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain / UAB, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Torra, Vicenç
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. IIIA, Institut d'Investigació en Intel·ligència Artificial, CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo
    DEIC, Dep. Enginyeria de la Informació i de les Comunicacions, UAB, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Supervised Learning Using a Symmetric Bilinear Form for Record Linkage2015Ingår i: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 26, s. 144-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Record Linkage is used to link records of two different files corresponding to the same individuals. These algorithms are used for database integration. In data privacy, these algorithms are used to evaluate the disclosure risk of a protected data set by linking records that belong to the same individual. The degree of success when linking the original (unprotected data) with the protected data gives an estimation of the disclosure risk.

    In this paper we propose a new parameterized aggregation operator and a supervised learning method for disclosure risk assessment. The parameterized operator is a symmetric bilinear form and the supervised learning method is formalized as an optimization problem. The target of the optimization problem is to find the values of the aggregation parameters that maximize the number of re-identification (or correct links). We evaluate and compare our proposal with other non-parametrized variations of record linkage, such as those using the Mahalanobis distance and the Euclidean distance (one of the most used approaches for this purpose). Additionally, we also compare it with other previously presented parameterized aggregation operators for record linkage such as the weighted mean and the Choquet integral. From these comparisons we show how the proposed aggregation operator is able to overcome or at least achieve similar results than the other parameterized operators. We also study which are the necessary optimization problem conditions to consider the described aggregation functions as metric functions.

  • 2.
    Agaeus, Catharina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Sociala kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem (SKAMP) inom datorstött samarbete2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Delar av dagens samhälle fortsätter att datoriseras och nya möjligheter för interaktion med datoriserade produkter som stödjer social interaktion introduceras i ökad takt. Själva grunden för hur organisationer ser ut förändras och pekar mot ett allt mer distribuerat sätt där människor kan interagera med varandra utan att vara på samma plats, vid samma tidpunkt. Samtidigt visar forskning att det finns brister i användbarhet hos gruppverktyg. Kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem (KAMP) kan uppstå när användbarhet brister men har hittills främst studerats ur ett enanvändarperspektiv. Syftet med den här rapporten är att identifiera samt klassificera socio-kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem (SKAMP) inom datorstött samarbete för att bidra med kunskap som i förlängningen kan leda till en tydligare förståelse kring SKAMP. En arbetsplatsstudie utfördes där distribuerad kognition användes som analysverktyg. Studien genomfördes på en avdelning inom en organisation där förutsättningarna för att finna SKAMP ansågs som gynnsamma. Genom att anta ett distribuerat synsätt där observationer av avbrott och ”mismatches” i informationsflödet beaktats samt hur kognitiva processer implementeras i en grupp mynnade det analyserade materialet ut i fem kategorier av SKAMP: Problem med informationskoordinering, ”Bristande kommunikation”, ”gemensam lägesbildsaknas”, ”Brister i medierad kommunikation”, ”Otillräcklig kontroll och överblick”och ”Oklar holistisk helhetsmodell”. Dessa skall ses som komplement till de redan idag identifierade KAMP.

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  • 3.
    Albihn, Hampus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Steg mot Informationsvisualisering med Augmented Reality2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en del av forskningsprojektet Young Operator 2020 så syftar den här studien till att vara ett första steg mot en produkt, som med hjälp av av tekniken augmented reality ska vara en del av framtidens tillverkningsindustri. Studien utgår från kognitionsvetenskap och människa-datorinteraktion för att ha användaren och användarens interaktion med prototypen i fokus. Eftersom olika typer av användare kan behöva olika saker av ett system, kommer den här studien också att utgå från teorier om kompetensnivåer. Ett system som är användbart för exempelvis en novis behöver inte nödvändigtvis vara användbart för en expert. En prototyp har skapats som en del av ett annat projekt och den utgår från det arbetssätt som operatörer på Volvo GTO i Skövde har idag. Prototypen använder sig av augmented reality för att visualisera instruktioner. Det är tänkt att prototypen bland annat ska hjälpa noviser att närma sig expertanvändare. Ett kompetitivt användbarhetstest har gjorts där prototypen jämförts med nuvarande system på Volvo GTO. Resultatet av studien visar att prototypen i dagsläget inte kan anses vara användbar. Flera rekommendationer har dock presenterats som ett bidrag till vidareutveckling av prototypen.

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    stegmotinformationsvisualiseringmedaugmentedreality
  • 4.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Lowe, Robert
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Conveying Emotions by Touch to the Nao Robot: A User Experience Perspective2018Ingår i: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, nr 4, artikel-id 82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social robots are expected gradually to be used by more and more people in a widerrange of settings, domestic as well as professional. As a consequence, the features and qualityrequirements on human–robot interaction will increase, comprising possibilities to communicateemotions, establishing a positive user experience, e.g., using touch. In this paper, the focus is ondepicting how humans, as the users of robots, experience tactile emotional communication with theNao Robot, as well as identifying aspects affecting the experience and touch behavior. A qualitativeinvestigation was conducted as part of a larger experiment. The major findings consist of 15 differentaspects that vary along one or more dimensions and how those influence the four dimensions ofuser experience that are present in the study, as well as the different parts of touch behavior ofconveying emotions.

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  • 5.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    User Experience of Socially Interactive Robots: Its Role and Relevance2015Ingår i: Handbook of Research on Synthesizing Human Emotion in Intelligent Systems and Robotics / [ed] Jordi Vallverdú, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global, 2015, s. 352-364Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in everyday life for a growing number of people, but negative user experience (UX) can entail reluctance to use robots. Positive user experience underpins proliferation of socially interactive robots. Therefore, it is essential for robot developers to put serious efforts to attain social robots that the users experience as positive. In current human-robot interaction (HRI) research, user experience is reckoned to be important and is used as an argument for stating that something is positive. However, the notion of user experience is noticeably often taken for granted and is neither described nor problematized. By recognizing the complexity of user experience the intended contributions can be even more valuable. Another trend in HRI research is to focus on user experience evaluation and examination of user experience. The current research paths of user experience of socially interactive robots are not enough. This chapter suggests that additional research directions are needed in order accomplish long-term, wide-spread success of socially interactive robots.

  • 6.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Computer & Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction2017Ingår i: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), ISSN 1941-6237, E-ISSN 1941-6245, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 12-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in human society. For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importance to stressthe need for positive user experience (UX) of such robots. The human-centered view emphasizes various aspects that emerge in the interaction between humans and robots. However, a positive UX does not appear by itself but has to be designed for and evaluated systematically. In this paper, the focus is on the role and relevance of UX in human-robot interaction (HRI) and four trends concerning the role and relevance of UX related to socially interactive robots are identified, and three challenges related to its evaluation are also presented. It is argued that current research efforts and directions are not sufficient in HRI research, and that future research needs to further address interdisciplinary research in order to achieve long-term success of socially interactive robots.

