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  • 1.
    Arias Ramos, Ceferino
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Programming and Image Processing in a Compact Production Cell2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, control system in the automation industries has become more and more useful, covering a wide range of fields, for example, industrial instrumentation, control and monitoring systems. Vision systems are used nowadays to improve products quality control, saving costs, time, and obtaining a better accuracy than a human operator in the manufacturing process of companies. Combining a vision system with a suitable automated system allow companies to cover a wide range of products and rapid production. All these factors are considered in this project.

    The aim of this project is to upgrade the functionality of a Nokia-Cell, which was used in a quality control process for the back shells of Nokia cell phones. The project includes design, upgrade and implementation of a new system in order to make the cell work properly. The Nokia-Cell is composed of the following basic modules: vision and image recognition system, automation system devices (PC and PLC, robot), and other mechatronics devices. The new system will consist of a new camera, due to the poor connectivity and quality of the old camera. For the same reason, a new PC will replace two older ones for communication and vision recognition. The new system will also include a new PLC of Beckhoff to replace the aging one of Omron so as to facilitate the connections using the same language. In addition, IEC-61499 Function Blocks standard is adopted for programming the Nokia-Cell.

    It is expected that the results of this project will contribute to both research and education in the future. In addition, it would be correctly to apply the results to industries in vision-based quality control systems.

  • 2.
    Ayani, Mikel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ganebäck, Maria
    Projektengagemang Industri & Energi Sverige AB, El & Automation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Digital Twin: Applying emulation for machine reconditioning2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 243-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Old machine reconditioning projects extend the life length of machines with reduced investments, however they frequently involve complex challenges. Due to the lack of technical documentation and the fact that the machines are running in production, they can require a reverse engineering phase and extremely short commissioning times. Recently, emulation software has become a key tool to create Digital Twins and carry out virtual commissioning of new manufacturing systems, reducing the commissioning time and increasing its final quality. This paper presents an industrial application study in which an emulation model is used to support a reconditioning project and where the benefits gained in the working process are highlighted.

  • 3.
    Ayani, Mikel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Birtic, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Optimizing Cycle Time and Energy Efficiency of a Robotic Cell Using an Emulation Model2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 8, p. 411-416Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automated systems are mostly designed and pre-adjusted to always work at their maximum production rate. This leaves room for important energy consumption reductions considering the production rate variations of factories in reality. This article presents a multi-objective optimization application targeting cycle time and energy consumption of a robotic cell. A novel approach is presented where an existing emulation model of a fictitious robotic cell was extended with low-level electrical components modeled and encapsulated as FMUs. The model, commanded by PLC and Robot Control software, was subjected to a multi-objective optimization algorithm in order to find the Pareto front between energy consumption and production rate. The result of the optimization process allows selecting the most efficient energy consumption for the robotic cell in order to achieve the required cycle.

  • 4.
    Barrera Diaz, Carlos Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lidberg, Simon
    Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Sellgren, Tommy
    Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    A Study of Discrete Event Simulation Project Data and Provenance Information Management in an Automotive Manufacturing Plant2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] W. K. V. Chan, A. D’Ambrogio, G. Zacharewicz, N. Mustafee, G. Wainer, E. Page, IEEE, 2017, , p. 12p. 4012-4023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) project data management is a complex and important engineering activity which impacts on an organization’s efficiency. This efficiency could be decreased by the lack of provenance information or the unreliability of existing information regarding previous simulation projects, all of which complicates the reusability of the existing data. This study presents an analysis of the management of simulation projects and their provenance data, according to the different types of scenarios usually found at a manufacturing plant. A survey based on simulation projects at an automotive manufacturing plant was conducted, in order to categorize the information regarding the studied projects, map the available provenance data and standardize its management. This study also introduces an approach that demonstrates how a structured framework based on the specific data involved in the different types of scenarios could allow an improvement of the management of DES projects.

  • 5.
    Bentabol Muñoz, Emilio
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bosque Ibáñez, Carlos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    González Ruiz, Pedro
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Hurtado de Mendoza, Jose Manuel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Linking Wise-ShopFloor to an ABB IRB-140 Robot: Remote control, monitoring, and programming of an ABB robot IRC 5 through the internet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is integrate the new robot IRB140 from ABB inside the application Wise ShopFloor (Web-based integrated sensor-driven e-ShopFloor) and the integration of a web camera inside the application as well. In order to integrate the ABB IRB140 inside the application, a Java 3D model has to be created, the kinematics and collision constrains have to be defined also and the GUI application modified to fit the virtual model and the camera inside the application. The user has to be able to jog the web camera and zoom it. Changes in the server side have been done in order to introduce new functionalities such as the sessions management, the communication mechanism now is more general using Java inheritance.

