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  • 1.
    Abril, Daniel
    et al.
    IIIA, Institut d'Investigació en Intel·ligència Artificial, CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain / UAB, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. IIIA, Institut d'Investigació en Intel·ligència Artificial, CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo
    DEIC, Dep. Enginyeria de la Informació i de les Comunicacions, UAB, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Supervised Learning Using a Symmetric Bilinear Form for Record Linkage2015In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 26, p. 144-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Record Linkage is used to link records of two different files corresponding to the same individuals. These algorithms are used for database integration. In data privacy, these algorithms are used to evaluate the disclosure risk of a protected data set by linking records that belong to the same individual. The degree of success when linking the original (unprotected data) with the protected data gives an estimation of the disclosure risk.

    In this paper we propose a new parameterized aggregation operator and a supervised learning method for disclosure risk assessment. The parameterized operator is a symmetric bilinear form and the supervised learning method is formalized as an optimization problem. The target of the optimization problem is to find the values of the aggregation parameters that maximize the number of re-identification (or correct links). We evaluate and compare our proposal with other non-parametrized variations of record linkage, such as those using the Mahalanobis distance and the Euclidean distance (one of the most used approaches for this purpose). Additionally, we also compare it with other previously presented parameterized aggregation operators for record linkage such as the weighted mean and the Choquet integral. From these comparisons we show how the proposed aggregation operator is able to overcome or at least achieve similar results than the other parameterized operators. We also study which are the necessary optimization problem conditions to consider the described aggregation functions as metric functions.

  • 2.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. De Montfort University, UK.
    A Novel Method for Adaptive Control of Manufacturing Equipment in Cloud Environments2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to adaptively control manufacturing equipment, both in local and distributed environments, is becoming increasingly more important for many manufacturing companies.

    One important reason for this is that manufacturing companies are facing increasing levels of changes, variations and uncertainty, caused by both internal and external factors, which can negatively impact their performance. Frequently changing consumer requirements and market demands usually lead to variations in manufacturing quantities, product design and shorter product life-cycles. Variations in manufacturing capability and functionality, such as equipment breakdowns, missing/worn/broken tools and delays, also contribute to a high level of uncertainty. The result is unpredictable manufacturing system performance, with an increased number of unforeseen events occurring in these systems. Events which are difficult for traditional planning and control systems to satisfactorily manage.

    For manufacturing scenarios such as these, the use of real-time manufacturing information and intelligence is necessary to enable manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions and requirements, and not according to a pre-determined process plan. Therefore, there is a need for an event-driven control approach to facilitate adaptive decision-making and dynamic control capabilities.

    Another reason driving the move for adaptive control of manufacturing equipment is the trend of increasing globalization, which forces manufacturing industry to focus on more cost-effective manufacturing systems and collaboration within global supply chains and manufacturing networks. Cloud Manufacturing is evolving as a new manufacturing paradigm to match this trend, enabling the mutually advantageous sharing of resources, knowledge and information between distributed companies and manufacturing units. One of the crucial objectives for Cloud Manufacturing is the coordinated planning, control and execution of discrete manufacturing operations in collaborative and networked environments. Therefore, there is also a need that such an event-driven control approach supports the control of distributed manufacturing equipment.

    The aim of this research study is to define and verify a novel and comprehensive method for adaptive control of manufacturing equipment in cloud environments.

    The presented research follows the Design Science Research methodology. From a review of research literature, problems regarding adaptive manufacturing equipment control have been identified. A control approach, building on a structure of event-driven Manufacturing Feature Function Blocks, supported by an Information Framework, has been formulated. The Function Block structure is constructed to generate real-time control instructions, triggered by events from the manufacturing environment. The Information Framework uses the concept of Ontologies and The Semantic Web to enable description and matching of manufacturing resource capabilities and manufacturing task requests in distributed environments, e.g. within Cloud Manufacturing. The suggested control approach has been designed and instantiated, implemented as prototype systems for both local and distributed manufacturing scenarios, in both real and virtual applications. In these systems, event-driven Assembly Feature Function Blocks for adaptive control of robotic assembly tasks have been used to demonstrate the applicability of the control approach. The utility and performance of these prototype systems have been tested, verified and evaluated for different assembly scenarios.

    The proposed control approach has many promising characteristics for use within both local and distributed environments, such as cloud environments. The biggest advantage compared to traditional control is that the required control is created at run-time according to actual manufacturing conditions.

    The biggest obstacle for being applicable to its full extent is manufacturing equipment controlled by proprietary control systems, with native control languages. To take the full advantage of the IEC Function Block control approach, controllers which can interface, interpret and execute these Function Blocks directly, are necessary.

  • 3.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Cloud Manufacturing: A Critical Review of Recent Development and Future Trends2017In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 30, no 4-5, p. 347-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an on-going paradigm shift in manufacturing, in which modern manufacturing industry is changing towards global manufacturing networks and supply chains. This will lead to the flexible usage of different globally distributed, scalable and sustainable, service-oriented manufacturing systems and resources. Combining recently emerged technologies, such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Semantic Web, service-oriented technologies, virtualisation and advanced high-performance computing technologies, with advanced manufacturing models and information technologies, Cloud Manufacturing is a new manufacturing paradigm built on resource sharing, supporting and driving this change.

    It is envisioned that companies in all sectors of manufacturing will be able to package their resources and know-hows in the Cloud, making them conveniently available for others through pay-as-you-go, which is also timely and economically attractive. Resources, e.g. manufacturing software tools, applications, knowledge and fabrication capabilities and equipment, will then be made accessible to presumptive consumers on a worldwide basis.

    Cloud Manufacturing has been in focus for a great deal of research interest and suggested applications during recent years, by both industrial and academic communities. After surveying a vast array of available publications, this paper presents an up-to-date literature review together with identified outstanding research issues, and future trends and directions within Cloud Manufacturing.

  • 4.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Feature-based Function Block Control Framework for Manufacturing Equipment in Cloud Environments2018In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 57, no 12, p. 3954-3974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to adaptively control manufacturing equipment in cloud environments is becoming increasingly more important. Industry 4.0, supported by Cyber Physical Systems and the concept of on-demand, scalable and pay-for-usage resource-sharing in cloud environments offers many promises regarding effective and flexible manufacturing. For implementing the concept of manufacturing services in a cloud environment, a cloud control approach for the sharing and control of networked manufacturing resources is required. This paper presents a cloud service-based control approach which has a product perspective and builds on the combination of event-driven IEC 61499 Function Blocks and product manufacturing features. Distributed control is realised through the use of a networked control structure of such Function Blocks as decision modules, enabling an adaptive run-time behaviour. The control approach has been developed and implemented as prototype systems for both local and distributed manufacturing scenarios, in both real and virtual applications. An application scenario is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the control approach. In this scenario, Assembly Feature-Function Blocks for adaptive control of robotic assembly tasks have been used.

