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  • 1.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Wang, Lihui
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm (KTH).
    Holm, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Moore, Philip
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, UK.
    Adaptive Robotic Control in Cloud Environments2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing / [ed] F. Frank Chen, The University of Texas at San Antonio, U.S.A., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA: DEStech Publications, Inc , 2014, s. 37-44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalization is a trend which forces manufacturing industry of today to focus on more cost-effective manufacturing systems and collaboration within global supply chains and manufacturing networks. Cloud Manufacturing (CM) is evolving as a new manufacturing paradigm to match this trend, enabling the mutually advantageous sharing of resources, knowledge and information between distributed companies and manufacturing units. Providing a framework for collaboration within complex and critical tasks, such as manufacturing and design, it increases the companies’ ability to successfully compete on a global marketplace. One of the major, crucial objectives for CM is the coordinated planning, control and execution of discrete manufacturing operations in a collaborative and networked environment. This paper describes the overall concept of adaptive Function Block control of manufacturing equipment in Cloud environments, with the specific focus on robotic assembly operations, and presents Cloud Robotics as “Robot Control-as-a-Service” within CM.

  • 2.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Wang, Lihui
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm (KTH).
    Holm, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Moore, Philip
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, UK.
    Function Block Approach for Adaptive Robotic Control in Virtual and Real Environments2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th Mechatronics Forum International Conference / [ed] Leo J. De Vin and Jorge Solis, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014, s. 473-479Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing companies are facing an increasing amount of changes and uncertainty, caused by both internal and external factors. Frequently changing customer and market demands lead to variations in manufacturing quantities, product design and shorter product life-cycles, and variations in manufacturing capability and functionality contribute to a high level of uncertainty. The result is unpredictable manufacturing system performance, with an increased number of unforeseen events occurring in these systems. Such events are difficult for traditional planning and control systems to satisfactorily manage. For scenarios like these, with a dynamically changing manufacturing environment, adaptive decision making is crucial for successfully performing manufacturing operations. Relying on real-time information of manufacturing processes and operations, and their enabling resources, adaptive decision making can be realized with a control approach combining IEC 61499 event-driven Function Blocks (FBs) with manufacturing features. These FBs are small decision-making modules with embedded algorithms designed to generate the desired equipment control code. When dynamically triggered by event inputs, parameter values in their data inputs are forwarded to the appropriate algorithms, which generate new events and data output as control instructions. The data inputs also include monitored real-time information which allows the dynamic creation of equipment control code adapted to the actual run-time conditions on the shop-floor. Manufacturing features build on the concept that a manufacturing task can be broken down into a sequence of minor basic operations, in this research assembly features (AFs). These features define atomic assembly operations, and by combining and implementing these in the event-driven FB embedded algorithms, automatic code generation is possible. A test case with a virtual robot assembly cell is presented, demonstrating the functionality of the proposed control approach.

  • 3.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik A.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lowe, Robert
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    User Experience of Conveying Emotions by Touch2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2017, s. 1240-1247Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, 64 users were asked to convey eight distinct emotion to a humanoid Nao robot via touch, and were then asked to evaluate their experiences of performing that task. Large differences between emotions were revealed. Users perceived conveying of positive/pro-social emotions as significantly easier than negative emotions, with love and disgust as the two extremes. When asked whether they would act differently towards a human, compared to the robot, the users’ replies varied. A content analysis of interviews revealed a generally positive user experience (UX) while interacting with the robot, but users also found the task challenging in several ways. Three major themes with impact on the UX emerged; responsiveness, robustness, and trickiness. The results are discussed in relation to a study of human-human affective tactile interaction, with implications for human-robot interaction (HRI) and design of social and affective robotics in particular. 

  • 4.
    Arias Ramos, Ceferino
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Programming and Image Processing in a Compact Production Cell2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, control system in the automation industries has become more and more useful, covering a wide range of fields, for example, industrial instrumentation, control and monitoring systems. Vision systems are used nowadays to improve products quality control, saving costs, time, and obtaining a better accuracy than a human operator in the manufacturing process of companies. Combining a vision system with a suitable automated system allow companies to cover a wide range of products and rapid production. All these factors are considered in this project.

    The aim of this project is to upgrade the functionality of a Nokia-Cell, which was used in a quality control process for the back shells of Nokia cell phones. The project includes design, upgrade and implementation of a new system in order to make the cell work properly. The Nokia-Cell is composed of the following basic modules: vision and image recognition system, automation system devices (PC and PLC, robot), and other mechatronics devices. The new system will consist of a new camera, due to the poor connectivity and quality of the old camera. For the same reason, a new PC will replace two older ones for communication and vision recognition. The new system will also include a new PLC of Beckhoff to replace the aging one of Omron so as to facilitate the connections using the same language. In addition, IEC-61499 Function Blocks standard is adopted for programming the Nokia-Cell.

    It is expected that the results of this project will contribute to both research and education in the future. In addition, it would be correctly to apply the results to industries in vision-based quality control systems.

  • 5.
    Arrieta, Aitor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    FB-Environment in Wise-Shop Floor: Algorithm parser and code generation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is the authority that publishes different standards in the  fields  of  electrical  and  electronics  engineering,  to  be  used  internationally.  In  the  area  of manufacturing, it has demanded a new standard to fulfil better solutions of dynamic requirements. The  IEC  61499  redacted  by  IEC  offers  interoperability,  portability,  configurability  and  distributed control applications for manufacturing processes. However, this standard is not a replacement of IEC 61131-3,  one  of  the  most  used  standards  in  industry;  instead,  it  is  a  complement  of  it.  The  basic software units of IEC 61499 are named Function Blocks (FBs), which can be described as blocks that encapsulate functionality. By combining FBs together, it is possible to solve complex problems.   The  objective  of  this  project  (in  close  cooperation  with  another  project)  is  to  develop  a  software environment in Java language. It follows the requirements of IEC 61499, and implement a Function Block  designer  and  a  runtime  execution  environment,  as  a  part  of  an  existing  Wise-ShopFloor framework. The scope of this project covers:     FB  algorithm  editor:  Each  FB  has  one  or  more  algorithms,  which  can  be  defined  in  the algorithm editor using IEC 61131-3 or Java.     FB serialization: Opening and saving the configuration of FBs in Java Class file is one of the tasks  of  this  project.  As  soon  as  the  configuration  is  saved,  the  Java  code  of  FB  can  be generated. Java code is generated because compiled Java allows execution of FB. Saving in Java  Class  file  permits  portability,  i.e.  the  saved  configuration  can  be  opened  in  any  JVM system, and vice versa.      Case study: A simulation of an assembly station using an ABB IRB 140 robot is studied and implemented using the runtime simulator of the Java platform, in which some basic FBs have been also created in a library. This project also includes: (1) implementation of user interface and (2) FB serialization in XML. It  is  anticipated  that  the  developed  environment  will  be  able  to  save  and  open  FBs  configurations either in XML or in Java Class, following the specification of IEC 61499. It will allow portability and reusability.  Because  of  the  portability,  the  so-designed  FBs  can  be  validated  using  another  FB environment such as FBDK (Function Block Development Kit).