  • 7.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zaragoza-Sundqvist, Maximiliano
    AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hanna, Atieh
    Volvo AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Towards a Framework of Human-Robot Interaction Strategies from an Operator 5.0 Perspective2023Ingår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXVI: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 37th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 6th – 8th September 2023, Aberystwyth University, UK / [ed] Andrew Thomas; Lyndon Murphy; Wyn Morris; Vincenzo Dispenza; David Jones, Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press, 2023, s. 81-86Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial transition to Industrie 4.0 and subsequently Industrie 5.0 requires robots to be able to share physical and social space with humans in such a way that interaction and coexistence are positively experienced by the humans and where it is possible for the human and the robot to mutually perceive, interpret and act on each other's actions and intentions. To achieve this, strategies for humanrobot interaction are needed that are adapted to operators’ needs and characteristics in an industrial context, i.e., Operator 5.0. This paper presents a research design for the development of a framework for human-robot interaction strategies based on ANEMONE, which is an evaluation framework based on activity theory, the seven stages of action model, and user experience (UX) evaluation methodology. At two companies, ANEMONE is applied in two concrete use cases, collaborative kitting and mobile robot platforms for chemical laboratory assignments. The proposed research approach consists of 1) evaluations of existing demonstrators, 2) development of preliminary strategies that are implemented, 3) re-evaluations and 4) cross-analysis of results to produce an interaction strategy framework. The theoretically and empirically underpinned framework-to-be is expected to, in the long run, contribute to a sustainable work environment for Operator 5.0.

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  • 8.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Designing Simulation-Based Training for Prehospital Emergency Care: Participation from a Participants Perspective2015Ingår i: Human-Computer Interaction: Designing and Evaluation: 17th International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, Vol. 9169, s. 297-306Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based training for prehospital emergency care is characterized by high degrees of complexity. Thorough knowledge of both the work and the setting is crucial and it is therefore important to involve both end-users and other stakeholders during the whole design process. This paper investigates a design process by focusing on how project participants experience the work process and participation of a multi-disciplinary, research-practitioner design team. This case study focuses on the work within a development project of a new prehospital emergency training facility. Open-ended interviews were conducted with the project participants halfway through the project. Strikingly, the results show that while there are problems and tensions that potentially could overturn the project, all participants express strong satisfaction with their participation in the project. This implies that the accumulated positive experiences are so strong that they overshadow tensions and problems that under other circumstances could have caused a project breakdown.

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  • 9.
    Almér, Alexander
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad informationsteknologi.
    Lowe, RobertHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Göteborgs universitet.Billing, ErikHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Proceedings of the 2016 Swecog conference2016Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
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  • 10.
    Alvarez Díaz, María Guadalupe
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lebram, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Your Answer Will Make an Impression: Using Quiz Game Mechanics for the Collection of Visitor Data in a Museum2015Ingår i: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Skövde: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, s. 1-4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the initial results from a project that aimed to collect visitor data at a traveling exhibition starting at the Regional Museum in Kristianstad, Sweden during 2014-2016. The project was intended also to contribute to the creation of an atmosphere “About time”, which was the subject of the exhibit. We built a system that was integrated as an interactable part of the exhibition by using elements of quiz game mechanics in combination with elements of data based tracking applications and elements of visual art installations. The data provides statistics which are used to visualize the current status of the visitors’ attitude toward specific questions about time, imprinting the visitors themselves an integral part of the exhibition. Visitors build a visual Game Ego when answering questions and at the same time provided statistical data that can be monitored and extracted from the system. The results show that we succeeded to some degree but more can be done towards incorporating game design elements to engage the user, such as feedback and challenge.

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    Your answer will make
  • 11.
    Alves, Thiago
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Exploring Underrepresented Narratives: Social Anxiety in Games2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This research focuses on pushing forward the understanding of mental disorders portrayals in games, more specifically social anxiety, which still lies as a marginalized topic in this medium. In order to understand honest manifestations of social anxiety in games, the first step is to conduct a close reading of games made by people who suffer from this mental disorder. A collection of five indie games, all of autobiographical nature and featuring social anxiety as an important part of their text, was put together for this analysis. This was done embracing the need to address the representational complexity, in order to tap into such a nuanced and elusive topic as social anxiety, not to identify rights or wrongs, but to engage in a discussion of how experiences are represented in games by people directly affected by this mental disorder. Individual experiences also contribute to expand interpretations and to identify additional keys of social anxiety representation. This is done by reaching informants, people living with a comorbid mental illnesses or disorders, that face or had faced social anxiety, and assess their perspectives through an experiential workshop. This work intends to further explore the practice of game design as mediator of experiences, contributing to both deepen the knowledge of game design and explore nuances of individual experiences present in autobiographical games and how this relates to perspectives of other people living with social anxiety. By combining the games and informants perspectives it is possible to structure a debate about game design patterns based on the findings of the game analysis and further elaborated with the nuanced perceptions gathered from informants. The knowledge acquired through this work is a step towards understanding of how games can represent, in an honest and non-stereotypical way, mental disorders, starting with social anxiety and, hopefully, contribute to spark other studies to broaden the spectrum of how the complexity of adverse mental conditions can be more respectfully addressed in games.

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  • 12.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Swedish School of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden / Swedish Armed Forces Centre for Defence Medicine, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument2016Ingår i: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2016, nr 1, artikel-id 17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Immersion is important for simulation-based education; however, questionnaire-based instruments to measure immersion have some limitations. The aim of the present work is to develop a new instrument to measure immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

    Methods

    The instrument was developed in four phases: trigger identification, content validity scores, inter-rater reliability analysis and comparison with an existing immersion measure instrument. A modified Delphi process was used to develop the instrument and to establish validity and reliability. The expert panel consisted of 10 researchers. All the researchers in the team had previous experience of simulation in the health and/or fire and rescue services as researchers and/or educators and simulation designers. To identify triggers, the panel members independently screened video recordings from simulation scenarios. Here, a trigger is an event in a simulation that is considered a sign of reduced or enhanced immersion among simulation participants.

    Results

    The result consists of the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI). It contains 10 triggers, of which seven indicate reduced and three enhanced immersion. When using ISRI, a rater identifies trigger occurrences and assigns them strength between 1 and 3. The content validity analysis shows that all the 10 triggers meet an acceptable content validity index for items (I-CVI) standard. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) among raters was assessed using a two-way mixed, consistency, average-measures intra-class correlation (ICC). The ICC for the difference between weighted positive and negative triggers was 0.92, which indicates that the raters are in agreement. Comparison with results from an immersion questionnaire mirrors the ISRI results.

    Conclusions

    In conclusion, we present a novel and non-intrusive instrument for identifying and rating the level of immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

  • 13.
    Andersson, My
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Improved interaction with collaborative robots - evaluation of event-specific haptic feedback in virtual reality2024Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 232, s. 1055-1064Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 5.0 adopts a human-centric approach that views humans as a natural part of introducing new technology, such as collaborative robots. However, one of the main challenges in implementing collaborative robots is safety, including the sense of safety. Trust is also a primary challenge when establishing functional collaboration. Influencing factors includes experience and expertise, and research shows that Virtual Reality has the potential to perform such training. This research aims to investigate whether using virtual reality with appropriate feedback can be an effective platform for familiarization and training. In our experiment, we utilized haptic feedback from commercial Virtual Reality controllers to simulate physical interactions with collaborative robots. The experiment involved the participation of fifteen individuals. The results showed that participants regarded haptic feedback while moving as the most appropriate representation. This research aims to identify whether Virtual Reality with suitable feedback can serve as a familiarization and training platform.