  • 5.
    Agaeus, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Sociala kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem (SKAMP) inom datorstött samarbete2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Delar av dagens samhälle fortsätter att datoriseras och nya möjligheter för interaktion med datoriserade produkter som stödjer social interaktion introduceras i ökad takt. Själva grunden för hur organisationer ser ut förändras och pekar mot ett allt mer distribuerat sätt där människor kan interagera med varandra utan att vara på samma plats, vid samma tidpunkt. Samtidigt visar forskning att det finns brister i användbarhet hos gruppverktyg. Kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem (KAMP) kan uppstå när användbarhet brister men har hittills främst studerats ur ett enanvändarperspektiv. Syftet med den här rapporten är att identifiera samt klassificera socio-kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem (SKAMP) inom datorstött samarbete för att bidra med kunskap som i förlängningen kan leda till en tydligare förståelse kring SKAMP. En arbetsplatsstudie utfördes där distribuerad kognition användes som analysverktyg. Studien genomfördes på en avdelning inom en organisation där förutsättningarna för att finna SKAMP ansågs som gynnsamma. Genom att anta ett distribuerat synsätt där observationer av avbrott och ”mismatches” i informationsflödet beaktats samt hur kognitiva processer implementeras i en grupp mynnade det analyserade materialet ut i fem kategorier av SKAMP: Problem med informationskoordinering, ”Bristande kommunikation”, ”gemensam lägesbildsaknas”, ”Brister i medierad kommunikation”, ”Otillräcklig kontroll och överblick”och ”Oklar holistisk helhetsmodell”. Dessa skall ses som komplement till de redan idag identifierade KAMP.

  • 6.
    Ahlberg, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Informativ Ljuddesign: Hur positivt eller negativt upplevs olika typer av ljud i ett spel utan visuella medel?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien fokuserar på hur ljudbilden i ett spel på ett effektivt sätt kan förmedla information till spelaren, och därigenom låta denne ta informerade beslut. För att göra detta undersöks hur olika typer av ljud påverkar en spelares inställning. Bakgrundsforskningen baserades på texter om speltillgänglighet, teorier kring ljuddesign och spel utan visuella medel som utvecklats i studiesyften. För att svara på frågeställningen så utvecklades ett textbaserat program som i tretton rundor lät fem deltagare välja mellan två snarlika ljud. Uppgiften var att välja det ljud som upplevdes som mest positivt, eller minst negativt. Sessionen bestod av en spelsession som kombinerades med en kvalitativ intervju, och hela intervjun spelades in för senare transkribering. I analysen presenterades ett urval av relevanta citat från de kvalitativa intervjuerna som sedan användes för att dra slutsatser utifrån studiens frågeställning. Resultatets tillförlitlighet sänks av det småskaliga urvalet, och personliga associationer kan ha spelat en alltför stor roll i deltagarnas svar.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Zakarie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Nasani, Rami
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Modellering och emulering av en människa- robot samarbetande arbetscell2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robots are a key challenge in industrial development. The problem today is that industrial robots are not adapted for close collaboration with humans and security gates are a need. This study focuses on developing an emulation model that can demonstrate such collaboration without the need for security gates. The project is based on the concept (virtual commissioning) which is about using emulation tools to develop a digital twin that is a copy of a physical system. With the help of the model, the system's functions and program code will be tested and validated before a real implementation is performed. On behalf of the University of Skövde, the thesis work was carried out to investigate the possibility of a close collaboration between a person and industrial robot in a virtual environment. In the study, two different methods have been developed to investigate the possibility of a collaboration but also to develop an emulation model. With this, operating lists have been created to clarify the person and the robot work tasks. Process scenarios were then created to demonstrate how such collaboration can take place in a virtual environment. A functioning emulation model in which man and robot collaborate, was delivered to the University of Skövde. By using the emulation model, the university can create and test different solutions before an implementation of a real system takes place. Finally, an emulation method is proposed that can be used to develop a digital twin.

  • 8.
    Albihn, Hampus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Steg mot Informationsvisualisering med Augmented Reality2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en del av forskningsprojektet Young Operator 2020 så syftar den här studien till att vara ett första steg mot en produkt, som med hjälp av av tekniken augmented reality ska vara en del av framtidens tillverkningsindustri. Studien utgår från kognitionsvetenskap och människa-datorinteraktion för att ha användaren och användarens interaktion med prototypen i fokus. Eftersom olika typer av användare kan behöva olika saker av ett system, kommer den här studien också att utgå från teorier om kompetensnivåer. Ett system som är användbart för exempelvis en novis behöver inte nödvändigtvis vara användbart för en expert. En prototyp har skapats som en del av ett annat projekt och den utgår från det arbetssätt som operatörer på Volvo GTO i Skövde har idag. Prototypen använder sig av augmented reality för att visualisera instruktioner. Det är tänkt att prototypen bland annat ska hjälpa noviser att närma sig expertanvändare. Ett kompetitivt användbarhetstest har gjorts där prototypen jämförts med nuvarande system på Volvo GTO. Resultatet av studien visar att prototypen i dagsläget inte kan anses vara användbar. Flera rekommendationer har dock presenterats som ett bidrag till vidareutveckling av prototypen.

  • 9.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Lowe, Robert
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Conveying Emotions by Touch to the Nao Robot: A User Experience Perspective2018In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social robots are expected gradually to be used by more and more people in a widerrange of settings, domestic as well as professional. As a consequence, the features and qualityrequirements on human–robot interaction will increase, comprising possibilities to communicateemotions, establishing a positive user experience, e.g., using touch. In this paper, the focus is ondepicting how humans, as the users of robots, experience tactile emotional communication with theNao Robot, as well as identifying aspects affecting the experience and touch behavior. A qualitativeinvestigation was conducted as part of a larger experiment. The major findings consist of 15 differentaspects that vary along one or more dimensions and how those influence the four dimensions ofuser experience that are present in the study, as well as the different parts of touch behavior ofconveying emotions.