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Hultberg, Carl
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Realtidsstyrning av robotiserad kameraplattform2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Försvarets materielverk (FMV), som förser Svenska försvaret med materiel, har en del av sin organisation belägen i Karlsborg nämligen test och evaluering av markstridssystem. Fotogruppen på test och evaluering önskar realtidsstyra en robotiserad kameraplattform av märket Vinten med hjälp av diverse olika positionsgivande system i form av joystick, Doppler-positionsradar, deras självutvecklade system UNIPOS samt en predikterad bana för avlossade projektiler. Projektets huvudsakliga mål blev därför att skapa ett styrsystem för att kontrollera kameraplattformen med hjälp av nämnda indatakällor. Den teoretiska referensramen samt litteraturstudien gav projektets deltagare den kunskapsbas, inom seriell kommunikation och dataprotokoll, som krävdes för att genomföra projektet. De gav även förståelse för hur tidigare liknande arbeten sett ut och valde utifrån detta att följa systemutvecklingsmodellen Rational Unified process (RUP). FMV uttryckte önskemål om att den huvudsakliga styrenheten skulle vara en PC för att möjliggöra fjärrstyrning samt enkel vidareutveckling av systemet. RUP användes för att strukturera upp arbetet samt säkerställa kvalitén på slutprodukten. Utvecklingsprocessen består, enligt RUP’s struktur, av ett antal iterationer som alla tillför någon funktion till systemet. I samråd och nära samarbete med personal på FMV utvecklades systemet och testades succesivt för att säkerställa kvalitén. En enkel manual togs även fram för att förenkla användandet av systemet. Samtliga önskade indatakällor behandlades på något sätt i projektet och resultatet blev ett portabelt system som kan köras på vilken PC som helst. Tester med drönare, granatkastare samt ett stegsvar har utförts för att verifiera att systemets funktion uppfyller de krav som satts upp samt utvärdera systemets möjligheter och begränsningar. Testen visade att realtidsstyrning är möjlig till viss grad med samtliga system och att systemets begränsningar ligger i fördröjningarna som finns både i signalöverföring samt kameraplattformens inbyggda filter för mjuka rörelser.

  • 7.
    Bentabol Muñoz, Emilio
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Bosque Ibáñez, Carlos
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    González Ruiz, Pedro
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Hurtado de Mendoza, Jose Manuel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Linking Wise-ShopFloor to an ABB IRB-140 Robot: Remote control, monitoring, and programming of an ABB robot IRC 5 through the internet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is integrate the new robot IRB140 from ABB inside the application Wise ShopFloor (Web-based integrated sensor-driven e-ShopFloor) and the integration of a web camera inside the application as well. In order to integrate the ABB IRB140 inside the application, a Java 3D model has to be created, the kinematics and collision constrains have to be defined also and the GUI application modified to fit the virtual model and the camera inside the application. The user has to be able to jog the web camera and zoom it. Changes in the server side have been done in order to introduce new functionalities such as the sessions management, the communication mechanism now is more general using Java inheritance.

  • 8.
    Bermúdez Román, Abel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Gaztelumendi Arriaga, Javier
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Building and programming an autonomous robot using a Raspberry Pi as a PLC2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    PLC programming students are often limited to simulated systems or soft PLCs, because the high price of the hardware and the software licenses make it difficult for faculties to use real equipment for teaching. This paper describes the design and building of a PLC controlled self-balancing robot with CodeSys and Raspberry Pi as a low-cost demonstrator model that students can use as a base to interact with a real system. A first prototype has been developed, which can be used in the future to get students involved in beginner automation courses without having to build a system from scratch.

  • 9.
    Bi, Z.M.
    et al.
    Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne.
    Wang, Lihui
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Dynamic control model of a cobot with three omni-wheels2010Inngår i: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 558-563Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new collaborative robot with omni-wheels has been proposed and its dynamic control has been developed and validated. Collaborative robots (Cobots) have been introduced to guide and assist human operators to move heavy objects in a given trajectory. Most of the existing cobots use steering wheels; typical drawbacks of using steering wheels include the difficulties to (i) follow a trajectory with a curvature larger than that of the base platform, (ii) mount encoders on steering wheels due to self-spinning of the wheels, and (iii) quarantine dynamic control performance since it is purely kinematic  control.  The  new  collaborative  robot  is  proposed  to  overcome  the  above-mentioned shortcomings. The methodologies for its dynamic control are focused and the simulation has been conducted to validate the control performance of the system.

  • 10.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    A New Look at Habits using Simulation Theory2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the Digitalisation for a Sustainable Society: Embodied, Embedded, Networked, Empowered through Information, Computation & Cognition, Göteborg, Sweden, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Habits as a form of behavior re-execution without explicit deliberation is discussed in terms of implicit anticipation, to be contrasted with explicit anticipation and mental simulation. Two hypotheses, addressing how habits and mental simulation may be implemented in the brain and to what degree they represent two modes brain function, are formulated. Arguments for and against the two hypotheses are discussed shortly, specifically addressing whether habits and mental simulation represent two distinct functions, or to what degree there may be intermediate forms of habit execution involving partial deliberation. A potential role of habits in memory consolidation is also hypnotized.

  • 11.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Janlert, Lars Erik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Simultaneous control and recognition of demonstrated behavior2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for Learning from Demonstration (LFD) is presented and evaluated on a simulated Robosoft Kompai robot. The presented algorithm, called Predictive Sequence Learning (PSL), builds fuzzy rules describing temporal relations between sensory-motor events recorded while a human operator is tele-operating the robot. The generated rule base can be used to control the robot and to predict expected sensor events in response to executed actions. The rule base can be trained under different contexts, represented as fuzzy sets. In the present work, contexts are used to represent different behaviors. Several behaviors can in this way be stored in the same rule base and partly share information. The context that best matches present circumstances can be identified using the predictive model and the robot can in this way automatically identify the most suitable behavior for precent circumstances. The performance of PSL as a method for LFD is evaluated with, and without, contextual information. The results indicate that PSL without contexts can learn and reproduce simple behaviors. The system also successfully identifies the most suitable context in almost all test cases. The robot's ability to reproduce more complex behaviors, with partly overlapping and conflicting information, significantly increases with the use of contexts. The results support a further development of PSL as a component of a dynamic hierarchical system performing control and predictions on several levels of abstraction. 

  • 12.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Umeå Universitet.
    Janlert, Lars-Erik
    Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Umeå Universitet.
    Simultaneous recognition and reproduction of demonstrated behavior2015Inngår i: Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, ISSN 2212-683X, Vol. 12, s. 43-53, artikkel-id BICA114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions of sensory-motor interactions with the world is often referred to as a key component in cognition. We here demonstrate that prediction of sensory-motor events, i.e., relationships between percepts and actions, is sufficient to learn navigation skills for a robot navigating in an apartment environment. In the evaluated application, the simulated Robosoft Kompai robot learns from human demonstrations. The system builds fuzzy rules describing temporal relations between sensory-motor events recorded while a human operator is tele-operating the robot. With this architecture, referred to as Predictive Sequence Learning (PSL), learned associations can be used to control the robot and to predict expected sensor events in response to executed actions. The predictive component of PSL is used in two ways: 1) to identify which behavior that best matches current context and 2) to decide when to learn, i.e., update the confidence of different sensory-motor associations. Using this approach, knowledge interference due to over-fitting of an increasingly complex world model can be avoided. The system can also automatically estimate the confidence in the currently executed behavior and decide when to switch to an alternate behavior. The performance of PSL as a method for learning from demonstration is evaluated with, and without, contextual information. The results indicate that PSL without contextual information can learn and reproduce simple behaviors, but fails when the behavioral repertoire becomes more diverse. When a contextual layer is added, PSL successfully identifies the most suitable behavior in almost all test cases. The robot's ability to reproduce more complex behaviors, with partly overlapping and conflicting information, significantly increases with the use of contextual information. The results support a further development of PSL as a component of a dynamic hierarchical system performing control and predictions on several levels of abstraction. 

  • 13.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lowe, Robert
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandamirskaya, Yulia
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Simultaneous Planning and Action: Neural-dynamic Sequencing of Elementary Behaviors in Robot Navigation2015Inngår i: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 243-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A technique for Simultaneous Planning and Action (SPA) based on Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) is presented. The model builds on previous workon representation of sequential behavior as attractors in dynamic neural fields. Here, we demonstrate how chains of competing attractors can be used to represent dynamic plans towards a goal state. The presentwork can be seen as an addition to a growing body of work that demonstratesthe role of DFT as a bridge between low-level reactive approachesand high-level symbol processing mechanisms. The architecture is evaluatedon a set of planning problems using a simulated e-puck robot, including analysis of the system's behavior in response to noise and temporary blockages ofthe planned route. The system makes no explicit distinction betweenplanning and execution phases, allowing continuous adaptation of the planned path. The proposed architecture exploits the DFT property of stability in relation to noise and changes in the environment. The neural dynamics are also exploited such that stay-or-switch action selection emerges where blockage of a planned path occurs: stay until the transient blockage is removed versus switch to an alternative route to the goal.