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  • 14.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    User experience of affective touch in human-robot interaction2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2015 SWECOG conference, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2015, s. 5-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic technology is quickly advancing and robots are entering both professional and domestic settings. An increased application of robots in elderly care and in therapy shows a shift towards social robots acting in human environments, designed to socially interact with humans. Socially interactive robots need to act in relation to social and emotional aspects of human life, and be able to sense and react to social cues. Touch, as one of the most fundamental aspects of human social interaction (Montagu, 1986) has lately received great interest in human-robot interaction (HRI) research (e.g. Dahiya et al., 2010; Silvera-Tawil et al., 2015) and the interpretation of touch in robotics has been presented as an unresolved research area with a crucial role in further development of HRI (Silvera-Tawil et al., 2015). It has been argued that the communicative distance between people and robots would be shortened and that the interaction would be more meaningful and intuitive if robots were able to “feel”, “understand”, and respond to touch in accordance with expectations of the human (Silvera-Tawil et al., 2015). However, this reasoning takes the notion of user experience (UX) for granted. The concept of UX embraces both pragmatic and hedonic aspects of interaction with technology in a particular context (Hartson & Pyla, 2012). In the field of human-computer interaction, UX has been acknowledged as a key term in the design of interactive products, but UX has not been emphasized in HRI. Accordingly, this research argues that it is important to study not only the robotic technology aspect of tactile interaction but also the user’s experience of the interaction, i.e. taking on the human-centered HRI approach presented by Dautenhahn (2007). Research on human-human interaction has showed that humans are able to communicate emotions via touch, and that specific emotions are associated with specific touch behaviors (Hertenstein et al., 2009). As a starting point for narrowing the distance between UX and HRI, the present research suggests a study where subjects are instructed to convey specific emotions to a humanoid robot. The study aims at investigating the role of affective touch in HRI with a focus on touch behaviors (e.g. stroking, grasping) for specific emotions, touch locations on the robot, and user experience of interacting with the robot via touch. The intended contributions of this study are an increased understanding of the necessary properties of tactile sensors enabling affective touch in human-robot interaction, the relevant placements of the sensors on the robot, and how the robot’s “look and feel” affects the user’s experience of the interaction. The proposed research embarks on a new track of HRI research and will, contrary to prior research on tactile interaction in HRI, emphasize the user experience of affective touch, highlighting that a positive user experience has to be systematically and consciously designed in order for the social robots to achieve the intended benefits of being socially interactive. Accordingly, the proposed study is believed to give new insights about the understudied dimension of UX in HRI, with the potential to enrich interaction between humans and social robots.

  • 15.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Ökad grad av användbarhetsarbete i organisationer: Utveckling av rekommendationer för en ökad tillämpning av användarcentrerade designansatser2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Människans samspel med teknik har blivit allt mer vanligt förekommande. Detta medför en allt större vikt på användbarhet, något som lämpligen uppnås med hjälp av användarcentrerade designansatser. Forskningsfältet människa-datorinteraktion (MDI) är idag högst aktuellt och snabbt växande, men det har trots detta uppvisats ett gap mellan teori och praktik där de tekniker som vetenskapen presenterar ej tillämpas. En fallstudie med aktionsforskningsperspektiv utfördes för att få en förståelse för vilka aktiviteter från de användarcentrerade designansatserna som tillämpas, vilka som ej tillämpas, samt varför. Studien genomfördes på ett företag som arbetar med högteknologisk utveckling med hjälp av datainsamlingsteknikerna observation och intervju. Vidare studerades problemet även genom ett aktivt deltagande i en av företagets designprocesser. Resultatet tyder på ett bristande användbarhetsarbete och genom en integrering av den insamlade empirin och den teoretiska referensramen har sex rekommendationer för ökad användning av aktiviteter från de användarcentrerade designansatserna tagits fram.

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  • 16.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Past and Future Challenges for Railway Research and the Role of a Systems Perspective2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VII: Ergonomics in Design, Design for All, Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design, Affective Design / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 1737-1746Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational train traffic is dependent on an efficient traffic plan monitored and executed by the traffic controllers, the proficient maneuvering of the trains by the train drivers, and on the interaction, communication, and coordination between these two work roles. The railway research community, and the branch of industry itself, has called for an integrated systems perspective for the whole train traffic system to achieve an efficient performance. As human-human and human-technology interactions are natural parts of the socio-technical system of train traffic, the aim of this paper is to provide illustrative examples for why a systems perspective is needed for the future of railway research. Furthermore, we present the theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) as a necessary addition to the theoretical and methodological toolbox of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF&E) discipline. To realize efficient and coordinated processes involved in organizing and executing operational train traffic, the paper proposes that the DCog framework should be implemented in the train traffic domain as a viable approach forward.

  • 17.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    The coordination between train traffic controllers and train drivers: a distributed cognition perspective on railway2019Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 417-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has long been a call for a holistic systems perspective to better understand real work in the complex domain of railway traffic, prior research has not strongly emphasised the socio-technical perspective. In operational railway traffic, the successful planning and execution of the traffic are the product of the socio-technical system comprised by both train drivers and traffic controllers. This paper presents a study inspired by cognitive ethnography with the aim to characterise the coordinating activities that are conducted by train traffic controllers and train drivers in the work practices of the socio-technical system of Swedish railway. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) is used as a conceptual and analytical tool to make sense of the complex railway domain and the best practices as they are developed and performed “in the wild”. The analysis reveals a pattern of collaboration and coordination of actions among the workers and we introduce the concept of enacted actionable practices as a key concern for understanding how a successfully executed railway traffic emerges as a property of the socio-technical system. The implications for future railway research are briefly discussed.

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  • 18.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Thorvald, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Towards an increased degree of usability work in organizations2015Ingår i: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, s. 5739-5746Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that there is a substantial gap between usability research and practice where UCD approaches are rarelyapplied in practice due to arguments regarding the intricate nature of its methods and techniques. This paper presents an actionresearch study designed to investigate and analyze the potentials for an increased degree of UCD activities in the earlydevelopment phases of advanced information systems technology. The results demonstrate that there is a large interest inusability but that organizational priority and competence is often lacking. Instead one relies heavily on questionable conceptssuch as „trained professionals‟ to excuse the low effort towards usability. Based on the results, six recommendations forimproved usability work in R&D organizations are presented, focusing on the importance of prioritization of, and education inusability work.

  • 19.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Effects of Visualizing Missing Data: An Empirical Evaluation2014Ingår i: 18th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV) / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Francis T. Marchese, Muhammad Sarfraz, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, Georges Grinstein, Vladimir Geroimenko, Sarah Kenderdine & Fatma Bouali, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 132-138Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical study that evaluates the effects of visualizing missing data on decision-making tasks. A comparison between three visualization techniques: (1) emptiness, (2) fuzziness, and (3) emptiness plus explanation, revealed that the latter technique induced significantly higher degree of decision-confidence than the visualization technique fuzziness. Moreover, emptiness plus explanation yield the highest number of risky choices of the three. This result suggests that uncertainty visualization techniques affect the decision-maker and the decisionconfidence. Additionally, the results indicate a possible relation between the degree of decision-confidence and the decision-maker's displayed risk behavior.