  • 10.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User Experience of Socially Interactive Robots: Its Role and Relevance2015In: Handbook of Research on Synthesizing Human Emotion in Intelligent Systems and Robotics / [ed] Jordi Vallverdú, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global, 2015, p. 352-364Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in everyday life for a growing number of people, but negative user experience (UX) can entail reluctance to use robots. Positive user experience underpins proliferation of socially interactive robots. Therefore, it is essential for robot developers to put serious efforts to attain social robots that the users experience as positive. In current human-robot interaction (HRI) research, user experience is reckoned to be important and is used as an argument for stating that something is positive. However, the notion of user experience is noticeably often taken for granted and is neither described nor problematized. By recognizing the complexity of user experience the intended contributions can be even more valuable. Another trend in HRI research is to focus on user experience evaluation and examination of user experience. The current research paths of user experience of socially interactive robots are not enough. This chapter suggests that additional research directions are needed in order accomplish long-term, wide-spread success of socially interactive robots.

  • 11.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Computer & Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction2017In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), ISSN 1941-6237, E-ISSN 1941-6245, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in human society. For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importance to stressthe need for positive user experience (UX) of such robots. The human-centered view emphasizes various aspects that emerge in the interaction between humans and robots. However, a positive UX does not appear by itself but has to be designed for and evaluated systematically. In this paper, the focus is on the role and relevance of UX in human-robot interaction (HRI) and four trends concerning the role and relevance of UX related to socially interactive robots are identified, and three challenges related to its evaluation are also presented. It is argued that current research efforts and directions are not sufficient in HRI research, and that future research needs to further address interdisciplinary research in order to achieve long-term success of socially interactive robots.

  • 12.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Designing Simulation-Based Training for Prehospital Emergency Care: Participation from a Participants Perspective2015In: Human-Computer Interaction: Designing and Evaluation: 17th International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, Vol. 9169, p. 297-306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based training for prehospital emergency care is characterized by high degrees of complexity. Thorough knowledge of both the work and the setting is crucial and it is therefore important to involve both end-users and other stakeholders during the whole design process. This paper investigates a design process by focusing on how project participants experience the work process and participation of a multi-disciplinary, research-practitioner design team. This case study focuses on the work within a development project of a new prehospital emergency training facility. Open-ended interviews were conducted with the project participants halfway through the project. Strikingly, the results show that while there are problems and tensions that potentially could overturn the project, all participants express strong satisfaction with their participation in the project. This implies that the accumulated positive experiences are so strong that they overshadow tensions and problems that under other circumstances could have caused a project breakdown.

  • 13.
    Allert, Anna-Lena
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ProduktionsKompetensCentrum - En studie av effekter av projektstöd till tillverkande företag i Skaraborg2013Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Allert, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Business Support Agencies introducing Lean Production in SMEs - Does it make any difference?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many SMEs are implementing lean production in collaboration with a business support agency in order to improve their competitiveness. This research investigated whether improvement initiatives had the intended effect in some companies. A questionnaire was answered by employees in 26 SMEs. The result indicated experienced effect concerning leadership, communication and employee commitment, areas considered important for success in improvement initiatives,   and also progress in areas that characterise development towards lean. The result also indicated differences in experienced effect between managerial and non-managerial functions and between companies. 

  • 15.
    Almér, Alexander
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad informationsteknologi.
    Lowe, RobertUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Göteborgs universitet.Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 2016 Swecog conference2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Alvarez Díaz, María Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Your Answer Will Make an Impression: Using Quiz Game Mechanics for the Collection of Visitor Data in a Museum2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Skövde: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the initial results from a project that aimed to collect visitor data at a traveling exhibition starting at the Regional Museum in Kristianstad, Sweden during 2014-2016. The project was intended also to contribute to the creation of an atmosphere “About time”, which was the subject of the exhibit. We built a system that was integrated as an interactable part of the exhibition by using elements of quiz game mechanics in combination with elements of data based tracking applications and elements of visual art installations. The data provides statistics which are used to visualize the current status of the visitors’ attitude toward specific questions about time, imprinting the visitors themselves an integral part of the exhibition. Visitors build a visual Game Ego when answering questions and at the same time provided statistical data that can be monitored and extracted from the system. The results show that we succeeded to some degree but more can be done towards incorporating game design elements to engage the user, such as feedback and challenge.

  • 17.
    Alves, Thiago
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Exploring Underrepresented Narratives: Social Anxiety in Games2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research focuses on pushing forward the understanding of mental disorders portrayals in games, more specifically social anxiety, which still lies as a marginalized topic in this medium. In order to understand honest manifestations of social anxiety in games, the first step is to conduct a close reading of games made by people who suffer from this mental disorder. A collection of five indie games, all of autobiographical nature and featuring social anxiety as an important part of their text, was put together for this analysis. This was done embracing the need to address the representational complexity, in order to tap into such a nuanced and elusive topic as social anxiety, not to identify rights or wrongs, but to engage in a discussion of how experiences are represented in games by people directly affected by this mental disorder. Individual experiences also contribute to expand interpretations and to identify additional keys of social anxiety representation. This is done by reaching informants, people living with a comorbid mental illnesses or disorders, that face or had faced social anxiety, and assess their perspectives through an experiential workshop. This work intends to further explore the practice of game design as mediator of experiences, contributing to both deepen the knowledge of game design and explore nuances of individual experiences present in autobiographical games and how this relates to perspectives of other people living with social anxiety. By combining the games and informants perspectives it is possible to structure a debate about game design patterns based on the findings of the game analysis and further elaborated with the nuanced perceptions gathered from informants. The knowledge acquired through this work is a step towards understanding of how games can represent, in an honest and non-stereotypical way, mental disorders, starting with social anxiety and, hopefully, contribute to spark other studies to broaden the spectrum of how the complexity of adverse mental conditions can be more respectfully addressed in games.

  • 18.
    Amenabar, Leire
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Carreras, Leire
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Augmented Reality Framework for Supporting and Monitoring Operators during Maintenance Operations in Industrial Environments2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an ever-changing and demanding world where short assembly and innovation times are indispensable, it is of paramount importance to ensure that the machinery used throughout the whole process of a product are in their best possible condition. This guarantees that the performance of each machine will be optimal, and hence, the process times will be the shortest possible, while the best quality products are obtained. Moreover, having a machine in an impeccable status permits making the necessary changes to it, in order to fulfil the requirements that a more advanced or complex product may have. Maintenance operations and their corresponding trainings have historically been time-consuming, and a vast amount of information has been transmitted from an expert to a newer operator. This means that there has been the need of working with experienced operators to secure that a good service is provided. However, different technologies like augmented reality (AR) have been shown to have a positive impact in the support and monitoring of operators in industrial maintenance operations.The present project gathers information in regard to the framework of AR, with the aim of supporting and monitoring operators in industrial environments. The proposed method consists on the development of an artefact, which would lead to a possible improvement of the already existing solutions. It is believed that the development of an AR application could grant the necessary aid to any operator in maintenance operations. The result of this suggestion is an AR application which superimposes visual information on the physical equipment.