  • 14.
    Birtic, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    An Open Data Model for Emulation Models of Industrial Components2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Emulation is a technology, historically mostly used for virtual commissioning of automated industrial systems, and operator training. Trends show that new areas for deployment are being investigated. One way to broaden the scope of emulation technology is to increase emulation detail level. The University of Skövde conduct research within emulation technology, and are developing a higher detail level emulation platform performing  on component level. For transparent and systematic development of component models on this level, an open, extensible, and flexible data model for emulation models of industrial components is wanted. This thesis is contributing to this endeavour by developing a first draft of such a data model. A demonstration is also conducted by implementing a few components into the developing emulation environment, using XML as file format. An iterative "design and creation" methodology was used to develop and implement an object oriented data model. A selected set of industrial components were used to develop and demonstrate the data model, and the final result is visually represented as a class diagram together with explanatory documentation. Using the methodology and data modelling strategy used in this thesis, systematic and transparent development of emulation models on component level is possible in an extensible and flexible manner.

  • 15.
    Boberg, Arvid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    HRC implementation in laboratory environment: Development of a HRC demonstrator2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Eurofins is one of the world's largest laboratories which, among other things, offer chemical and microbiological analyses in agriculture, food and environment. Several 100.000 tests of various foods are executed each year at Eurofins’ facility in Jönköping and the current processes include much repeated manual tasks which could cause ergonomic problems. The company therefore wants to investigate the possibilities of utilizing Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) at their facility. Human-Robot Collaboration is a growing concept that has made a big impression in both robot development and Industry 4.0. A HRC approach allow humans and robots to share their workspaces and work side by side, without being separated by a protective fence which is common among traditional industrial robots. Human-Robot Collaboration is therefore believed to be able to optimize the workflows and relieve human workers from unergonomic tasks.

    The overall aim of the research project presented is to help the company to gain a better understanding about the existing HRC technologies. To achieve this goal, the state-of-the-art of HRC had to be investigated and the needs, possibilities and limitations of HRC applications had to be identified at Eurofins’ facility. Once these have been addressed, a demonstrator could be built which could be used for evaluating the applicability and suitability of HRC at Eurofins.

    The research project presented used the design science research process. The state-of-the-art of HRC was studied in a comprehensive literature review, reviewing sterile robots and mobile robotics as well. The presented literature review could identify possible research gaps in both HRC in laboratory environments and mobile solutions for HRC applications. These areas studied in the literature review formed together the basis of the prepared observations and interviews, used to generate the necessary data to develop the design science research artefact, the demonstrator.

    ABB's software for robotic simulation and offline programming, RobotStudio, were used in the development of the demonstrator, with the collaborative robot YuMi chosen for the HRC implementation. The demonstrator presented in the research project has been built, tested and refined in accordance to the design science research process. When the demonstrator could illustrate an applicable solution, it was evaluated for its performance and quality using a mixed methods approach.

    Limitations were identified in both the performance and quality of the demonstrator's illustrated HRC implementation, including adaptability and sterility constraints. The research project presented could conclude that a HRC application would be possible at a station which were of interest by the company, but would however not be recommended due to the identified constraints. Instead, the company were recommended to look for stations which are more standardized and have less hygienic requirements. By the end of the research project, additional knowledge was contributed to the company, including how HRC can affect today's working methods at Eurofins and in laboratory environments in general.

  • 16.
    Boberg, Arvid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Virtual lead-through robot programming: Programming virtual robot by demonstration2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the development of an application which allows a user to program a robot in a virtual environment by the use of hand motions and gestures. The application is inspired by the use of robot lead-through programming which is an easy and hands-on approach for programming robots, but instead of performing it online which creates loss in productivity the strength from offline programming where the user operates in a virtual environment is used as well. Thus, this is a method which saves on the economy and prevents contamination of the environment. To convey hand gesture information into the application which will be implemented for RobotStudio, a Kinect sensor is used for entering the data into the virtual environment. Similar work has been performed before where, by using hand movements, a physical robot’s movement can be manipulated, but for virtual robots not so much. The results could simplify the process of programming robots and supports the work towards Human-Robot Collaboration as it allows people to interact and communicate with robots, a major focus of this work. The application was developed in the programming language C# and has two different functions that interact with each other, one for the Kinect and its tracking and the other for installing the application in RobotStudio and implementing the calculated data into the robot. The Kinect’s functionality is utilized through three simple hand gestures to jog and create targets for the robot: open, closed and “lasso”. A prototype of this application was completed which through motions allowed the user to teach a virtual robot desired tasks by moving it to different positions and saving them by doing hand gestures. The prototype could be applied to both one-armed robots as well as to a two-armed robot such as ABB’s YuMi. The robot's orientation while running was too complicated to be developed and implemented in time and became the application's main bottleneck, but remained as one of several other suggestions for further work in this project.

  • 17.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brewster, Rodney
    Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Stockholm.
    Assessing Instructions in Augmented Reality for Human-Robot Collaborative Assembly by Using Demonstrators2017Inngår i: Manufacturing Systems 4.0 - Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai, Yue Wang, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 63, s. 89-94Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are becoming more adaptive and aware of their surroundings. This has opened up the research area of tight human-robot collaboration,where humans and robots work directly interconnected rather than in separate cells. The manufacturing industry is in constant need ofdeveloping new products. This means that operators are in constant need of learning new ways of manufacturing. If instructions to operatorsand interaction between operators and robots can be virtualized this has the potential of being more modifiable and available to the operators.Augmented Reality has previously shown to be effective in giving operators instructions in assembly, but there are still knowledge gapsregarding evaluation and general design guidelines. This paper has two aims. Firstly it aims to assess if demonstrators can be used to simulatehuman-robot collaboration. Secondly it aims to assess if Augmented Reality-based interfaces can be used to guide test-persons through apreviously unknown assembly procedure. The long-term goal of the demonstrator is to function as a test-module for how to efficiently instructoperators collaborating with a robot. Pilot-tests have shown that Augmented Reality instructions can give enough information for untrainedworkers to perform simple assembly-tasks where parts of the steps are done with direct collaboration with a robot. Misunderstandings of theinstructions from the test-persons led to multiple errors during assembly so future research is needed in how to efficiently design instructions.

  • 18.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Siegmund, Florian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    R-HV: A Metric for Computing Hyper-volume for Reference Point-based EMOs2015Inngår i: Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing: 5th International Conference, SEMCCO 2014, Bhubaneswar, India, December 18-20, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Bijaya Ketan Panigrahi, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam Suganthan & Swagatam Das, Springer, 2015, s. 98-110Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For evaluating performance of a multi-objective optimizationfor finding the entire efficient front, a number of metrics, such as hypervolume, inverse generational distance, etc. exists. However, for evaluatingan EMO algorithm for finding a subset of the efficient frontier, the existing metrics are inadequate. There does not exist many performancemetrics for evaluating a partial preferred efficient set. In this paper, wesuggest a metric which can be used for such purposes for both attainableand unattainable reference points. Results on a number of two-objectiveproblems reveal its working principle and its importance in assessingdifferent algorithms. The results are promising and encouraging for itsfurther use.