  • 20.
    Areizaga Blanco, Ander
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Patterns in Mainstream Programming Games2020Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, E-ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 97-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have found serious games to be good tools for programming education. As anoutcome from such research, several game solutions for learning computer programming have appeared. Most of these games are only used in the research field where only a few are published and made available for the public. There are however numerous examples of programming games in commercial stores that have reached a large audience.This article presents a systematic review of publicly available and popular programming games. It analyses which fundamental software development concepts, as defined by theACM/IEEE Computer Science Curricula, are represented in these games and identifies game design patterns used to represent these concepts.This study shows that fundamental programming concepts and programming methods have a good representation in mainstream games. There is however a lack of games addressing data structures, algorithms and design. There is a strong domination of puzzle games. Only two of the 20 studied games belong to a different genre. The eleven game design patterns identified in this study have potential to contribute to future efforts in creating engaging serious games for programming education.

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  • 21.
    Arnab, Sylvester
    et al.
    Disruptive Media Learning Lab, Coventry University, Coventry, UK.
    Moreno Ger, Pablo
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Lim, Theodore
    Herriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
    Lameras, Petros
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    School of Science and Technology, University of Northampton, UK.
    Kiili, Kristian
    Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke
    Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik, Bremen, Germany.
    Ninaus, Manuel
    University of Graz, Austria.
    de Freitas, Sara
    Curtin University, Bentley, Australia.
    Mazzetti, Alessandro
    Gruppo SIGLA S.r.l, Genoa, Italy.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Degano, Cristiana
    Gruppo SIGLA S.r.l, Genoa, Italy.
    Stanescu, Ioana
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    A Conceptual Model Towards the Scaffolding of Learning Experience2015Ingår i: Games and Learning Alliance: Third International Conference, GALA 2014, Bucharest, Romania, July 2-4, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Alessandro De Gloria, Cham: Springer, 2015, 1, s. 83-96Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of delivering personalized learning experiences is amplified by the size of classrooms and of online learning communities. In turn, serious games are increasingly recognized for their potential to improve education, but a typical requirement from instructors is to gain insight into how the students are playing. When we bring games into the rapidly growing online learning communities, the challenges multiply and hinder the potential effectiveness of serious games. There is a need to deliver a comprehensive, flexible and intelligent learning framework that facilitates better understanding of learners’ knowledge, effective assessment of their progress and continuous evaluation and optimization of the environments in which they learn. This paper aims to explore the potential in the use of games and learning analytics towards scaffolding and supporting teaching and learning experience. The conceptual model discussed aims to highlight key considerations that may advance the current state of learning analytics, adaptive learning and serious games, by leveraging serious games as an ideal medium for gathering data and performing adaptations. This opportunity has the potential to affect the design and deployment of education and training in the future.

  • 22.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Bai, Hua
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Bankler, Victor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Zhang, Ran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Teaching cardiovascular health through a purposeful game2022Ingår i: Collection of materials: II International Scientific and Practical Internet Conference "Innovative Solutions in Economy, Business, Public Communications and International Relationships", April 21, 2022, Dnipro: Volume 2, Dnipro: Університет митної справи та фінансів / Universytet mytnoyi spravy ta finansiv , 2022, Vol. 2, s. 5s. 391-396Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Games for health is one of the most prominent areas for serious games, i.e. games with a purpose beyond only entertainment. The purpose of a health game may be to inform about health related issues; promote healthy lifestyles and even to drive behavioral change. This paper outlines the initial game design considerations and some future research directions for a game focusing on cardiovascular health. As the overall aim of the project is to promote a healthy lifestyle through diet and physical activity to prevent future cardiovascular disease, we focused on “taking care of your heart” as the basis for the game. Hence we call the game Happy Heart and use a heart symbol as a non-playable character (NPC) that the player needs to take care of. To some extent we are inspired by the electronic Tamagochi toys (Bandai) where players need to take care of a digital pet. The heart symbol is universal and is also an ideograph that expresses the concept of love and as such it transcends language barriers.

    The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) is rapidly increasing across the world. Today they are the main drivers of morbidity, disability, and mortality in low- and middle income countries (LMICs), and are expected to increase due to unhealthy lifestyles in the wake of ongoing societal changes [1]. Among the major risk factors in many LMICs are poor diet, insufficient physical activity, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and exposure to hazardous substances, e.g. from air pollution. LMICs currently contribute three quarters of the deaths from NCD.

    Among the NCD, cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of hospitalization in Nepal [1]. Digitalization and collaboration with the education sector (e.g. community schools) in health promotion interventions could further improve children’s behavior by targeting factors that affect their lifestyle outside the family environment [4]. Hence, the Digital Game Based Learning approach.

  • 23.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Computer Gaming and Driving Education2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computers in Education, ICCE 2006: Pedagogical Design of Educational Games, 2006, s. 9-16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the learning effects of playing racing, action, and sports computer games. In particular we focus on traffic school students’ driving behavior. A survey conducted at three driving schools, questioned driving students about their gaming habits. The driving instructors evaluated their students’ driving skills and traffic safety attitudes. The results indicate that experience in computer games can have a positive effect on driving performance. Experienced gamers were ranked significantly higher by their instructors regarding their overall driving skills compared to students with low experience in computer games. However, no evidence was found to indicate that experienced gamers have a worse attitude towards fellow road-users or traffic safety. Experiments conducted in a driving simulator, using a game developed purposely to enhance certain traffic safety variables, reveals that it is possible to provide an entertaining game with serious content. Preliminary results, however, indicate that the version of the game where the explicit game goals are hidden was found to be the most entertaining one. The results of the investigation warrant further review into the development and utilization of computer games for traffic safety and education purposes.

  • 24.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Engström, HenrikHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.Liarokapis, FotisMasaryk University, Czech Republic.
    VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications2015Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Erlandsson, Patrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Andersson, Jimmy
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    A Skill tree Method to Identify and map in-game Skills to out-of-game Contexts2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Game Based Learning ECGBL 2021 / [ed] Panagiotis Fotaris, Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2021, s. 72-79Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification is the application of game design elements in non-gaming contexts to reach some purposes. It has been proposed as a solution in several domains, such as teaching, corporate training and healthy living. This paper presents the design and evaluation of the skill tree method which is a part of a gamified approach to motivate and support NEET-youth (Not in Education, Employment or Training) to leave their isolation and take steps towards better inclusion in society. The overall approach is based on two principles: 1) it targets adolescents with an interest in games 2); it utilizes their interest in games as the starting point for the intervention. Part of the intervention is based on a skill tree which maps in-game skills to out-of-game skills and visualizes the output so that the participant can become better aware of how their interest can drive personal development towards societal participation. The paper presents an evaluation of the skill tree method from the project staff perspective. The findings are positive but some need for improvements in the method as well as the tool were identified.

  • 26.
    Bai, Hua
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    A Model for Balancing Clarity and Appeal in Serious Game Visuals2023Ingår i: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Academic Conferences International Limited , 2023, s. 46-52Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In serious game development, graphic design needs to be eye-catching, while also depicting subject matter content in a responsible, accurate, and clear way. Previous research has shown that abstract and symbolic game visuals seem to be preferable for learning and providing an engaging experience. Our research focuses on describing the challenges involved in creating effective visual communication through game graphics in cross cultures. In particular, we’re interested in examining if certain styles of visual communication are more or less effective between different cultural demographics. To examine this, we have created a serious game which aims to promote healthy food and nutrition habits to teenagers in both Nepalese and Swedish schools and by doing so also motivate behavioral changes toward healthier eating habits. We are currently conducting studies to see whether preferences and image recognition differ between the two demographical spheres. This paper will only discuss the exploratory study done in Nepal. Ultimately, this paper aims to contribute development guidelines that can aid developers in creating more effective visual communication in their serious games, and we primarily focus on exploring what we call the compromise of ‘clarity’ and ‘appeal’ in the creation of game graphics. We present an initial model for choosing at what level in terms of realism/abstraction and taxonomic hierarchy the graphical components of serious games optimally should be produced in order to solve the dilemma of precise, unmistakable, yet appealing visuals in serious games. It all comes down to two primary decisions: defining the taxonomic hierarchy of the items to depict, and choosing the style in which to depict them. With a better understanding of when different game visuals are more or less appropriate, both in terms of style and in which objects are represented, game developers will be able to balance production costs better while also creating something that strikes the compromise between clarity and appeal.