  • 6.
    Diaz Rios, Raul
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    DEVELOPMENT OF A MANUFACTURING CELL IN COMPLIANCE WITH IEC 61499: Function Blocks networks implementation in a Gantry Robot system2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Standards are, nowadays, a useful and sometimes essential tool, in the world of automated industry. Since the development of the standard IEC 61131-3, automation has made progresses in a consistent manner. This allows an engineer to develop control programs for any type of systems using the language set in the standard. However, this standard was not enough because it did not cover the control over distributed systems. Therefore, it was necessary to establish rules in this field. In order to fill this gap, the new standard IEC 61499 was developed. Its main objective is to describe how to develop, design and implement distributed control systems, using the new concept of function blocks. By the use of the new function blocks, it is possible to control distributed systems in a quick and easy way, adding some advantages such as reusability, portability, and much enhanced maintenance.This project involves the preparation of a manufacturing cell composed of a gantry robot interacting with a CNC machine. The project is developed in two sections; one is focused on the computer programming with function blocks for the gantry robot and HMI, and the other is prepared for the programming of function blocks for the CNC machine and HMI. The communications between PLC, PC, gantry robot and CNC machine are developed using the standard IEC 61499. This document covers the survey and research made for the first section of the project.The new standard IEC 61499 provides the methodologies and the appropriated tools to achieve a good control in distributed systems. The basic tools offered by this standard are the new function blocks which will be the main tool used in this project. Equally important, it is necessary to take into account the different assembly features and the machining features in order to design better function blocks to control the system. An HMI has to be developed in order to obtain a good interface for a worker of this cell.The aim of this project is to investigate how the new standard IEC 61499 works in a real manufacturing cell and how the new function blocks interact in a real distributed system. Moreover, it is important to see how the event flow works, controlling all the sequences required in the manufacturing cell.

  • 7.
    García Concejero, Yeray
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Salazar del Río, Miguel Antonio
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Emulation of industrial Fieldbus modules for Virtual Commissioning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the industry, known as industry 4.0, has introduced new technologies such as Virtual Commissioning and Industrial Internet of things. Nowadays, virtual models of automated systems are being created in order to be tested while being built in real life, what includes PLC programs, robots, etc. In order to provide a real behaviour emulation, these virtual models should be as similar to reality as possible. Currently, the components communication in a real system is done through Internet with the use of fieldbuses I/O modules. Right now, these modules are not integrated in the virtual model, as the PLC program returns an error due to the hardware not being found. This implies that the PLC project must be modified, and a workaround must be done in order to connect the I/O cards components of the modules. Furthermore, it means that two PLC projects need to be maintained at the same time, one for the real system and another for the virtual system. In this thesis, a research was done to prove if fieldbuses modules could be emulated, helping to improve Virtual Commissioning. The final goal is to allow a PLC project created for a real system to be run again the corresponding virtual model without any change. To achieve this, a driver able to emulate the communication behaviour of an Ethernet/IP fieldbus module is developed and tested against a real PLC program.

  • 8.
    Huertas, Ana
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Decision support system for feeding policy selection in production settings: Research proposal2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Competitiveness is highly important in automotive industry. Customers’ satisfaction is decisive and that has turned out in high vehicle customization. Customization implies for example that a vehicle model can include several types of engines; inferring in high engine model variety on the assembly systems. Production lines balancing and ergonomic factors within assembly operations usually trigger unbalances on the logistics resources utilization. A proper feeding policy selection can palliate the impact of the unbalances generated by the assembly operations, improve the performance of the system and reduce cost. Selection among different policies is often done by following qualitative criteria which are influenced by product structure, operational constraints, company-specific practices and tradition. This project consists of the development of a decision support system for feeding policy selection in production settings. This system will automatically select the feeding policy at a single component level and evaluate the impact brought by this decision when interacting with the production setting. 

  • 9.
    Jiang, Yuning
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Atif, Yacine
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Multi-Level Vulnerability Modeling of Cyber-Physical Systems2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerability is defined as ”weakness of an asset or control that can be exploited by a threat” according to ISO/IEC 27000:2009, and it is a vital cyber-security issue to protect cyber-physical systems (CPSs) employed in a range of critical infrastructures (CIs). However, how to quantify both individual and system vulnerability are still not clear. In our proposed poster, we suggest a new procedure to evaluate CPS vulnerability. We reveal a vulnerability-tree model to support the evaluation of CPS-wide vulnerability index, driven by a hierarchy of vulnerability-scenarios resulting synchronously or propagated by tandem vulnerabilities throughout CPS architecture, and that could be exploited by threat agents. Multiple vulnerabilities are linked by boolean operations at each level of the tree. Lower-level vulnerabilities in the tree structure can be exploited by threat agents in order to reach parent vulnerabilities with increasing CPS criticality impacts. At the asset-level, we suggest a novel fuzzy-logic based valuation of vulnerability along standard metrics. Both the procedure and fuzzy-based approach are discussed and illustrated through SCADA-based smart power-grid system as a case study in the poster, with our goal to streamline the process of vulnerability computation at both asset and CPS levels.