  • 19.
    Egaña Iztueta, Lander
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Roda Martínez, Javier
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Function Block Algorithms for Adaptive Robotic Control2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is the creation of an adaptive Function Block control system, and the implementation of Artificial Intelligence integrated within the Function Block control system, using IEC 61499 standard to control an ABB 6-axis virtual robot, simulated in the software RobotStudio. To develop these objectives, we studied a lot of necessary concepts and how to use three different softwares. To learn how to use the softwares, some tests were carried out. RobotStudio is a program developed by ABB Robotics Company where an ABB robot and a station are simulated. There, we designed and created a virtual assembly cell with the virtual IRB140 robot and the necessary pieces to simulate the system. To control the robot and the direct access to the different tools of RobotStudio, it is necessary to use an application programming interface (API) developed by ABB Robotics Company. C sharp (C#) language is used to program using the API, but this language is not supported by the Function Block programming software nxtStudio. Because of this, we used VisualStudio software. In this software, we use the API libraries to start and stop the robot and load a RAPID file in the controller. In a RAPID file the instructions that the robot must follow are written. So, we had to learn about how to program in C# language and how to use VisualStudio software. Also, to learn about IEC 61499 standard it was necessary to read some books. This standard determines how an application should be programmed through function blocks. A function block is a unit of program with a certain functionality which contains data and variables that can be manipulated in the same function block by several algorithms. To program in this standard we learnt how to use nxtStudio software, consuming a lot of time because the program is quite complex and it is not much used in the industrial world yet. Some tests were performed to learn different programing skills in this standard, such as how to use UDP communication protocol and how to program interfaces. Learning UDP communication was really useful because it is necessary for communication between nxtStudio and other programs, and also learning how to use interfaces to let the user access the program. Once we had learnt about how to use and program the different softwares and languages, we began to program the project. Then, we had some troubles with nxtStudio because strings longer than fourteen characters cannot be used here. So, a motion alarm was developed in VisualStudio program. And another important limitation of nxtStudio is that C++ language cannot be used. Therefore, the creation of an Artificial Intelligence system was not possible. So, we created a Function Block control system. This system is a logistical system realised through loops, conditions and counters. All this makes the robot more adaptive. As the AI could not be carried out because of the different limitations, we theoretically designed the AI system. It will be possible to implement the AI when the limitations and the problems are solved.

  • 20.
    Einevik, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Kurri, John
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Emulering av en produktioncell med Visionguidning: Virtuell idrifttagning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att använda sig utav en virtuell kopia utav en produktionscell kan programmering och funktionstester av olika paneler testas i ett tidigt stadie. En virtuell kopia bidrar också till enklare felsökning och minskning av kostnader vid idrifttagning. Tanken med projektet är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning som emuleringsmodellen kan ersätta den riktiga cellen vid ett funktionstest för leverantören. Det som också undersöks är i vilken utsträckning riktiga CAD-ritningar kan användas och vilka krav som ställs på ritningarna för att underlätta emulering. Projektet hade flera utmaningar och en av dem som uppkom under projektets gång var problemet med att det inte gick att emulera säkerhetssystemen. Detta löstes genom att bygla alla säkerhetskretsar i PLC-programmet. En viktig del i emulering är kommunikation mellan de olika programvarorna i systemet. I projektets visade det sig fördelaktigt att dela upp programmen i emuleringssystemet för att fördela resurserna över tre datorer. Att använda sig utav en emuleringsmodell istället för en riktig produktionscell är fortfarande i forskningsstadiet men genom projektet har många användningsområden identifierats och skulle kunna förändra idrifttagning i framtiden.

  • 21.
    Ekedahl, Adam
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Förändring av arbetssätt med hjälp av emulering: Vid automationsprojekt mot industrin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Projektengagemang AB i Skövde har detta projekt genomförts för att studera möjligheten att kvalitetssäkra automationsprojekt bättre med hjälp av emulering. I projektets sammanhang innebär det att representera hela eller delar av automationssystemet virtuellt. För att lyckas med projektet har forskning inom områden som projektledning och virtuella miljöer studerats för att undersöka vad som i dagsläget är möjligt att genomföra. Med hjälp av litteraturen utformades ett intervjuprotokoll för genomförande av en intervjustudie. Beställande och levererande företag av automationsutrustning har bidragit för att ge en realistisk bild av hur automationsprojekt genomförs, kvalitetssäkras samt vad som idag är problematiskt. Sammanställningen och analysen av intervjustudien tyder på att vikt skall läggas vid planering och nedbrytning av projekt, för att ha en tydlig plan från början. Samt att virtuella miljöer kan användas för att testa programkod tidigare i projekt, alltså i mindre kritiska lägen. Efter en granskning av Projektengagemangs förutsättningar i förhållande till intervjustudien framkom att det finns brister och förbättringspotential gällande programstruktur och kvalitetssäkring. Förslaget för att öka kvalitetssäkringen med hjälp av emulering innefattar skapandet av ett arbetskoncept där en emuleringsmodell tillsammans med en kravspecifikation används för framtagning av ett grundprogram. Samt att företagets konstruktionsgranskning utökas till att inkludera kontroll av både programmering och eventuell emuleringsmodell. I förslaget till Projektengagemang lämnas 2 olika konfigurationer som skulle kunna användas för att inkludera skapandet och användning av emuleringsmodeller i projekt. Vilket skulle öka kvalitetssäkringen markant. I dagsläget påverkas inte ledtiden markant med införandet av emulering, dock finns möjligheten på längre sikt. Ytterligare kravställningar behöver tas i beaktning innan val av mjukvaror sker, eftersom förutsättningarna för varje projekt påverkar byggnationen av en emuleringsmodell.

  • 22.
    Ericson, Stefan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Vision-Based Perception for Localization of Autonomous Agricultural Robots2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis Stefan investigates how cameras can be used for localization of an agricultural mobile robot. He focuses on relative measurement that can be used to determine where a weeding tool is operating relative a weed detection sensor. It incorporates downward-facing perspective cameras, forward-facing perspective cameras and omnidirectional cameras. Stefan shows how the camera’s ego-motion can be estimated to obtain not only the position in 3D but also the orientation. He also shows how line structures in the field can be used to navigate a robot along the rows.

  • 23.
    Ericson, Stefan K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Åstrand, Björn S.
    School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Analysis of two visual odometry systems for use in an agricultural field environment2018Inngår i: Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 1537-5110, E-ISSN 1537-5129, Vol. 166, s. 116-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses two visual odometry systems for use in an agricultural field environment. The impact of various design parameters and camera setups are evaluated in a simulation environment. Four real field experiments were conducted using a mobile robot operating in an agricultural field. The robot was controlled to travel in a regular back-and-forth pattern with headland turns. The experimental runs were 1.8–3.1 km long and consisted of 32–63,000 frames. The results indicate that a camera angle of 75° gives the best results with the least error. An increased camera resolution only improves the result slightly. The algorithm must be able to reduce error accumulation by adapting the frame rate to minimise error. The results also illustrate the difficulties of estimating roll and pitch using a downward-facing camera. The best results for full 6-DOF position estimation were obtained on a 1.8-km run using 6680 frames captured from the forward-facing cameras. The translation error (x,y,z) is 3.76% and the rotational error (i.e., roll, pitch, and yaw) is 0.0482 deg m−1. The main contributions of this paper are an analysis of design option impacts on visual odometry results and a comparison of two state-of-the-art visual odometry algorithms, applied to agricultural field data.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-03-01 00:01
  • 24.
    Expósito, Idir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Mujika, Itsaso
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Reductions in Energy Consumption through Process Optimisation and Variable Production2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is becoming an important objective for modern manufacturing industry. The aim of this work is to improve energy efficiency of an automated system. Since a majority of production processes are limited by an external bottleneck, the hypothesis of this work is that reducing the processing rate of the restricted processes can lead to saving in energy and resources. A methodology based on optimisation at process, cell and line levels is developed and evaluated over different scenarios.The developed methodology is then applied to a simulated production cell to study its efficacy quantitatively. In this particular case, the proposed approach yields a decrease in energy consumption of 49% at maximum production capacity. This decrease can be greater if there is an external factor such as low demand or another stage in the production line.

  • 25.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Using Speech Recognition, Haptic Control and Augmented Reality to enable Human-Robot Collaboration in Assembly Manufacturing: Research Proposal2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years robots have become more adaptive and aware of the surroundings which enables them for use in human-robot collaboration. By introducing robots into the same working cell as the human, then the two can collaborate by letting the robot deal with heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while the human focuses on tasks that needs the flexibility of the human. Collaborative robots already exists today in the market but the usage of these robots are mainly to work in close proximity.