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  • 27.
    Bai, Hua
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Zhang, Ran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    An Exploratory Study on Nepalese Teenager’s Visual Recognition and Preferences in Serious Games2022Ingår i: Proceedings 2022 IEEE International Conference on e-Business Engineering ICEBE 2022: 14-16 October 2022 Bournemouth, United Kingdom, IEEE Computer Society, 2022, s. 13-18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In serious game development, effective communication through both languages, sounds, and icons can be crucial for a game to have its intended impact. While this is also true for entertainment games, serious games have added layers of challenges as they are a) often played by audiences outside of the “typical” game ecosystem, and b) miscommunication can lead to players missing important lessons or even learning incorrect information. When a serious game is intended to be used in different parts of the world, however, clear visual communication gets an added layer of complexity: culturally informed symbol interpretation and visual preference. In order to examine how these might affect players’ experiences when playing serious games, this paper presents the results of a mixed-method study conducted in two schools in Nepal. The study included 10 participants, between 13-16 years old, who played a prototype of a mobile game currently in development, which has the purpose of teaching young players about food nutrition and healthy habits. After playing the prototype, they took a short survey where they were asked to identify different food types, and they were also interviewed to discuss their opinions of the game’s visual style. The results of the study indicate that, while higher fidelity images were much easier to correctly identify by the participants, the participants’ preference for visual fidelity varied to a large degree.

  • 28.
    Bankler, Victor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Castagnino Ugolotti, Vania
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. IGDA, Peru.
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    A Game to Support Children’s Participation in Urban Planning2020Ingår i: DiGRA ’20 – Proceedings of the 2020 DiGRA International Conference: Play Everywhere, Tampere: Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban planning is a complex process that involves many different stakeholders and has a very long time frame. The United Nations' Declaration of the Rights of the Child states that children should be given the opportunity to express their views and that these should be respected. The complexity of the urban planning process poses challenges on how to involve children. This article presents Stadsbyggarna - a board game designed with the explicit goal to help children understand the nature of urban planning. It has been used in citizen dialog in the development of a new 30-year city plan in a mid-sized Swedish city. Nineteen school classes in the municipality have played the game. The result shows that the gameplay encourage urban planning discussions. Role-playing is identified as a key element of the game. The digital component initially planned to be included in the gameplay was however found to be superfluous.

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  • 29.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Det spelande klassrummet: möjligheter och dolda utmaningar2022Ingår i: Digitala didaktiska dilemman / [ed] Sofia Lundmark; Janne Kontio, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2022, s. 113-140Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Novices Vs. Experts: Game-Based Learning and the Heterogeneous Classroom Audience2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning: Nord-Trondelag University College Steinkjer Norway / [ed] Robin Munkvold and Line Kolås, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015, s. 664-671Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the heterogeneity of K-12 students, as game audiences, affect the way games can beused as educational tools in formal education. When discussing the application of games in educational contexts, the realitiesof the formal educational environment are seldom brought to the fore. There has been a lot of discourse and studiessurrounding the theoretical viability of games as engaging educational tools and their properties as learning environments,but the practicalities of inserting games into classroom environments are comparatively rarely the subject of game-basedlearning research. This paper presents two five month long studies using participatory observation that details the processof putting a commercial of-the-shelf game to use in two different types of formal educational K-12 environments: a computerlab and a classroom. More specifically, this paper focuses on examining how students receive and work with a well-knowncommercial off-the-shelf game when it is introduced as a tool in their ordinary curriculum work. The study revealed severalchallenges that put many of the axiomatic assumptions practitioners and scholars frequently make regarding games’ virtuesas educational tools into question. The challenges relate to students’ perceptions of games and gaming, variations instudents’ efficacy while playing, and of exclusionary behaviour during collaborations. Commercial of-the-shelf games, whilethey might be more equipped than educational titles when it comes to living up to player expectations as far as productionvalues are concerned, can instil a certain set of faulty expectations of how the game will actually be used. If the used gameis widely recognisable by the classroom audience, the important distinction between gameplay intended for active directedlearning rather than unguided leisure activity can be difficult to establish, which can make it difficult for teachers to keepstudents in a reflexive and analytic mode of play. The classroom as a game audience also puts the educator in a tricky positiondue to the wide variation of preferences and gaming literacy among students, and creating engaging play-sessions that areinclusive to everyone in classroom environments can be an immense undertaking for teachers. While the study revealsseveral issues produced by the tension between games and the heterogeneous nature of the classroom as an audience, italso highlights the importance of managing students’ expectations, framing the play activity correctly, and fosteringcollaborative work where subject matter knowledge and gaming literacy are intertwined.

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    Novices Vs. Experts; Game-Based Learning and the Heterogeneous Classroom Audience
  • 31.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Unpacking Digital Game-Based Learning: The complexities of developing and using educational games2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna avhandling presenteras en djupgående undersökning av digitala lärospel och hur de utvecklas för, och används inom, skolutbildning. Lärospelsforskning har traditionellt sett främst fokuserat på att undersöka spels utbildningspotential ur ett produktcentrerat perspektiv där spel och spelare sätts i centrum. Detta perspektiv har bidragit till en högre förståelse av sambandet mellan olika typer av spelmekanik och pedagogiska principer, samt vad spelare lär sig av sina interaktioner med spelinnehåll. Allteftersom denna typ av forskning påvisat olika typer av positiva sammanhang mellan spelande och lärande har således även argumenten och trycket för att använda spel i skolan ökat. Men trots att vår förståelse för vad som händer i förhållandet mellan spel och spelare stärkts, så är förståelsen av de krav och förutsättningar som spel ställer som utbildningsverktyg fortfarande väldigt begränsad; prioriteringen av att förstå spelens inneboende potential har lett till ett synsätt som inte tar utbildningsmiljöers realiteter i beaktande. Resultatet av detta är att det i dagsläget finns en stor mängd argument för varför digitala spel har stor potential för lärande och därmed bör användas mer i skolutbildning. Men det finns få studier som påvisar hur denna potential faktiskt kan uppnås, eller om den ens uttrycker sig som förväntat när spel används i verkliga utbildningssammanhang.

    Med denna kunskapsbrist i åtanke undersöker och beskriver denna avhandling hur formella utbildningssammanhang och digitala spel förhåller sig till varandra både konceptuellt och praktiskt. Genom fältstudier som inkluderat både utvecklare, utbildare och elever har utmaningar som uppstår i det unika mötet mellan utbildning och spelande identifierats. Observationer från fältstudier stöds även av intervjuer där lärare och utvecklares arbetsprocesser och synpunkter kring utbildning och lärospel undersökts. De huvudsakliga utmaningarna som uppdagats i dessa studier är att den ”traditionella” synen på spelutveckling, spelande och spelare är svårförenlig med skolutbildnings realiteter, pedagogiska principer och skolan som marknad för spelkonsumtion. Kort sagt så delar spel skapade för informellt och formellt spelande (till exempel för hemmabruk respektive klassrumsanvändning) många ytliga likheter, men användningskontexterna introducerar så pass olika krav och förutsättningar att informella och formella spel och spelsituationer inte är jämförbara.