  • 19.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Swedish School of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden / Swedish Armed Forces Centre for Defence Medicine, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument2016In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2016, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Immersion is important for simulation-based education; however, questionnaire-based instruments to measure immersion have some limitations. The aim of the present work is to develop a new instrument to measure immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

    Methods

    The instrument was developed in four phases: trigger identification, content validity scores, inter-rater reliability analysis and comparison with an existing immersion measure instrument. A modified Delphi process was used to develop the instrument and to establish validity and reliability. The expert panel consisted of 10 researchers. All the researchers in the team had previous experience of simulation in the health and/or fire and rescue services as researchers and/or educators and simulation designers. To identify triggers, the panel members independently screened video recordings from simulation scenarios. Here, a trigger is an event in a simulation that is considered a sign of reduced or enhanced immersion among simulation participants.

    Results

    The result consists of the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI). It contains 10 triggers, of which seven indicate reduced and three enhanced immersion. When using ISRI, a rater identifies trigger occurrences and assigns them strength between 1 and 3. The content validity analysis shows that all the 10 triggers meet an acceptable content validity index for items (I-CVI) standard. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) among raters was assessed using a two-way mixed, consistency, average-measures intra-class correlation (ICC). The ICC for the difference between weighted positive and negative triggers was 0.92, which indicates that the raters are in agreement. Comparison with results from an immersion questionnaire mirrors the ISRI results.

    Conclusions

    In conclusion, we present a novel and non-intrusive instrument for identifying and rating the level of immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Jennifer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Degerfeldt Nilsson, Hans
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Traditionella metoder eller abstrakt kreativitet?: En jämförelse av ljuddesign inom crafting och dess påverkan på spelupplevelsen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier kring ljud och dess upplevelser tenderar att förhålla sig till grafiska element, där ljudet fungerar som en form av komplement till de visuella handlingar för att förstärka det som inträffar i spel. Symbiosen mellan grafik och spel utgår ifrån att dessa har definierade roller som de alltid behöver förhålla sig till och fungerar som en förutfattat mall över hur den ena ska agera gentemot den andra. Denna studie ämnar att behandla en jämförelse av två ljudläggningar med olika perspektiv, där den ena ljudläggningens förhållningssätt har fokus på att inte binda sig till konkreta, grafiska moment som sker i spelet och den andra ljudläggning ska följa stereotypiska angreppssätt till ljuddesign. Studien har tillämpat en spelprototyp som gestaltas genom ett matlagningspel där respondenter får dra ingredienser och lägga dessa inom ett område; för att på eget bevåg utforska spelets detaljer och avgöra vilka moment som är berikande för spelupplevelsen.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Kim
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Effekten av game feel: Hur tillägget av ren game feel påverkar en spelares immersion, jämfört med tillägget av detaljerad grafik, i ett actionspel med kort utvecklingstid2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att jämföra effekterna av game feel och detaljerad grafik på en spelares immersion. Arbetet är riktat mot korta produktioner och har som mål att redovisa data som gör att spelutvecklare kan göra informerade val vid implementation av funktionalitet och grafik. Tre prototyper skapades för att mäta spelarnas immersion: en med abstrakt grafik, en med detaljerad grafik och en med game feel. Försökpersonernas upplevelse av prototyperna samlades in med hjälp av en webbbaserad enkät. Försökpersonernas svar visar inga säkra resultat men pekar på att försökspersonerna som spelade prototypen med game feel upplevde mest immersion.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Moa
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    How can one create an aura from a digital reproduction?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How can one create an aura from a digital reproduction? According to researchers like Walter Benjamin (1936) this is not possible. However with todays technology and digitalmedia it is worth looking into how it would be possible.Museums are looking for ways to expand the experiences of their exhibitions with thehelp of digital media, but research into authenticity and aura in digital reproductions islimited. This research aims to answer if it is possible to create an aura from a digitalreproduction and in what way that would be done.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Moa
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    How do AR visualizations impact users' collective interactions in mixed reality experiences?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how Augmented Reality (AR) visualizations can impact the collective interaction of users. This research will focus on a multiphase experience with a buildup of different levels of Virtual Reality through the use of panoramas and 3D models. The experience was created using a participatory method with multiple tests and iterations to better create an evaluable product.

    The result if this experiment shows that the impact AR has on users is extensive. A properly framed character can even change a pair of two users into a group of three.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Moa
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    What key design features can be identified in creating a tool/game for helping children open up about sexual abuse through the collaboration with health care professionals?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What key design features can be identified in creating a tool/game for helping children open up about sexual abuse through the collaboration with health care professionals? In today’s society, sexual abuse of children is a real and common occurrence. This research will explore what role interactive media can play in helping children open up about abuse as well as identify 11 key design features for designing such a tool. To do so, the participatory method (Simon 2010) will be utilized throughout the design process, based on the collaboration with health care professionals to ensure as relevant and applicable design features as possible. The result of this study are the first iterations of designing this tool as well as the 11 key features that were identified with the help of health care professionals’ expertise.