    Usually a teaching pendant is used to program a robot by moving it using a joystick or buttons. Using this teaching pendant for programming is usually quite slow and requires training which means that few can operate it. However, recent research shows that there exist several application using multi-modal communication systems to improve the programming of a robot. This kind of programming will be necessary to collaborate with a robot in the industry since the human in a collaborative task might have to teach the robot how to execute its task.

    This project aims to introduce a programming-by-guidance system into assembly manufacturing where the human can assist the robot by teaching the robot how to execute its task. Three technologies will be combined, speech recognition, haptic control, and augmented reality. The hypothesis is that with these three technologies an effective and intuitive programming-by-guidance system can be used within the assembly manufacturing industry. This project have three main motivators: Allowing workers, with no robot programming expertise, to teach the robot how to execute its task in an assembly manufacturing system; Reducing the development time of the robot by introducing advanced programming-by-guidance technology; Showing that augmented reality can add additional information that is useful when programming the robot.

  • 26.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Holm, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Human-robot collaboration – towards new metrics for selection of communication technologies2018Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, s. 6s. 123-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robot manufacturers have in recent years developed collaborative robots and these gains more and more interest within the manufacturing industry. Collaborative robots ensure that humans and robots can work together without the robot being dangerous for the human. However, collaborative robots themselves are not enough to achieve collaboration between a human and a robot; collaboration is only possible if a proper communication between the human and the robot can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to identify and categorize technologies that can be used to enable such communication between a human and an industrial robot.

  • 27.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brewster, Rodney
    Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human-Robot Collaboration Demonstrator Combining Speech Recognition and Haptic Control2017Inngår i: Manufacturing Systems 4.0 - Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai, Yue Wang, 2017, Vol. 63, s. 396-401Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years human-robot collaboration has been an important topic in manufacturing industries. By introducing robots into the same working cell as humans, the advantages of both humans and robots can be utilized. A robot can handle heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while a human can handle tasks that require the flexibility of humans. If a worker is to collaborate with a robot it is important to have an intuitive way of communicating with the robot. Currently, the way of interacting with a robot is through a teaching pendant, where the robot is controlled using buttons or a joystick. However, speech and touch are two communication methods natural to humans, where speech recognition and haptic control technologies can be used to interpret these communication methods. These technologies have been heavily researched in several research areas, including human-robot interaction. However, research of combining these two technologies to achieve a more natural communication in industrial human-robot collaboration is limited. A demonstrator has thus been developed which includes both speech recognition and haptic control technologies to control a collaborative robot from Universal Robots. This demonstrator will function as an experimental platform to further research on how the speech recognition and haptic control can be used in human-robot collaboration. The demonstrator has proven that the two technologies can be integrated with a collaborative industrial robot, where the human and the robot collaborate to assemble a simple car model. The demonstrator has been used in public appearances and a pilot study, which have contributed in further improvements of the demonstrator. Further research will focus on making the communication more intuitive for the human and the demonstrator will be used as the platform for continued research.

  • 28.
    Hedenberg, Klas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Åstrand, Bjorn
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    3D Sensors on Driverless Trucks for Detection of Overhanging Objects in the Pathway2016Inngår i: Autonomous Industrial Vehicles: From the Laboratory to the Factory Floor / [ed] Roger Bostelman, Elena Messina, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2016, s. 41-56Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-operated and driverless trucks often collaborate in a mixed work space in industries and warehouses. This is more efficient and flexible than using only one kind of truck. However, because driverless trucks need to give way to driven trucks, a reliable detection system is required. Several challenges exist in the development of such a system. The first is to select interesting situations and objects. Overhanging objects are often found in industrial environments (e.g., tines on a forklift). Second is choosing a system that has the ability to detect those situations. (The traditional laser scanner situated two decimetres above the floor does not detect overhanging objects.) Third is to ensure that the perception system is reliable. A solution used on trucks today is to mount a two-dimensional laser scanner on top and tilt the scanner toward the floor. However, objects at the top of the truck will be detected too late, and a collision cannot always be avoided. Our aim is to replace the upper two-dimensional laser scanner with a three-dimensional camera, structural light, or time-of-flight (TOF) camera. It is important to maximize the field of view in the desired detection volume. Hence, the sensor placement is important. We conducted laboratory experiments to check and compare the various sensors' capabilities for different colors, using tines and a model of a tine in a controlled industrial environment. We also conducted field experiments in a warehouse. Our conclusion is that both the tested structural light and TOF sensors have problems detecting black items that are non-perpendicular to the sensor. It is important to optimize the light economy—meaning the illumination power, field of view, and exposure time—in order to detect as many different objects as possible.

  • 29.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Web based monitoring and control of distant Robotic Operations2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference MSEC2012 June 4-8, 2012, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, ASME Press, 2012, s. 605-612Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the production efficiency while facing today’s manufacturing uncertainty, responsive and adaptive capabilities for rapid production changes are essential. This paper presents how dynamic control and real-time monitoring (embedded in a web-based Wise-ShopFloor framework) can integrate virtual models with real shop floors. Wise-ShopFloor (Web-based integrated sensor-driven e-ShopFloor)uses Java technologies (e.g., Java Servlet and Java3D) for implementing the system. It allows the operators, both remote and on-site, to monitor and control machines, devices and operations on a shop floor, based on run-time information from the connected machines, devices and their sensors. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the approach towards web-based adaptive manufacturing. The first demonstrating how OPC-technology is used to improve the monitoring and control capabilities of the production and the second one focusing  on remote control of a robot eliminating the need of motion planning and tedious robot programming.

  • 30.
    Huang, Rui
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications Nanjing City, China.
    Ericson, Stefan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    An Efficient Way to Estimate the Focus of Expansion2018Inngår i: 2018 3rd IEEE International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC 2018), IEEE, 2018, s. 691-695Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting independent motion from a single camera is a difficult task in computer vision. It is because the captured image sequences are the combinations of the objects' movements and the camera's ego-motion. One major branch is to find the focus of expansion (FOE) instead as the goal. This is ideal for the situation commonly seen in UAV's camera system. In this case, the translation is dominant in camera's motion while the rotation is relatively small. To separate the ego motion and scene structure, many researchers used the directional flow as the theoretic basis and extracted its properties related to FOE. In this paper, we formulate finding FOE as an optimizing problem. The position of FOE has the minimal standard deviation for the directional flow in all directions, which is also subjected to the introduced constraint. The experiments show the proposed methods out-perform the previous method.

  • 31.
    Johansson, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik / Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems (AASS), Örebro university,Sweden.
    de Vin, Leo J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Design and development of an augmented environment with high user mobility for training purposes2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th Mechatronics Forum Biennial International Conference: 23 – 25 June2008, Universith of Limerick, Ireland / [ed] Toal, D., Limerick: University of Limerick , 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the design and development of a novel cost effective simulator for training of situation awareness, strategy and co-operation. By mixing real and virtual realities in combination with wireless and body-mounted hardware, the result is an augmented environment that allows for high physical mobility against a relatively low cost.