    I avhandlingen konstateras slutligen att lärospel utgör en unik blandning av användbarhet, spelupplevelser och kontextberoende aktiviteter för meningsskapande. Lärospel kan inte förstås till fullo om de endast ses som läroverktyg, eller endast som spelupplevelser. För att lärospel ska mogna och bli användbara och effektiva inom skolutbildning i större utsträckning behöver både utvecklare och utbildare förändra arbetsprocesser i sina organisationer, och metoderna genom vilka de skapar och använder spel som läromedel. Lärospel kan inte förstås som ett förhållande mellan spel och spelare då de i själva verket utgör ett stort system av aktörer, processer och användningskontexter, som var och en påverkas av individuella och lokala krav och förutsättningar. Med detta i åtanke yrkar denna avhandling för en mer systemorienterad förståelse av lärospel där spelobjektet inte separeras från kontexter och arbetsprocesser. Avhandlingen bidrar till detta systemperspektiv genom att presentera modeller som beskriver systemet som lärospel utgör, samt en serie rekommendationer som kan hjälpa utbildare och utvecklare att navigera de komplicerade processerna involverade i användandet och utvecklingen av lärospel.

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    Unpacking Digital Game-Based Learning
  • 32.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Working with Educational Games: Fundamental guidelines for developers and educators2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This short guide to using and developing games for use in classrooms was written during the European Union Interreg IV A funded project Scandinavian Game Developers. Scandinavian Game Developers is a collaboration between researchers (the University of Skövde), educators (Århus Social- og Sundhedsskole), and developers (Arsenalet and The Ranch Game Incubator), and this guide is an abridged overview of some of the important conclusions our group has reached during our work in the project. Whether you’re a game developer, teacher, or principal interested in educational video games, we hope that this guide will serve as a good tool for you to improve your understanding of what educational games are. As an educator, you’ll get some insight into what a game might bring to a classroom environment as well as the different challenges you might face when trying to use games in your regular teaching environment. For developers, we’ve put together some guidelines that will hopefully make your first educational game projects flow smoother and properly prepare you for some of the more common challenges that many educational game projects encounter.

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    fulltext
  • 33.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Educational Games in Practice: The Challenges Involved in Conducting a Game-Based Curriculum2016Ingår i: Electronic Journal of e-Learning, E-ISSN 1479-4403, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 122-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The task of integrating games into an educational setting is a demanding one, and integrating games as a harmonious part of a bigger ecosystem of learning requires teachers to orchestrate a myriad of complex organizational resources. Historically, research on digital game‑based learning has focused heavily on the coupling between game designs, previously established learning principles, student engagement, and learning outcomes much to the expense of understanding how games function in their int ended educational contexts and how they impact the working processes of teachers. Given the significant investments of time and resources teachers need to make in order to conduct game‑based learning activities, the foci of past research is problematic as it obfuscates some of the pressing realities that highly affect games viability as tools for teaching and learning. This paper aims to highlight the demands that the implementation and use of an educational game in formal educational settings puts on te achers working processes and skillsets. The paper is based on two case studies in which a researcher collaborated with K‑12 teachers to use MinecraftEdu (TeacherGaming LLC, 2012) as a classroom activity over a five‑month long period. By documenting bot h the working processes involved in implementing the game into the classroom environment, as well as the execution of the actual game‑based classroom activities, the studies identified a wide variety roles that a teacher needs to take on if they are to ma ke games a central part of a school curriculum. Ultimately, the paper highlights the importance of understanding the constraints under which teachers work, and argues that a better understanding of the contexts in which games are to be used, and the roles teachers play during game‑based learning scenarios, is a necessary foundation for improving games viability as educational tools. 

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    EJEL_EducationalGamesinPractice
  • 34.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Teachers’ Many Roles in Game-Based Learning Projects2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning / [ed] Robin Munkvold and Line Kolås, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015, s. 359-367Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines what roles teachers need to take on when attempting to integrate and use computer games in their educational environments. The task of integrating games into an educational setting is a demanding one, and integrating games as a harmonious part of a bigger ecosystem of learning requires teachers to orchestrate a myriad of complex organizational resources. Historically, the field of digital game-based learning research has had a tendency to focus heavily on the coupling between game designs, previously established learning principles, student engagement, and learning outcomes much to the expense of understanding how games impact the working processes of teachers. Given the significant investments of time and resources teachers need to make in order to conduct game-based learning activities, this research gap is problematic. Teachers needs to have a certain amount of gaming literacy in order to actively supervise, support, and guide their students before, during, and after the play sessions. The teacher also needs to be proficient in setting up play sessions in a limited amount of preparation time and tackle eventual technical difficulties. Beyond these demands, teachers also need to serve as a conduit between the learning context and the play context, and need to know how to continuously contextualize game activities and the content that students experience in the subject matter being taught.

    This paper describes the outcomes of two five month long studies where Swedish K-12 teachers were introduced to using MinecraftEdu as a classroom activity. The study identifies the different roles that a teacher takes on throughout game-based learning processes, such as technical administrator, game administrator, game tutor, subject matter expert, lecturer, debriefer, and classroom supervisor. Ultimately, the paper highlights the importance of understanding the constraints under which teachers work, and argues that a better understanding of the contexts in which games are to be used, and the roles teachers play during game-based learning scenarios, is a necessary foundation for improving games’ viability as educational tools.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Berg Marklund, Alklind Taylor - Teachers’ Many Roles in Game-Based Learning Projects
  • 35.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Children's collaboration in emergent game environments2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (FDG 2013), Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games , 2013, s. 306-313Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented in this paper examines how collaborative learning manifests in different environments of emergent play. Emergent games are interesting objects of study from a serious games perspective as their non-linear and open-endednature canalleviate issues caused by impersonal and inflexible content. But, in order for them to be useful in learning contexts, methods for assessment of player actions and participation in emergent games need to be improved. Our approach to this issue was to device a methodology to track individual group members’ work contributions during different types of group exercises. Groups of middle-school children, ages 6-9,were tasked to build structures out of LEGOs and in the game Minecraft and, through the devised tracking method, data from the different exercises were compared in order to determine how the collaborative patterns within the groups varied depending on what type of exercise they were performing. The results of the study indicate that the computer based emergent system was experienced as more engaging and immersive than the face-to-face one, and that it fostered continuous discovery, experimentation and problem solving throughout the game session.The devised methodology resulted in some good indicators regarding collaborative behavior, but more parameters need to be added for it to be usable for effective and meaningful player assessments.