  • 25.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User experience of affective touch in human-robot interaction2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 SWECOG conference, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2015, p. 5-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic technology is quickly advancing and robots are entering both professional and domestic settings. An increased application of robots in elderly care and in therapy shows a shift towards social robots acting in human environments, designed to socially interact with humans. Socially interactive robots need to act in relation to social and emotional aspects of human life, and be able to sense and react to social cues. Touch, as one of the most fundamental aspects of human social interaction (Montagu, 1986) has lately received great interest in human-robot interaction (HRI) research (e.g. Dahiya et al., 2010; Silvera-Tawil et al., 2015) and the interpretation of touch in robotics has been presented as an unresolved research area with a crucial role in further development of HRI (Silvera-Tawil et al., 2015). It has been argued that the communicative distance between people and robots would be shortened and that the interaction would be more meaningful and intuitive if robots were able to “feel”, “understand”, and respond to touch in accordance with expectations of the human (Silvera-Tawil et al., 2015). However, this reasoning takes the notion of user experience (UX) for granted. The concept of UX embraces both pragmatic and hedonic aspects of interaction with technology in a particular context (Hartson & Pyla, 2012). In the field of human-computer interaction, UX has been acknowledged as a key term in the design of interactive products, but UX has not been emphasized in HRI. Accordingly, this research argues that it is important to study not only the robotic technology aspect of tactile interaction but also the user’s experience of the interaction, i.e. taking on the human-centered HRI approach presented by Dautenhahn (2007). Research on human-human interaction has showed that humans are able to communicate emotions via touch, and that specific emotions are associated with specific touch behaviors (Hertenstein et al., 2009). As a starting point for narrowing the distance between UX and HRI, the present research suggests a study where subjects are instructed to convey specific emotions to a humanoid robot. The study aims at investigating the role of affective touch in HRI with a focus on touch behaviors (e.g. stroking, grasping) for specific emotions, touch locations on the robot, and user experience of interacting with the robot via touch. The intended contributions of this study are an increased understanding of the necessary properties of tactile sensors enabling affective touch in human-robot interaction, the relevant placements of the sensors on the robot, and how the robot’s “look and feel” affects the user’s experience of the interaction. The proposed research embarks on a new track of HRI research and will, contrary to prior research on tactile interaction in HRI, emphasize the user experience of affective touch, highlighting that a positive user experience has to be systematically and consciously designed in order for the social robots to achieve the intended benefits of being socially interactive. Accordingly, the proposed study is believed to give new insights about the understudied dimension of UX in HRI, with the potential to enrich interaction between humans and social robots.

  • 26.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ökad grad av användbarhetsarbete i organisationer: Utveckling av rekommendationer för en ökad tillämpning av användarcentrerade designansatser2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Människans samspel med teknik har blivit allt mer vanligt förekommande. Detta medför en allt större vikt på användbarhet, något som lämpligen uppnås med hjälp av användarcentrerade designansatser. Forskningsfältet människa-datorinteraktion (MDI) är idag högst aktuellt och snabbt växande, men det har trots detta uppvisats ett gap mellan teori och praktik där de tekniker som vetenskapen presenterar ej tillämpas. En fallstudie med aktionsforskningsperspektiv utfördes för att få en förståelse för vilka aktiviteter från de användarcentrerade designansatserna som tillämpas, vilka som ej tillämpas, samt varför. Studien genomfördes på ett företag som arbetar med högteknologisk utveckling med hjälp av datainsamlingsteknikerna observation och intervju. Vidare studerades problemet även genom ett aktivt deltagande i en av företagets designprocesser. Resultatet tyder på ett bristande användbarhetsarbete och genom en integrering av den insamlade empirin och den teoretiska referensramen har sex rekommendationer för ökad användning av aktiviteter från de användarcentrerade designansatserna tagits fram.

  • 27.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Past and Future Challenges for Railway Research and the Role of a Systems Perspective2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VII: Ergonomics in Design, Design for All, Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design, Affective Design / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 1737-1746Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational train traffic is dependent on an efficient traffic plan monitored and executed by the traffic controllers, the proficient maneuvering of the trains by the train drivers, and on the interaction, communication, and coordination between these two work roles. The railway research community, and the branch of industry itself, has called for an integrated systems perspective for the whole train traffic system to achieve an efficient performance. As human-human and human-technology interactions are natural parts of the socio-technical system of train traffic, the aim of this paper is to provide illustrative examples for why a systems perspective is needed for the future of railway research. Furthermore, we present the theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) as a necessary addition to the theoretical and methodological toolbox of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF&E) discipline. To realize efficient and coordinated processes involved in organizing and executing operational train traffic, the paper proposes that the DCog framework should be implemented in the train traffic domain as a viable approach forward.

  • 28.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The coordination between train traffic controllers and train drivers: a distributed cognition perspective on railway2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 417-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has long been a call for a holistic systems perspective to better understand real work in the complex domain of railway traffic, prior research has not strongly emphasised the socio-technical perspective. In operational railway traffic, the successful planning and execution of the traffic are the product of the socio-technical system comprised by both train drivers and traffic controllers. This paper presents a study inspired by cognitive ethnography with the aim to characterise the coordinating activities that are conducted by train traffic controllers and train drivers in the work practices of the socio-technical system of Swedish railway. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) is used as a conceptual and analytical tool to make sense of the complex railway domain and the best practices as they are developed and performed “in the wild”. The analysis reveals a pattern of collaboration and coordination of actions among the workers and we introduce the concept of enacted actionable practices as a key concern for understanding how a successfully executed railway traffic emerges as a property of the socio-technical system. The implications for future railway research are briefly discussed.

  • 29.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Distributed Cognition in Manufacturing: Collaborative Assembly Work2016In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXX / [ed] Yee Mey Goh, Keith Case, IOS Press, 2016, p. 243-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive science is becoming increasingly central within humanfactors and ergonomics (HF&E) and there has long been a call for a more systemicperspective in the area with a somewhat broader unit of analysis. This paperpresents a case study applying the theoretical framework of distributed cognition(DCog), which shows how DCog would offer a more complete understanding ofmanufacturing within its greater context, including the social, cultural, andmaterial surroundings. This paper aims to characterize and analyse dock assemblyof forest machines as a complex socio-technical system from a DCog perspective;focusing on the creation of enacted landscapes in this particular setting. The paperalso exemplifies benefits of using the DCog framework in the manufacturingdomain as a way of grasping the assembly workers’ tacit competence and skills.

  • 30.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens2017In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 85-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

  • 31.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards an increased degree of usability work in organizations2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 5739-5746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that there is a substantial gap between usability research and practice where UCD approaches are rarelyapplied in practice due to arguments regarding the intricate nature of its methods and techniques. This paper presents an actionresearch study designed to investigate and analyze the potentials for an increased degree of UCD activities in the earlydevelopment phases of advanced information systems technology. The results demonstrate that there is a large interest inusability but that organizational priority and competence is often lacking. Instead one relies heavily on questionable conceptssuch as „trained professionals‟ to excuse the low effort towards usability. Based on the results, six recommendations forimproved usability work in R&D organizations are presented, focusing on the importance of prioritization of, and education inusability work.