  • 32.
    Johansson, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Virtuell driftsättning: Verifiering av PLC logik mot simuleringsprogram2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    För att korta ner den totala driftsättningstiden i projekt beslutade Volvo Cars Skövde om att undersöka möjligheterna för verifiering av PLC-logik mot simuleringsprogram. Det övergripande målet med examensarbetet var att undersöka möjligheterna för att upprätta kommunikation mellan flödesimuleringsprogrammet Siemens Plant Simulation och en PLC-enhet. En ingripande förståelse av området virtuell driftsättning skapades vid skrivandet av referensramen och en litteraturstudie vilket legat till grund för det fortsatta praktiska arbetet. Genom en datainsamling med intervjuer, diskussioner och en omfattande litteraturstudie kunde en bättre förståelse bildas kring hur kommunikation mellan de olika programmen fungerar, samt viktiga punkter som bör has i åtanke vid virtuell driftsättning överlag. Ett hypotetiskt system utvecklades i Plant Simulation av Volvo Cars Skövde för att användas som testsystem. I emuleringsmjukvaran Simumatik3D skapades en modell för att efterlikna Plant Simulation modellen samtidigt som PLC-logiken utvecklades i Siemens Step 7. Under utvecklingens gång verifierades delsystem i Simumatik3D mot den skapade PLC-logiken tills det att modellen var färdigutvecklad. För att säkerhetsställa att både Simumatik3D modellen och Plant Simulation modellen var valid undersöktes ett antal valideringspunkter. Experimentfasen tog vid efter valideringstestet där olika scenarier undersöktes och testades för att föra upp eventuella problem i modellerna till ytan. En omfattande utvärdering presenteras där hela uppbyggnadsfasen av modeller utvärderas med avseende på tidsåtgång, för- och nackdelar och kommunikation med PLC. De två programmen Simumatik3D och Plant Simulation utvärderades mot varandra för att få ut vilket program som mest lämpar sig för virtuell verifiering av PLC-logik. Ett översiktligt arbetssätt togs fram utifrån den utvärdering som gjorts samt erfarenheter från genomförandet av arbetet. Resultatet av det framtagna arbetssättet presenteras vilket beskriver uppdelningen mellan beställare och leverantör, kommunikationen mellan parterna samt en överskådlig visualisering av arbetssättets process. Resultatet från utvärderingen visade att Simumatik3D lämpar sig åt att verifiera PLC logik på detaljnivå. Utvärderingen visade även att PLC-logik kan verifieras med hjälp av Plant Simulation, dock inte på samma detaljnivå. Plant Simulation lämpar sig istället till att göra simuleringsmodeller mer verklighetstrogna. Virtuell driftsättning av PLC-logik är ett nytt koncept på Volvo Cars Skövde och därför kan resultatet från detta arbete ligga till grund för fortsatt arbete inom detta område. Virtuell verifiering av PLC-logik diskuteras där flera aspekter som är viktiga att tänka på presenteras. Projektens huvudmål att virtuellt verifiera PLC-logik mot simuleringsprogram uppnåddes och gav goda resultat, de uppsatta delmålen resulterade i en omfattande utvärdering och framtida rekommendationer.

  • 33.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Classification of Collaboration Levels for Human-Robot Cooperation in Manufacturing2018Inngår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018,  University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, s. 151-156Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 aims to support the factory of the future, which involves increased amounts of information systems and new ways of using automation. One new usage is collaboration between human and industrial robot in manufacturing, with both partners sharing work on a single task. Supporting human-robot collaboration (HRC) requires understanding the requirements of HRC as well as the differences to existing approaches where the goal is more automation, such as in the case of self-driving cars. We propose a framework that we call levels of collaboration to support this, and posit that this framework supports a mental model conducive to the design of lines incorporating HRC.

  • 34.
    Lamb, Maurice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Nalepka, Patrick
    Department of Psychology, Center for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Australia.
    Kallen, Rachel W.
    Department of Psychology, Center for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Australia.
    Lorenz, Tamara
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, USA / Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, USA / Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Harrison, Steven J.
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, USA.
    Minai, Ali A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Department of Psychology, Center for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Australia.
    A Hierarchical Behavioral Dynamic Approach for Naturally Adaptive Human-Agent Pick-and-Place Interactions2019Inngår i: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, artikkel-id 5964632Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive or collaborative pick-and-place tasks occur during all kinds of daily activities, for example, when two or more individuals pass plates, glasses, and utensils back and forth between each other when setting a dinner table or loading a dishwasher together. In the near future, participation in these collaborative pick-and-place tasks could also include robotic assistants. However, for human-machine and human-robot interactions, interactive pick-and-place tasks present a unique set of challenges. A key challenge is that high-level task-representational algorithms and preplanned action or motor programs quickly become intractable, even for simple interaction scenarios. Here we address this challenge by introducing a bioinspired behavioral dynamic model of free-flowing cooperative pick-and-place behaviors based on low-dimensional dynamical movement primitives and nonlinear action selection functions. Further, we demonstrate that this model can be successfully implemented as an artificial agent control architecture to produce effective and robust human-like behavior during human-agent interactions. Participants were unable to explicitly detect whether they were working with an artificial (model controlled) agent or another human-coactor, further illustrating the potential effectiveness of the proposed modeling approach for developing systems of robust real/embodied human-robot interaction more generally.

  • 35.
    Lexe, Lisa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Identifiering av möjliga människa-robot samarbeten i monteringsindustrin2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Skapat av Högskolan i Skövde och på uppdrag av Elektroautomatik i Skövde har detta projekt genomförts för att identifiera möjliga människa-robot samarbeten i monteringsmiljö. Robotarna som funnits i åtanke för denna form av samarbete är kollaborativa robotar. I dagens industri existerar redan kollaborativa robotar men utför ofta uppgifter på en mer samexisterande nivå avskild från människan. Den form av människa-robot samarbete som undersökts i detta arbete är där båda parter assisterar varandra i en arbetsuppgift på gemensam yta. Detta koncept har blivit allt viktigare för dagens företag som efterfrågar ett mer flexibelt och anpassningsbart system i framtiden. Under projektet undersöktes även förbättringsförslag på nuvarande lösningar för kollaborativa robotar samt processen kring robotlösningen.

    Genom studerad litteratur utformades tre intervjuprotokoll avsedda för en intervjustudie med tre olika yrkesgrupper – montörer, produktionstekniker och ingenjörer. Intervjustudien utfördes i samarbete med företag i Skövde där kunskap extraherats från personer inom monteringsmiljö. Kärnfrågan i samtliga intervjuprotokoll var i vilka uppgifter i monteringsmiljö som intervjupersonen såg möjlighet till ett människa-robot samarbete. Insamlad data har transkriberats, strukturerats och sorterats för att kunna sammanställa ett resultat. Förslag på möjliga arbetsmoment som framkom under intervjustudien delades in i sex kategorier: Svåråtkomligt, tidskrävande, ergonomisk avlastning, logistik, kvalitet och produktvariation.

    Ett resultat presenteras där samarbetsuppgifter mellan människa och robot sammanställts från intervjustudien. Dessa har sorterats efter de sex kategorierna inom möjliga arbetsmoment. Övergripande förslag angavs under intervjustudien på vilken typ av uppgifter och områden en kollaborativ robot hade kunnat samarbeta med en människa. Dessa förslag föll under flera kategorier – exempelvis äntring av stort antal skruvar vilket kan kategoriseras enligt både ergonomisk avlastning och tidskrävande. Den kategori som genererat flest förslag är arbetsuppgifter där en kollaborativ robot kan erbjuda ergonomisk avlastning för människan.

    För att identifiera mer specifika arbetsuppgifter behöver ytterligare undersökning utföras baserat på de områden som identifierats i detta arbete. Den kollaborativa robotlösningen behöver kunna arbeta inom flera olika kategorier för att uppnå den framtida flexibla produktion som efterfrågas.

  • 36.
    Lidberg, Simon
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Evolving Cuckoo Search: From single-objective to multi-objective2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to produce a novel multi-objective algorithm that is based on Cuckoo Search by Dr. Xin-She Yang. Cuckoo Search is a promising nature-inspired meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, which currently is only able to solve single-objective optimization problems. After an introduction, a number of theoretical points are presented as a basis for the decision of which algorithms to hybridize Cuckoo Search with. These are then reviewed in detail and verified against current benchmark algorithms to evaluate their efficiency.

    To test the proposed algorithm in a new setting, a real-world combinatorial problem is used. The proposed algorithm is then used as an optimization engine for a simulation-based system and compared against a current implementation. 