  • 36.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Hellkvist, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    What Empirically Based Research Tells Us About Game Development2019Ingår i: The Computer Games Journal, E-ISSN 2052-773X, Vol. 8, nr 3-4, s. 179-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews empirically grounded research on practices in game development with the intent to give a comprehensive overview of contemporary development practices used in the video game industry. While there are many intangible elements that inform game development processes, this review specifically covers the more immediate practical challenges. The review covers a total of 48 papers published between 2006 and 2016, which were all subjected to thematic analysis by three reviewers. The results of the review show that an almost universal characteristic of game development is that it is almost impossible to accurately plan a development project in detail, largely due to the soft requirements inherent in game production which emerge mid-process during development projects, during when testing is coupled with continuous ideation and refinement. Practicing game developers have created their own frameworks that accommodate for this lack of planning. They include flat hierarchies, democratic decision-making, creative autonomy, and informal communication, which are designed to create an environment that maintains creativity and openness to product changes long into the production process. These frameworks vary significantly between studios and often between individual projects. This review also shows that the term ‘Agile’, while often used by both researchers and developers to characterize the process of game development, is not an apt descriptor of how game developers actually work. Agile is used as shorthand for unstructured and flexible development, rather than serving as a descriptor of a definable or unified work method. Finally, as companies develop more complicated hierarchies of stakeholders and staff, the desired flexibility and autonomy of game development becomes increasingly complicated to maintain, and often necessitates more formalized management processes and company structures. In these cases, inherent tensions of game development become more pronounced, and continuous creativity is hard to maintain due to a growing need to formalize processes.

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    fulltext
  • 37.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Romin, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Bad Game, Good Learning: Examining the Contradictions of Digital Game-Based Learning2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Game Based Learning: A Virtual Conference hosted by The University of Brighton / [ed] Panagiotis Fotaris, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2020, s. 67-76Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explore some of the inherent dichotomies between games and learning. This is not referring to the already thoroughly discussed challenge of merging learning content into appealing and engaging game design, but rather to a more fundamental question whether games, as a medium and as technological objects, are well suited to convey learning content. In order to anchor this discussion in something more concrete, the paper will describe a project in which a learning game was created, and describe some of the main development and design challenges encountered during the project. These challenges revealed a necessity of often going in directions directly opposed to what is considered to be good game design principles, as well as limitations in what type of messages the medium of digital games can efficiently convey. For example, clear goals and progression, feedback on actions, providing players with clear information, and empowering player agency, while often suitable in creating good games, are not suitable when representing complex issues in educational games. Based on these insights, the paper concludes with a broader discussion regarding the validity of some core tenets of game-based learning, and calls for a less instrument-focused and game-oriented way of creating and discussing games’ relationship to learning and education.

  • 38.
    Bergqvist, Emil
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Auditory displays: A study in effectiveness between binaural and stereo audio to support interface navigation2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses if the change of auditory feedback can improve the effectiveness of performance in the interaction with a non-visual system, or with a system used by individuals with visual impairment. Two prototypes were developed, one with binaural audio and the other with stereo audio. The interaction was evaluated in an experiment where 22 participants, divided into two groups, performed a number of interaction tasks. A post-interview were conducted together with the experiment. The result of the experiment displayed that there were no great difference between binaural audio and stereo regarding the speed and accuracy of the interaction. The post-interviews displayed interesting differences in the way participants visualized the virtual environment that affected the interaction. This opened up interesting questions for future studies.

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    Bergqvist, E., Thesis
  • 39.
    Bergqvist, Emil
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Spatial orientation & imagery: What are the gender differences in spatial orientation and mental imaging when navigating a virtual environment with only auditory cues?2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the gender differences in spatial orientation and mental imagery when navigating a virtual environment with only auditory cues. A prototype was developed for an iPod Touch device to evaluate possible gender difference in performance of orientation. A sketch map task was conducted to externalize the participants’ mental representation they achieved from the environment. Questionnaires were used to collect data on previous video game experience, spatial orientation self-assessment and spatial anxiety. A post-interview was conducted to gather qualitative information from the participants on how they experienced the experiment and to collect some background about them. In total, 30 participants (15 females, 15 males) with tertiary education participated in the experiment. The result indicates that there are gender differences in time to complete the tasks in the virtual environment. In the sketch map task, there were no gender differences in how well they sketch and externalize their mental representation of the environment. The post-interview showed tendencies that there are possible gender differences in vividness of mental imagery.

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    Bergqvist, E., Spatial orientation & imagery
  • 40.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior2018Ingår i: Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami, Teresa Romão, Springer, 2018, 1, s. 508-530Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) can be used to remotely estimate heart rate (HR) of users to infer their emotional state. However natural body movement and facial actions of users significantly impact such techniques, so their reliability within contexts involving natural behavior must be checked. We present an experiment focused on the accuracy evaluation of an established rPPG technique in a gaming context. The technique was applied to estimate the HR of subjects behaving naturally in gaming sessions whose games were carefully designed to be casual-themed, similar to off-the-shelf games and have a difficulty level that linearly progresses from a boring to a stressful state. Estimations presented mean error of 2.99 bpm and Pearson correlationr = 0.43, p < 0.001, however with significant variations among subjects. Our experiment is the first to measure the accuracy of an rPPG techniqueusing boredom/stress-inducing casual games with subjects behaving naturally.

  • 41.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games2018Ingår i: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, artikel-id 8734540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively, however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games, or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed to detect the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on pre-dened facial expressions, training of a model or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically signicant dierences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient and better suited for contexts involving games.

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    fulltext
  • 42.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Computer Science, Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó 89802 112, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Game-Calibrated and User-Tailored Remote Detection of Stress and Boredom in Games2019Ingår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, nr 13, s. 1-43, artikel-id 2877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotion detection based on computer vision and remote extraction of user signals commonly rely on stimuli where users have a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, e.g., images and videos. Predictive models are also trained on a group level, which potentially excludes or dilutes key individualities of users. We present a non-obtrusive, multifactorial, user-tailored emotion detection method based on remotely estimated psychophysiological signals. A neural network learns the emotional profile of a user during the interaction with calibration games, a novel game-based emotion elicitation material designed to induce emotions while accounting for particularities of individuals. We evaluate our method in two experiments (n = 20 and n = 62) with mean classification accuracy of 61.6%, which is statistically significantly better than chance-level classification. Our approach and its evaluation present unique circumstances: our model is trained on one dataset (calibration games) and tested on another (evaluation game), while preserving the natural behavior of subjects and using remote acquisition of signals. Results of this study suggest our method is feasible and an initiative to move away from questionnaires and physical sensors into a non-obtrusive, remote-based solution for detecting emotions in a context involving more naturalistic user behavior and games.

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    fulltext
  • 43.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Bampouni, Elpida
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Automatic Selection of Viewpoint for Digital Human Modelling2020Ingår i: DHM2020: Proceedings of the 6th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, August 31 – September 2, 2020 / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2020, s. 61-70Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During concept design of new vehicles, work places, and other complex artifacts, it is critical to assess positioning of instruments and regulators from the perspective of the end user. One common way to do these kinds of assessments during early product development is by the use of Digital Human Modelling (DHM). DHM tools are able to produce detailed simulations, including vision. Many of these tools comprise evaluations of direct vision and some tools are also able to assess other perceptual features. However, to our knowledge, all DHM tools available today require manual selection of manikin viewpoint. This can be both cumbersome and difficult, and requires that the DHM user possesses detailed knowledge about visual behavior of the workers in the task being modelled. In the present study, we take the first steps towards an automatic selection of viewpoint through a computational model of eye-hand coordination. We here report descriptive statistics on visual behavior in a pick-and-place task executed in virtual reality. During reaching actions, results reveal a very high degree of eye-gaze towards the target object. Participants look at the target object at least once during basically every trial, even during a repetitive action. The object remains focused during large proportions of the reaching action, even when participants are forced to move in order to reach the object. These results are in line with previous research on eye-hand coordination and suggest that DHM tools should, by default, set the viewpoint to match the manikin’s grasping location.