  • 32.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Effects of Visualizing Missing Data: An Empirical Evaluation2014In: 18th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV) / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Francis T. Marchese, Muhammad Sarfraz, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, Georges Grinstein, Vladimir Geroimenko, Sarah Kenderdine & Fatma Bouali, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical study that evaluates the effects of visualizing missing data on decision-making tasks. A comparison between three visualization techniques: (1) emptiness, (2) fuzziness, and (3) emptiness plus explanation, revealed that the latter technique induced significantly higher degree of decision-confidence than the visualization technique fuzziness. Moreover, emptiness plus explanation yield the highest number of risky choices of the three. This result suggests that uncertainty visualization techniques affect the decision-maker and the decisionconfidence. Additionally, the results indicate a possible relation between the degree of decision-confidence and the decision-maker's displayed risk behavior.

  • 33.
    Arambarri Iglesias, Oihane
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Arauzo Sanchez, Ane
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Design of a medical mask for users with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within this degree project a conceptual design of a mask has been developed for people with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity due to the lack of this kind of product in the market. The users currently use different masks that are designed to be used in other activities.  A preliminary study has been performed where market, ergonomics, materials and use situations have been analysed to gather knowledge to define the specifications of the product. Even if  the aesthetics of the first version of the product’s design was related to a health care design style, after obtaining results, it was observed that the wishes of the users weren’t being fulfilled. After updating the specifications and the generation phase three possible concepts have been presented. The evaluation has been done within the design group and the target users from the Basque association “Bizi-Bide”. The final conceptual design has been developed regarding different aspects such as ergonomics, materials, components and graphic design. The project has resulted in a concept of an innovative mask, which has a mouldable part for the nose and cheeks, a Velcro fastener to adapt it to different head measurements and exchangeable filters. 

  • 34.
    Arltoft, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Benkö, Agnes
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Camp and Buried: Queer perceptions of queer tropes and stereotypes in games.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The state of queer representation in games is poor, and queer consumers are growing increasingly vocal in their demands for nuanced portrayals. This thesis investigates how queer players perceive the tropes and stereotypes commonly used to portray them in games. By sorting through existing representation and using the most common tropes found, this study created two example characters which were represented both narratively and visually. These characters were then the subject of a study of 29 participants. The comments and opinions of these 29 participants were then analysed to find a largely negative consensus which is chiefly concerned with making portrayals less tragic. From this, this study proceeds to analyse the desires of queer consumers and contextualize them in relation to a world which still actively oppresses them.

  • 35.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Pehrsson, Leif
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Volvo Car Engine, Manufacturing Research and Concepts, Skövde, Sweden.
    Urenda-Moris, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Towards an industrial testbed for holistic virtual production development2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 369-374Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual production development is adopted by many companies in the production industry and digital models and virtual tools are utilized for strategic, tactical and operational decisions in almost every stage of the value chain. This paper suggest a testbed concept that aims the production industry to adopt a virtual production development process with integrated tool chains that enables holistic optimizations, all the way from the overall supply chain performance down to individual equipment/devices. The testbed, which is fully virtual, provides a mean for development and testing of integrated digital models and virtual tools, including both technical and methodological aspects.

  • 36.
    Assarsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Kommunikation av förbättringsarbeten: en studie i medelstora tillverkande företag2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this thesis is based on a research project at the University of Skövde, whose purpose is to study how management and measurement of continuous improvements can be improved in medium-sized manufacturing companies. The purpose of the thesis was to provide opportunities for companies to improve their communication of improvement work. The work included mapping all formal written communication of improvement work but not what is communicated orally in two companies. In Company A there were significantly more communication of information than in Company B. In Company A, who has worked a long time with Lean Production, communication modes such as goal management, daily management and various categories of improvement work was observed. In Company B only different categories of improvement work could be observed, this may be because they are in early stages of Lean. Production managers in Company A act in many of the communication modes, which gives them a big responsibility in the improvement work. The companies in the study but also other companies should take part of each other’s communication modes to achieve a more effective communication of improvement work. The companies should also bring the workers' thoughts on reducing waste and creating a system to follow up and measure the deviations.

  • 37.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Kunskap och mindreading inom fightingspel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport handlar om hur spelare kommer fram till beslut i fightingspel: om de använder kunskap eller om de förutser vad motståndaren ska göra. Bakgrunden behandlar termen ”mindreading” och vad fightingspel är samt vilka skickligheter som används i fightingspel. En förundersökning gjordes med erfarna fightingspelsspelare för att undersöka vilka faktorer som skulle kunna vara viktiga. Rapportens frågeställning är om det är spelmekaniken eller förmågan till mindreading som är viktigast för framgång i ett spel med frekventa Yomi-situationer såsom fightingspel. Ett enkelt rundbaserat fightingspel togs fram för att användas i undersökningen. Sex par försökspersoner spelade spelet och samtidigt fick de tala högt om sina tankeprocesser. Analysen av spelomgångarna och spelarnas kommentarer indikerade att beslut baserade på spelmekanik var mer framgångsrika än beslut baserade på mindreading. Denna rapport bygger på en undersökning med dataspelare som dock inte var specialiserade på fightingspel. En kommande undersökning skulle kunna göras med mer erfarna spelare.

  • 38.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Computer Gaming and Driving Education2006In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computers in Education, ICCE 2006: Pedagogical Design of Educational Games, 2006, p. 9-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the learning effects of playing racing, action, and sports computer games. In particular we focus on traffic school students’ driving behavior. A survey conducted at three driving schools, questioned driving students about their gaming habits. The driving instructors evaluated their students’ driving skills and traffic safety attitudes. The results indicate that experience in computer games can have a positive effect on driving performance. Experienced gamers were ranked significantly higher by their instructors regarding their overall driving skills compared to students with low experience in computer games. However, no evidence was found to indicate that experienced gamers have a worse attitude towards fellow road-users or traffic safety. Experiments conducted in a driving simulator, using a game developed purposely to enhance certain traffic safety variables, reveals that it is possible to provide an entertaining game with serious content. Preliminary results, however, indicate that the version of the game where the explicit game goals are hidden was found to be the most entertaining one. The results of the investigation warrant further review into the development and utilization of computer games for traffic safety and education purposes.

  • 39.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Magnus
    Västra Götalandsregionen.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås.
    The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this.  

    Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.

  • 40.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, HenrikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.Liarokapis, FotisMasaryk University, Czech Republic.
    VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 642-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

    Methods. The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

    Results. Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).

    Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

  • 42.
    Bankler, Jon Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    The Cultural Adaptation of Playful Learning: Aspects to consider when culturalizing a children’s educational game for the Chinese market2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores suitable applications of culturalization in the case of educational games for children, specifically in relation to the Chinese market. Culturalization, in the context of video games, are design choices and adjustments applied to a product in order to cater to the needs of different cultural environments. The characteristics of both this genre, and this target locale, determines to which aspects of the product culturalization should be applied.

    Using three commercial educational games as a basis for discussion, the research was conducted through a series of expert interviews with pedagogues, localizers and game researchers in China. By analyzing the data gathered through these interviews, a series of aspects to consider for culturalization was defined. These were: usage of cultural references; the branding of the product; educational utility in relation to the local school curriculum; choice of gamification design.

  • 43.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Novices Vs. Experts: Game-Based Learning and the Heterogeneous Classroom Audience2015In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning: Nord-Trondelag University College Steinkjer Norway / [ed] Robin Munkvold and Line Kolås, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015, p. 664-671Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the heterogeneity of K-12 students, as game audiences, affect the way games can beused as educational tools in formal education. When discussing the application of games in educational contexts, the realitiesof the formal educational environment are seldom brought to the fore. There has been a lot of discourse and studiessurrounding the theoretical viability of games as engaging educational tools and their properties as learning environments,but the practicalities of inserting games into classroom environments are comparatively rarely the subject of game-basedlearning research. This paper presents two five month long studies using participatory observation that details the processof putting a commercial of-the-shelf game to use in two different types of formal educational K-12 environments: a computerlab and a classroom. More specifically, this paper focuses on examining how students receive and work with a well-knowncommercial off-the-shelf game when it is introduced as a tool in their ordinary curriculum work. The study revealed severalchallenges that put many of the axiomatic assumptions practitioners and scholars frequently make regarding games’ virtuesas educational tools into question. The challenges relate to students’ perceptions of games and gaming, variations instudents’ efficacy while playing, and of exclusionary behaviour during collaborations. Commercial of-the-shelf games, whilethey might be more equipped than educational titles when it comes to living up to player expectations as far as productionvalues are concerned, can instil a certain set of faulty expectations of how the game will actually be used. If the used gameis widely recognisable by the classroom audience, the important distinction between gameplay intended for active directedlearning rather than unguided leisure activity can be difficult to establish, which can make it difficult for teachers to keepstudents in a reflexive and analytic mode of play. The classroom as a game audience also puts the educator in a tricky positiondue to the wide variation of preferences and gaming literacy among students, and creating engaging play-sessions that areinclusive to everyone in classroom environments can be an immense undertaking for teachers. While the study revealsseveral issues produced by the tension between games and the heterogeneous nature of the classroom as an audience, italso highlights the importance of managing students’ expectations, framing the play activity correctly, and fosteringcollaborative work where subject matter knowledge and gaming literacy are intertwined.

  • 44.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Out of Context: Understanding the Practicalities of Learning Games2014In: DiGRA '14 - Proceedings of the 2014 DiGRA International Conference, Snowbird, UT: DiGRA , 2014, , p. 16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the lack of studies examining the contexts in which learning games are used. Learning game research tends to focus heavily on the game artefact by examining how different types of designs foster both engagement and learning and how well the axiomatic definitions of good game design correspond to sound learning principles. While the dissection of the anatomy of games is important, there is an overabundance of studies on learning games as isolated systems at the expense of examinations of the constraints, possibilities, and requirements imposed by their real-world context of use. Learning games that are intended to work in formal settings like K-12 classrooms constitute systems that significantly differ from the traditional game scenarios between game artefacts and their players. As of yet few researchers have set out to survey these systems in their entirety. This paper presents a small literature review of learning game research that highlight the absence of studies focused on understanding the practicalities of the development and use of learning games. The paper also juxtaposes the results of the review with outcomes of a study conducted “within” the identified gap to present arguments for why the current lack of practical research is problematic. 

  • 45.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Swedish Game Education: 2001-2016: An overview of the past and present of Swedish, academic, game-related educations2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written as a part of the EU Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak funded project GameHub Scandinavia. The aim of the project is to provide resources and services to developers, educators, researchers, and supporting actors that are involved in the Scandinavian game industry. The report is intended to be a continuation of a series of reports written at the University of Skövde regarding the state of Swedish game educations. The inaugural report, Spelutbildarindex 2011, provided the first inventory of Swedish game educations on the tertiary level, and intended to discuss their rapid rate of expansion and the ways in which universities and vocational schools accommodated for changing demands in the industry. A second report, Game Development, Education & Incubation, delved deeper into incubation and industry, and provided a larger, but rather brief, overview of game educations in Denmark and Norway as a supplement to the Swedish statistics.

    This report will essentially describe Swedish game education as a tale of two different eras; the pre-2013 proliferation era, and the post-2013 plateau era. Previously produced reports on the topics were written during a period where game educations were rapidly proliferating, and when the games industry was in a more volatile state than it is currently. The state of both academia and industry differs immensely between this millennium’s two inaugural decades. Throughout the ‘00s, game educations grew at a rate that seemed to favour accommodation for student interests rather than processes of quality assurance, deliberation, and programme improvement. In the ‘10s, the amount of programmes have stopped increasing, and most of the statistics regarding student numbers have plateaued, and are in some cases even decreasing.

  • 46.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Unpacking Digital Game-Based Learning: The complexities of developing and using educational games2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital game-based learning has traditionally been examined from an ‘artefact-centric’ perspective that focuses on understanding how game design and principles of learning are, or can be, intertwined. These types of examinations have resulted in many descriptions of games’ educational potential, which has subsequently led to many types of arguments for why games should be used more extensively in formal education. However, comparatively little research has been done to understand the educational settings in which many game-based learning processes and educational games are intended to be applied. The relative lack of research on formal education settings has resulted in a scenario where the educational potential of games is well detailed through theory and understood independently of their actual contexts of use, while successful examples of games “making good” on their promises as educational tools remain rare.

    This thesis explores and describes the various challenges that the realities of formal education present to developers and educators who attempt to work with educational games. In order to examine the multi-faceted nature of educational games, the research has used a qualitative mixed-method approach that entails extensive literature reviews coupled with several case studies that involve educators, students, and developers. Interviews were conducted in order to investigate these actors’ various attitudes towards, and experiences of, educational games and game-based learning. In addition, more in-depth researcher participation methods were employed during case studies to examine the processes involved in developing, integrating, and using educational games in formal settings. The research revealed obstacles which indicate that processes associated with “traditional” game development are incommensurable with educational game development. Furthermore, the research demonstrates that the use of games in formal education introduces heavy demands on the recipient organisations’ infrastructures, cultures, and working processes. So, while games created for “formal” and “informal” use are superficially similar, the different contexts in which they are used make them distinctly different from one another. 