  • 37.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Wang, Wei
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Towards an Evaluation Framework of Safety, Trust, and Operator Experience in Different Demonstrators of Human-Robot Collaboration2018Inngår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, s. 145-150Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in human-robot collaboration (HRC) are regarded as major aspects of the future Industry 4.0. HRC entails humans that cooperatively work with robots in dynamic, changing, and unpredictable settings where they should assist and learn from each other and automatically respond to changes. This requires research and development to investigate and evaluate how these hybrid collaborative systems should function and distribute work. The common practice is to focus on performance-related issues, which are highly influenced by human factors (HF). Because of the prevailing orientation towards HF, HRC runs the risk of not considering the modern understandings of human cognition and technology-mediated activity, in which humans are considered as actors (not factors) in a socio-material context. Although HF is dominant and well justified, the problem is that it may hinder general development, because it is not aligned with the modern understanding of cultivating a safety culture that promotes continuous improvements and development as an inherent attitude of companies and work practices. Taking an opposite approach, where the human operators working together with robots are playing active and positive roles in constructing safety, trust, and good operator experience. Hence, the collaborative human-robot system perspective addresses the need to develop and assess new evaluation methods that consider aspects like safety, trust, and operator experience from modern understandings of human cognition and technology-mediated activity, where also different levels of in human-robot collaboration have to be considered. This paper presents 1) the initial conceptual framework of HRC that addresses these above issues. It also describes 2) the design of a comparative analysis and benchmarking tasks of operators when interacting closely with robots, in three different demonstrators of varying levels of collaboration. The final outcome from this work should, in the long run, function as a roadmap for successful implementation of HRC in industry.

  • 38.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lund, Anja
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / The Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Designing for a Wearable Affective Interface for the NAO Robot: A Study of Emotion Conveyance by Touch2018Inngår i: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We here present results and analysis from a study of affective tactile communication between human and humanoid robot (the NAO robot). In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to the NAO via touch. In this study, we sought to understand the potential for using a wearable affective (tactile) interface, or WAffI. The aims of our study were to address the following: (i) how emotions and affective states can be conveyed (encoded) to such a humanoid robot, (ii) what are the effects of dressing the NAO in the WAffI on emotion conveyance and (iii) what is the potential for decoding emotion and affective states. We found that subjects conveyed touch for longer duration and over more locations on the robot when the NAO was dressed with WAffI than when it was not. Our analysis illuminates ways by which affective valence, and separate emotions, might be decoded by a humanoid robot according to the different features of touch: intensity, duration, location, type. Finally, we discuss the types of sensors and their distribution as they may be embedded within the WAffI and that would likely benefit Human-NAO (and Human-Humanoid) interaction along the affective tactile dimension.

  • 39.
    Lundahl, Oskar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Utmaningar och möjligheter vid införande av Robotic Process Automation för verksamheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Automatisering av arbetsprocesser har varit ett aktuellt tema för många verksamheter i många år. Ofta är dessa automatiseringar relaterade till fysisk automation som exempelvis robotar vid produktionslinjer. Men med dagens teknik finns det potential för att automatisera arbetsprocesser i verksamheters back-office processer. Robotic process automation, eller förkortat som RPA, är en teknik som har förmågan att imitera användarens steg i en arbetsprocess och återskapa arbetsprocessen utan den mänskliga resursen.

     

    Denna studie har som syfte att fastställa utmaningar och möjligheter som är relaterade vid införande av RPA i verksamheter. Genom intervjuer och tidigare publicerat material om RPA, skall denna studie erbjuda en djupare förståelse kring utmaningar och möjligheter för den stigande trenden robotic process automation.

  • 40.
    Mahmoud, Sara
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Svensson, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Self-driving cars learn by imagination2018Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 14TH SWECOG CONFERENCE / [ed] Tom Ziemke; Mattias Arvola; Nils Dahlbäck; Erik Billing, Linköping, 2018, s. 12-15Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Wang, Lihui
    Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Active collision avoidance for human-robot collaboration driven by vision sensors2017Inngår i: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 30, nr 9, s. 970-980Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Establishing safe human-robot collaboration is an essential factor for improving efficiency and flexibility in today's manufacturing environment. Targeting safety in human-robot collaboration, this paper reports a novel approach for effective online collision avoidance in an augmented environment, where virtual three-dimensional (3D) models of robots and real images of human operators from depth cameras are used for monitoring and collision detection. A prototype system is developed and linked to industrial robot controllers for adaptive robot control, without the need of programming by the operators. The result of collision detection reveals four safety strategies: the system can alert an operator, stop a robot, move away the robot, or modify the robot's trajectory away from an approaching operator. These strategies can be activated based on the operator's existence and location with respect to the robot. The case study of the research further discusses the possibility of implementing the developed method in realistic applications, for example, collaboration between robots and humans in an assembly line.

  • 42.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Wang, Lihui
    Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy-Efficient Robot Configuration for Assembly2017Inngår i: Journal of manufacturing science and engineering, ISSN 1087-1357, E-ISSN 1528-8935, Vol. 139, nr 5, artikkel-id 051007Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing the energy consumption of robot movements has been one of the main focuses for most of today's robotic simulation software. This optimization is based on minimizing a robot's joint movements. In many cases, it does not take into consideration the dynamic features. Therefore, reducing energy consumption is still a challenging task and it involves studying the robot's kinematic and dynamic models together with application requirements. This research aims to minimize the robot energy consumption during assembly. Given a trajectory and based on the inverse kinematics and dynamics of a robot, a set of attainable configurations for the robot can be determined, perused by calculating the suitable forces and torques on the joints and links of the robot. The energy consumption is then calculated for each configuration and based on the assigned trajectory. The ones with the lowest energy consumption are selected. Given that the energy-efficient robot configurations lead to reduced overall energy consumption, this approach becomes instrumental and can be embedded in energy-efficient robotic assembly.

  • 43.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Wang, Lihui
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Remote monitoring and controlling for robotic path following operations2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the SPS12 conference 2012, The Swedish Production Academy , 2012, s. 27-33Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling a robot's movement requires a prior knowledge about the needed path and configurations to accomplish the movement. The lack of this knowledge causes limitations in the robot's adaptability in dynamic environments. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to improve the ability of the robot to follow any arbitrary path defined by an operator, and (2) to provide the ability for an authorized distant operator to access the system for monitoring and controlling both the robot and the stages of the process. The system developed in this research consists of a calibrated network camera, an industrial robot and an application server. The process starts by having a sketch drown by an operator representing the paths that the robot needs to follow, then the operator can remotely take a snapshot of the paths and retrieve the contours that represent the paths; after that the system sends them to the robot controller to perform the task of path following. The results have shown that the system can perform the required task within a relatively short time and with a reasonable level of quality. This research proves that it is possible to build an adaptive robotic system that can follow efficiently any arbitrary path without the need for defining it in advance.

  • 44.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Department of Automation and Systems Technology, Aalto University, Finland.
    Kyrki, Ville
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, Aalto University, Finland.
    Transferring Physical Skills From Humans to Robots: Multimodal Programming by Demonstration for In-Contact Tasks2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    On Transferring Crafting Intentions from Humans to Robots: A Message to Manufacturers of the (Near) Future2018Inngår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, s. 163-168Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our present work aligns three results from previous robotics research in simultaneous kinesthetic teaching of spatial and force/torque requirements for “in-contact” tasks, to highlight the endeavor towards the creation of safe, flexible, cost effective, confidential, natural programming interfaces, a crucial tool for the manufacturing domain of the future. The tasks that we here consider overarch different dimensions of complexity, from writing with a marker on a white slate to using a wood plane. Eventually, incrementally assisted kinesthetic teaching (IAKT) allows human experts to refine their demonstrations under modulated robotic assistance, thus converging, by a limit process constituted of a sequence of sub-perfect individual demonstrations, towards the “ideal” crafting intention, i.e. the humanly unreachable, perfect execution of the task. In the closing discussion, we demonstrate how this approach can find space in contemporary industrial and SMSE manufacturing, in order to aim for improved production quality and performance.