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    fulltext
  • 44.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, JessicaHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.Ziemke, TomHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Proceedings of the 2015 SWECOG conference2015Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
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    Proceedings of the 2015 SweCog Conference
  • 45.
    Björkqvist, Madeleine
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Voice interaction in intelligent vehicles: How can we design characteristics to create appropriate trust while entering an intelligent vehicle?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving an autonomic vehicle is terrifying to a lot of people, especially for those without knowledge and experience of this type of technology. Today, several companies within the automotive industry are working towards autonomous driving. Tesla, Waymo and Uber are three companies who already has the technology to drive autonomously. It is the future and this technology changes the driver’s role. The driver is now not only expected to take control but also to give control to the system. As mentioned above, this change is not welcomed by everyone due to fear. This is a challenge for the automotive industry and the question is therefore how the industry can make people trust the vehicles of the feature?

    This thesis is focused on how one can design appropriate trust through voice interaction in autonomous cars, using the learning intelligent vehicle (LIV) which is a concept research platform by Veoneer. The research in this thesis includes a user study including an observation study that was conducted on a local fair in Vårgårda with focus on a UX perspective with possible future end users. Since there are restricted methods of evaluation methods on voice interaction, the author uses the Gricean Maxims to evaluate the existing voice interaction of LIV. By using user studies and the Gricean Maxims, the author argues that these methods can be used to identify trust characteristics and create appropriate trust before the actual launch of the vehicle/system. For example, when exhibit the autonomous vehicle to the public.

  • 46.
    Brown, Ashley M. L.
    et al.
    Brunel University London, United Kingdom.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Animal Crossing: New Leaf and the Diversity of Horror in Video Games2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2015 DiGRA International Conference: Diversity of Play: Games – Cultures - Identities, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the diverse ways horror can be conveyed in games by investigating how games that are not associated with the horror genre can produce unsettling or scary experiences. To conduct this exploration, this study uses interaction mapping, as outlined by Consalvo and Dutton (2006), to examine a game that has thoroughly pleasant and cutesy trappings: Animal Crossing: New Leaf (Nintendo 2013). The interactions were analysed according to three themes prevalent within literature on horror and horror games: the loss of agency, the Freudian uncanny, and the Heideggerian uncanny. Ultimately, this paper demonstrates that a game which is not explicitly scary is occasionally made so through its rudimentary simulation of human behaviour and societal constructs as well as its autonomous functions and inclusion of real-world time, showing that games have very diverse means of conveying unsettling or horrifying experiences. The paper also shows how frameworks used to analyse games in the horror genre can be applicable to critical readings of non-horror games in order to understand the unexpected player reactions they can evoke.

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    Animal Crossing: New Leaf and the Diversity of Horror in Video Games
  • 47.
    Brusk, Jenny
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Kristine Jørgensen: Gameworld Interfaces2014Ingår i: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 70-71Artikel, recension (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Bäckström, Caroline
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Rolfson, Tanja
    Regionhälsan Midwifery Unit, Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Knez, Rajna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering. Skaraborgs Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Margaretha
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Expecting parents' perceptions of the digital parental support "childbirth journey" constructed as a serious game: an intervention study2022Ingår i: Digital Health, E-ISSN 2055-2076, Vol. 8, artikel-id 20552076221097776Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore expecting parents’ perceptions of the Childbirth Journey as an intervention that includes medical information for parental support, constructed as a serious game.

    Methods: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were held with expecting parents in Sweden who were able to talk about specific parts of the Childbirth Journey they appreciated or found difficult to understand. A phenomenographic methodology was employed for data analysis.

    Results: Participants perceived the Childbirth Journey to be easily accessible and customized with reliable information. The design and features of the intervention were perceived by the expecting parents to enhance the intervention’s usability, appeal, and trustworthiness. When parental couples used the Childbirth Journey together, it gave them an opportunity to discuss and better understand each other’s situation. The participants proposed several changes to the existing version of the game, mostly related to extending practical information and illustrated scenarios but also to the further development of the game’s design and animations. The participants found the Knowledge portal to be the most appealing part of the Childbirth Journey.

    Conclusions: The Childbirth Journey intervention was concluded to be a valuable digital complement to in-person profes- sional support, especially given the current COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in place in Sweden, which do not allow antenatal visits by partners. However, in its current form, the Childbirth Journey has some deficiencies and would therefore benefit from further development and exploration.

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    fulltext
  • 49.
    Cardell, Gabriel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Teoretiska designmönsters effekt i praktiken2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har utgått från att besvara frågeställningen ‘Hur väl fungerar teoretiska designmönster för navigering i praktiken?’ Designmönster i det här fallet innebär användandet av diverse mönster i en spelnivå som bland annat kan användas för att vägleda en spelare. Designmönstren baserades på diverse undersökningar om hur diverse spel vägleder den som spelar. Dessa designmönster sammanfattas sedan i en rad olika kategorier. Designmönstren har sedan inkorporerats i en spelbar prototyp i formen av ett hacka-och-slå-spel som spelas i fågelperspektiv. Prototypen användes sedan i en undersökning där frivilliga testdeltagare fick spela igenom det samtidigt som de blev observerade och ombads tänka högt. Därefter blev deltagarna intervjuade i en kvalitativ intervju där de fick uttrycka sina tankar angående olika områden där designmönstren användes. Resultaten visade att designmönstren fungerade till viss del men inte alltid på det sättet som var tänkt. Enligt teorin var det meningen att deltagarna skulle följa vägarna där designmönstren användes men ganska ofta valde deltagarna medvetet att gå den vägen sist eftersom de ville utforska allting annat innan de slutligen gick den vägen de tänkte var den rätta. Designmönstren delades då in i två kategorier. Den ena, som fick namnet undermedvetna vägledare, är designmönster som vägleder spelare utan att de är speciellt medvetna om att de blir vägledda. Den andra, som fick namnet antydare, är designmönster som tydligt markeras och märks av spelaren så att personen sedan själv kan avgöra ifall de vill följa den vägen eller inte. Detta gjorde det svårt att dra några slutsatser i och med att det till en början antogs att alla designmönstren tillhörde kategorin undermedvetna vägledare. Utöver det klargjordes det aldrig vad det innebär hur ett designmönster fungerar när det “fungerar väl”.

  • 50.
    Carlsson, Henric
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Using A Recommender To Influence Consumer Usage2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, the issues of the increased awareness of energy use are considered. Energy technologies are continuously improved by energy retailers and academic researchers. The Smart Grid are soon customary as part of the energy domain. But in order to improve energy efficiency the change must come from the consumers. Consumers should be active decision makers in the Smart Grid domain and therefor a Recommender system suits the Smart Grid and enables customers. Customers will not use energy in the way energy retailers, and politicians advocates instead they will do what fits them. By investigating how a Recommender can be built in the Smart Grid we focus on parameters and information that supports the costumers and enables positive change. An investigation of what customers perceive as relevant is pursued as well as how relevancy can adjust the system. A conceptual model of how to build a Recommender is rendered through a literature review, a group interview and a questionnaire.

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    fulltext
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