  • 10.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    The Internet of Things, Factory of Things and Industry 4.0 in Manufacturing: Current and Future Implementations2017In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 32nd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 5–7, 2017, University of Greenwich, UK / [ed] James Gao, Mohammed El Souri, Simeon Keates, IOS Press, 2017, p. 221-226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the currently rapidly changing industrialized world, globalization,product customization and automation are playing an imposing role in thedevelopment of the manufacturing sector. Nowadays, the innovative concepts ofThe Internet of Things, Factory of Things and Industry 4.0 are aimed torevolutionize the way technology can help improve production around the world.While in some international corporations these concepts are being deeply studiedand are starting to be implemented, also in middle-size and large manufacturers itis clear they could contribute with many advantages; however, skepticism anduncertainty are still present among managers and stakeholders. In this paper, thecurrent and coming state-of-the-art technology and implementation of the Factoryof Things paradigm are presented and examples of the current implementation inglobal manufacturing companies are analyzed. Additionally, this article willdiscuss the potential implementation of this Industry 4.0 in a large manufacturer,and how it can help increase the control and efficiency of production, materialflows, internal logistics and production planning.

  • 11.
    Troitiño Malavasi, Bruno Matias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Muñoz Llerena, Alejandro
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hypothesis test of a new line balancing approach with dynamic allocation of assembly operations2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Assembly lines are no longer systems designed to produce as much as possible at the lower cost. Nowadays several factors such as mass customization and variation in demand have led the manufacturers to consider the flexibility of the assembly systems as one of the most important facts to take into account when designing an assembly line.

    In this context, this study attempts to test a new paradigm of the workload balance, which is based on a dynamic allocation of the assembly operations. In order to test the hypothesis, a real assembly system of engines has been used as a base model to implement the new approach. The work developed, uses the simulation as a means to carry out the study, which has required the development of several simulation scenarios. The hypothesis has been studied from two different approaches; on one hand a total dynamic allocation of assembly operations, which was expected to cause a wide operational range of the stations. On the other hand, the second approach implements a flow control which aims to reduce the operational range and workload fluctuations.

    The results obtained show a significant improvement of the system performance in comparison with the current assembly line. It has been found that any improvement implemented in the system is directly reflected in the total performance of the line, regardless if the improvement is made in a system constraint. Moreover, the results have proven a better response of the system to changes in the frequency of models production. 

    Finally, based on the results, this study suggests several paths of future work in order to acquire the needed information to implement the hypothesis in the real world context.

  • 12.
    Wang, Jiacheng
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Domingos, Luzaisso
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Developing of Data Logging System for Flow Test Station in Industrial Laboratory2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CEJN is a leading transnational company with long history and professional background providing high-tech quick connect products in global market. The headquarters of the com-pany in Skövde, Sweden, is the birthplace and core location of the entire corporation. In the headquarters, the engineer tests their products at their flow test laboratory. In the laboratory, there are flow test stations for all product ranges. Within them, the most basic are flow test benches for air, water and hydraulic oil products. The flow test benches are aim to test the products under International/Swedish standard conditions to determine the performance.

    This project is aimed in upgrading the test benches by engineering both hardware and soft-ware, to achieve higher level of automation of the data logging system used in the lab. All three test benches were designed and installed following requirements in corresponding in-ternational standards. The principles of testing are similar, but they are not developed from the same era, and the automation level of each test bench differs. As a result, the need of up-grading in the benches is different.

    In the laboratory, the recorded test results are reorganized and processed by a report genera-tor developed on Microsoft Excel. The Excel report generator is used for organize test results, calibrate the deviation of the instruments, calculate the flow coefficient of the product, gener-ate performance diagrams of the products, generate test reports for different purpose of use, and save the test data and results on the server of the company.

    Above all, an upgrade of the data logging system for the three flow test benches was needed. Depending on the conditions of each test bench, the project is implemented and designed the following three parts:

    • A hardware upgrading (flow rate computer) for the air flow test benchA new signal indicating device for replacing the old flow rate computer is purchased from Italy by the company. The new instrument contains filter function to stabilize the flow rate value.

    • A software upgrading (Excel report generator) for all the test benchesVisual Basic for Applications (VBA) programming language is used for developing functions such as data communication, signal decoding and user interface developing in Excel.

    • Develop of an automated data visualizing system for the air flow test benchData communication from the new instrument to a PC through serial port and Mod-bus RTU interface is established. The data visualizing function is compiled in the Ex-cel report generator for the air flow test, realized by VBA programming.

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