  • 46.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto Univeristy, Finland.
    Steinmetz, Franz
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, Oberpfaffenhofen-Weßling, Germany.
    Kyrki, Ville
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto Univeristy, Finland.
    On handing down our tools to robots: Single-phase kinesthetic teaching for dynamic in-contact tasks2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: ICRA 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. 5628-5634Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a (generalizable) method aimed tosimultaneously transfer positional and force requirements en-coded in a physical human skill (wood planing) from a humaninstructor to a robotic arm through kinesthetic teaching. Weachieve our goal through a novel use of a common sensoryconfiguration, constituted by a force/torque sensor mountedbetween the tool and the flange of a robotic arm. The roboticarm is endowed with integrated torque sensors at each joint.The mathematical model used to capture the general dynamicof the interaction between the human user and the wood surfaceis based on Dynamic Movement Primitives. During reenactmentof the task, the system can imitate and generalize the demon-strated spatial requirements, as well as their associated forceprofiles. Therefore, the robotic arm acquires the capacity toreproduce the dynamic profile for in-contact tasks requiringan articulated coordination in the distribution of forces. Forexample, the capacity to effectively operate the plane on a woodplank over multiple strokes, according to the demonstration ofthe human instructor.

  • 47.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Tykal, Martin
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Intention Disambiguation: When does action reveal its underlying intention?2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Nilsson, Jonatan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Planering och utvecklande av testplattform för tryckpulsation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Autotube är ett företag baserat i Varberg som utvecklar och producerar luft- och vätskelösningar främst inom bilindustrin. På senare tid har biltillverkarna skiftat till högre bränsletryck i bensindrivna förbränningsmotorer vilket har lett till att företagets produktutvecklingsavdelning saknar testutrustning för att utveckla nya produkter vilket i sin tur har lett till att företaget köpt tjänsten från extern leverantör. Kostnaderna och den bristande insynen i trycktester hos extern leverantör har lett Autotube att investera i ny utrustning och bedriva framtida tester i företagets lokaler. Ambitionen är att testanläggningen ska kunna genomföra tryckpulser och sprängprover både för produktutveckling och stickprov. Det övergripande syftet med examensarbetet är att programmera PLC logiken, designa HMI-panelen och skapa en elektriskt överförbar rapport efter genomfört testutförande.

    Under projektets progression visade studier och företagets empiriska kunskaper att resultatet från testanläggningen karakteriseras av tre nyckelparametrar; funktionsduglighet, realtidsövervakning och datahantering. Varje kategori har givetvis flera underkategorier som adderar värde till nyckelparametrarna.

    För funktionsduglighet krävs pålitlig hårdvara som klarar av att vara driftsatt under lång tid utan avbrott. Dock om ett avbrott från yttre faktorer skulle inträffa behöver testanläggningen programmeras för att spara data och undvika att testresultaten raderas. För att undvika irritation och handhavandefel bör användargränssnittet vara utformad efter målgruppens behov och mängden information bör begränsas.

    God realtidsövervakning ställer krav på lättåtkomlig information både vid testanläggningen och på distans vilket ökar möjligheten att läsa av testutförandes värden oberoende av vart användaren befinner sig. För att minska användarens arbetsbelastning bör varningssignaler som indikerar när testanläggningen inte utför önskvärt arbete användas.

    Datahantering bör ske automatiserat för att tillse att rätt data lagras och att den mänskliga faktorn kringgås. Flertalet rapporter under testutförandets förlopp är fördelaktigt för jämförelse av testutförandets olika skeden vilket ökar insikten om vad som skett när och möjliggör en djupare analys av testutförandet.

    Det genomförda arbetet har analyserat olika alternativ och använt litteratur relevant till nyckelparametrarna tillsammans med kontinuerlig återkoppling från företagets tekniker för att skapa mjukvaran till testanläggningen. Resultatet är en pålitlig anläggning med skräddarsydd realtidsövervakning och automatisk datahantering.

  • 49.
    Nordby, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Tholin, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    TIDSSTUDIEANALYS AV MANUELL PRODUKTHANTERING VID I- OCH URLASTNING I PRODUKTIONSUTRUSTNINGAR: Produktionssystemutveckling enligt Chaku-Chaku/Hanedashi-principen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektarbetet är förlagt till Autoliv Sverige AB (Autoliv) i Vårgårda. Autoliv vill förbättra hanteringen av material i processflödena genom att höja tillgängligheten på maskinerna. Materialet hanteras omväxlande manuellt och maskinellt i processerna. Uppdraget var att ta fram ett eller flera konkreta förbättringsförslag som använder produktionstekniken Chaku-Chaku, även kallat Hanedashi, samt att dessa var tids- och kostnadseffektiva och utnyttjar redan befintlig utrustning.Arbetet avgränsades genom att bara inkludera de tre produktionsceller som kräver mest arbetstid av produktionspersonalen samt en nyligen uppstartad produktionscell. Vid förändring av en maskin påverkas dennas befintliga CE-märkning, varför en utredning om ny CE-märkning behöver genomföras. Arbetet kommer inte att behandla kostnader eller utredning för ommärkningen.För att kunna beräkna tidseffektiviseringen på processerna gjordes en tidsstudieanalys och av analysen gick det även att beräkna olika värden från produktionen som var av vikt för senare beräkning av kostnadsbesparingar. Fyra lösningsförslag togs fram och analyserades för tidseffektivitet. Utav dessa fyra valdes tre för beräkna kostnader och kostnadsbesparingar vid utökad tillverkning eller vid tillverkning av samma antal. Kraven var att produktionen vid utökad tillverkning skulle göra en årlig ökning av antalet produkter med minst 7%.Av de lösningsförslag som valdes för vidare analys gick det första ut på att förmontera en komponent till produkten på en separat plats istället för att montera den inne i en maskin, då detta ansågs vara ett problematiskt arbetsmoment. Förbättringen innehåller ett nytt föreslaget rörelseschema för operatören och en ny layout av produktionscellen. Det andra förslaget syftar till att när modulen har behandlats färdigt i en av stationerna i cellen, matas den automatiskt ur stationen och således görs tillgänglig för nästkommande modul. Det andra förslaget rekommenderas att kombineras med det första förslaget då de kan komplementera varandra i tidsbesparingar, då förslagen är på samma produktionscell. Det tredje förslaget gick ut på att en gripanordning lyfter undan modulen en bit för att kunna bearbetas av operatör samtidigt som efterföljande modul leds in i maskinen. Detta förslag skulle innebära att den väntan som uppstår vid arbetsutförande inuti eller utav maskinen vid två separata tillfällen kommer synkroniseras. Förbättringsförslagen beräknades resultera i besparad operatörskostnad vid tillverkning av samma antal enheter. Kalkyler gjordes för att visa lönsamheten för förslagen vid utökad tillverkning samt vid vilket antal tillverkade produkter som förslagen har nått break-even. Förslagen börjar betala av sig själva efter ca 700 tillverkade enheter vid vardera produktionscell och vidare även utöka produktionen med 7%.

  • 50.
    Potros, Bashar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Framställning av mätmetod för att upptäcka defekta luftmunstycken: Framställa en säker och tillförlitlig mätmetod för att mäta mängd vatten i 50 provrör2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    För att upptäcka defekta luftmunstycken har Ecco FinishingABi Skara tagit fram en ny provutrustning som ska ersätta en otillförlitlig och osäker befintlig provmaskin. Ecco Fi-nishing AB vill hitta en tillförlitlig och säker mätmetod som ska mäta mängd vatten i 50 provrör. Examensarbetets övergripande mål är att hitta en noggrann och repeterbarmätmetod för nivåmätning av vätska i provrören. Två mätmetoder utvärderades som är mest lämpliga för nivåmätningen, visionsystem och mätning genom vägning. Anledningen till att valet ham-nade på dessa två mätmetoder är provutrustningens provrör, dels att det är många mätpunkter och för att det är små provrör. Det gjordes tjugo experiment för visionsystem och tjugoex-periment för vägningsmetodför att utvärdera och beskriva för -och nackdelar. Experimenten av visionsystem och vägning gjordes först i laborationsfas för att sedan testas på företagets befintliga provutrustning. Resultaten av mätningar sparades i ett Excel-ark som användes för att utvärdera insamlade data. Utvärderingarna jämfördes mot uppsatta mål, tillförlitlighet, noggrannhet, repeterbarhet, automatisk rapportering av resultat och tid för mätningen. Vis-ionsystem rekommenderas för fortsatt arbete och implementation på den befintliga provut-rustningen.

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