    The conclusion of this research is that educational games manifest a unique mixture of utility, gameplay, and context-dependent meaning-making activities. Educational games cannot be understood if they are only seen as a teaching utility or only as a game experience. To make educational games viable, both educators and developers need to alter their working processes, their own perceptions of games and teaching, as well as the way they collaborate and communicate with each other and other actors within the educational game ‘system’. The thesis thus argues that a more systems-oriented understanding of educational games, where the game artefact is not treated separately from the context of use, is necessary for both research and practice in the field to progress. To contribute to such an understanding of educational games, a comprehensive model (dubbed the Utility, Gameplay, and Meaning Model) of the ‘educational game system’ is presented, as well as a series of recommendations and considerations to help developers and educators navigate the complex processes involved in creating and using educational games.

  • 47.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Working with Educational Games: Fundamental guidelines for developers and educators2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This short guide to using and developing games for use in classrooms was written during the European Union Interreg IV A funded project Scandinavian Game Developers. Scandinavian Game Developers is a collaboration between researchers (the University of Skövde), educators (Århus Social- og Sundhedsskole), and developers (Arsenalet and The Ranch Game Incubator), and this guide is an abridged overview of some of the important conclusions our group has reached during our work in the project. Whether you’re a game developer, teacher, or principal interested in educational video games, we hope that this guide will serve as a good tool for you to improve your understanding of what educational games are. As an educator, you’ll get some insight into what a game might bring to a classroom environment as well as the different challenges you might face when trying to use games in your regular teaching environment. For developers, we’ve put together some guidelines that will hopefully make your first educational game projects flow smoother and properly prepare you for some of the more common challenges that many educational game projects encounter.

  • 48.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Educational Games in Practice: The Challenges Involved in Conducting a Game-Based Curriculum2016In: Electronic Journal of e-Learning, ISSN 1479-4403, E-ISSN 1479-4403, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 122-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The task of integrating games into an educational setting is a demanding one, and integrating games as a harmonious part of a bigger ecosystem of learning requires teachers to orchestrate a myriad of complex organizational resources. Historically, research on digital game‑based learning has focused heavily on the coupling between game designs, previously established learning principles, student engagement, and learning outcomes much to the expense of understanding how games function in their int ended educational contexts and how they impact the working processes of teachers. Given the significant investments of time and resources teachers need to make in order to conduct game‑based learning activities, the foci of past research is problematic as it obfuscates some of the pressing realities that highly affect games viability as tools for teaching and learning. This paper aims to highlight the demands that the implementation and use of an educational game in formal educational settings puts on te achers working processes and skillsets. The paper is based on two case studies in which a researcher collaborated with K‑12 teachers to use MinecraftEdu (TeacherGaming LLC, 2012) as a classroom activity over a five‑month long period. By documenting bot h the working processes involved in implementing the game into the classroom environment, as well as the execution of the actual game‑based classroom activities, the studies identified a wide variety roles that a teacher needs to take on if they are to ma ke games a central part of a school curriculum. Ultimately, the paper highlights the importance of understanding the constraints under which teachers work, and argues that a better understanding of the contexts in which games are to be used, and the roles teachers play during game‑based learning scenarios, is a necessary foundation for improving games viability as educational tools. 

  • 49.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Teachers’ Many Roles in Game-Based Learning Projects2015In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning / [ed] Robin Munkvold and Line Kolås, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015, p. 359-367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines what roles teachers need to take on when attempting to integrate and use computer games in their educational environments. The task of integrating games into an educational setting is a demanding one, and integrating games as a harmonious part of a bigger ecosystem of learning requires teachers to orchestrate a myriad of complex organizational resources. Historically, the field of digital game-based learning research has had a tendency to focus heavily on the coupling between game designs, previously established learning principles, student engagement, and learning outcomes much to the expense of understanding how games impact the working processes of teachers. Given the significant investments of time and resources teachers need to make in order to conduct game-based learning activities, this research gap is problematic. Teachers needs to have a certain amount of gaming literacy in order to actively supervise, support, and guide their students before, during, and after the play sessions. The teacher also needs to be proficient in setting up play sessions in a limited amount of preparation time and tackle eventual technical difficulties. Beyond these demands, teachers also need to serve as a conduit between the learning context and the play context, and need to know how to continuously contextualize game activities and the content that students experience in the subject matter being taught.

    This paper describes the outcomes of two five month long studies where Swedish K-12 teachers were introduced to using MinecraftEdu as a classroom activity. The study identifies the different roles that a teacher takes on throughout game-based learning processes, such as technical administrator, game administrator, game tutor, subject matter expert, lecturer, debriefer, and classroom supervisor. Ultimately, the paper highlights the importance of understanding the constraints under which teachers work, and argues that a better understanding of the contexts in which games are to be used, and the roles teachers play during game-based learning scenarios, is a necessary foundation for improving games’ viability as educational tools.

  • 50.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Practicalities of Educational Games: Challenges of taking games into formal educational settings2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2014) / [ed] Vanessa Camilleri, Alexiei Dingli & Matthew Montebello, University of Malta: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 82-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of balancing educational purpose and engaging gameplay mechanics through appropriate design decisions has frequently been discussed in learning game literature. The discussion has primarily focused on highlighting connections between game design principles and learning principles and making guidelines for achieving engaging learning scenarios through game mechanics tailored to specific subject matters. Play, and the learning derived from it, is thus often studied as a phenomenon of the two disparate forces of education and gameplay colliding inside a closed system. The complexity of designing games for educational purposes is subsequently also seen as a product of the dichotomies between these two forces. However, the discussions on the design of learning games and their potential as learning tools seldom take the practicalities of formal educational environments into consideration. In this paper, learning game design principles are investigated alongside developers’ and educators’ working practices. In our analysis we identify and examine a set of issues that complicate learning game design and development. The primary conclusion of this research is that the contexts in which learning games are used significantly alter the way they can be played by introducing constraints as well as facilitating conditions to the play sessions. The paper concludes with an argument for a shift of attention from the product centric view of today to a view that takes pedagogical contexts and organizational values into better account.

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