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  • 1.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm (KTH).
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, UK.
    Adaptive Robotic Control in Cloud Environments2014In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing / [ed] F. Frank Chen, The University of Texas at San Antonio, U.S.A., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA: DEStech Publications, Inc , 2014, p. 37-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalization is a trend which forces manufacturing industry of today to focus on more cost-effective manufacturing systems and collaboration within global supply chains and manufacturing networks. Cloud Manufacturing (CM) is evolving as a new manufacturing paradigm to match this trend, enabling the mutually advantageous sharing of resources, knowledge and information between distributed companies and manufacturing units. Providing a framework for collaboration within complex and critical tasks, such as manufacturing and design, it increases the companies’ ability to successfully compete on a global marketplace. One of the major, crucial objectives for CM is the coordinated planning, control and execution of discrete manufacturing operations in a collaborative and networked environment. This paper describes the overall concept of adaptive Function Block control of manufacturing equipment in Cloud environments, with the specific focus on robotic assembly operations, and presents Cloud Robotics as “Robot Control-as-a-Service” within CM.

  • 2.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm (KTH).
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Academy for Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, UK.
    Function Block Approach for Adaptive Robotic Control in Virtual and Real Environments2014In: Proceedings of the 14th Mechatronics Forum International Conference / [ed] Leo J. De Vin and Jorge Solis, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014, p. 473-479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing companies are facing an increasing amount of changes and uncertainty, caused by both internal and external factors. Frequently changing customer and market demands lead to variations in manufacturing quantities, product design and shorter product life-cycles, and variations in manufacturing capability and functionality contribute to a high level of uncertainty. The result is unpredictable manufacturing system performance, with an increased number of unforeseen events occurring in these systems. Such events are difficult for traditional planning and control systems to satisfactorily manage. For scenarios like these, with a dynamically changing manufacturing environment, adaptive decision making is crucial for successfully performing manufacturing operations. Relying on real-time information of manufacturing processes and operations, and their enabling resources, adaptive decision making can be realized with a control approach combining IEC 61499 event-driven Function Blocks (FBs) with manufacturing features. These FBs are small decision-making modules with embedded algorithms designed to generate the desired equipment control code. When dynamically triggered by event inputs, parameter values in their data inputs are forwarded to the appropriate algorithms, which generate new events and data output as control instructions. The data inputs also include monitored real-time information which allows the dynamic creation of equipment control code adapted to the actual run-time conditions on the shop-floor. Manufacturing features build on the concept that a manufacturing task can be broken down into a sequence of minor basic operations, in this research assembly features (AFs). These features define atomic assembly operations, and by combining and implementing these in the event-driven FB embedded algorithms, automatic code generation is possible. A test case with a virtual robot assembly cell is presented, demonstrating the functionality of the proposed control approach.

  • 3.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User Experience of Conveying Emotions by Touch2017In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2017, p. 1240-1247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, 64 users were asked to convey eight distinct emotion to a humanoid Nao robot via touch, and were then asked to evaluate their experiences of performing that task. Large differences between emotions were revealed. Users perceived conveying of positive/pro-social emotions as significantly easier than negative emotions, with love and disgust as the two extremes. When asked whether they would act differently towards a human, compared to the robot, the users’ replies varied. A content analysis of interviews revealed a generally positive user experience (UX) while interacting with the robot, but users also found the task challenging in several ways. Three major themes with impact on the UX emerged; responsiveness, robustness, and trickiness. The results are discussed in relation to a study of human-human affective tactile interaction, with implications for human-robot interaction (HRI) and design of social and affective robotics in particular. 

  • 4.
    Arias Ramos, Ceferino
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Programming and Image Processing in a Compact Production Cell2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, control system in the automation industries has become more and more useful, covering a wide range of fields, for example, industrial instrumentation, control and monitoring systems. Vision systems are used nowadays to improve products quality control, saving costs, time, and obtaining a better accuracy than a human operator in the manufacturing process of companies. Combining a vision system with a suitable automated system allow companies to cover a wide range of products and rapid production. All these factors are considered in this project.

    The aim of this project is to upgrade the functionality of a Nokia-Cell, which was used in a quality control process for the back shells of Nokia cell phones. The project includes design, upgrade and implementation of a new system in order to make the cell work properly. The Nokia-Cell is composed of the following basic modules: vision and image recognition system, automation system devices (PC and PLC, robot), and other mechatronics devices. The new system will consist of a new camera, due to the poor connectivity and quality of the old camera. For the same reason, a new PC will replace two older ones for communication and vision recognition. The new system will also include a new PLC of Beckhoff to replace the aging one of Omron so as to facilitate the connections using the same language. In addition, IEC-61499 Function Blocks standard is adopted for programming the Nokia-Cell.

    It is expected that the results of this project will contribute to both research and education in the future. In addition, it would be correctly to apply the results to industries in vision-based quality control systems.

  • 5.
    Arrieta, Aitor
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    FB-Environment in Wise-Shop Floor: Algorithm parser and code generation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is the authority that publishes different standards in the  fields  of  electrical  and  electronics  engineering,  to  be  used  internationally.  In  the  area  of manufacturing, it has demanded a new standard to fulfil better solutions of dynamic requirements. The  IEC  61499  redacted  by  IEC  offers  interoperability,  portability,  configurability  and  distributed control applications for manufacturing processes. However, this standard is not a replacement of IEC 61131-3,  one  of  the  most  used  standards  in  industry;  instead,  it  is  a  complement  of  it.  The  basic software units of IEC 61499 are named Function Blocks (FBs), which can be described as blocks that encapsulate functionality. By combining FBs together, it is possible to solve complex problems.   The  objective  of  this  project  (in  close  cooperation  with  another  project)  is  to  develop  a  software environment in Java language. It follows the requirements of IEC 61499, and implement a Function Block  designer  and  a  runtime  execution  environment,  as  a  part  of  an  existing  Wise-ShopFloor framework. The scope of this project covers:     FB  algorithm  editor:  Each  FB  has  one  or  more  algorithms,  which  can  be  defined  in  the algorithm editor using IEC 61131-3 or Java.     FB serialization: Opening and saving the configuration of FBs in Java Class file is one of the tasks  of  this  project.  As  soon  as  the  configuration  is  saved,  the  Java  code  of  FB  can  be generated. Java code is generated because compiled Java allows execution of FB. Saving in Java  Class  file  permits  portability,  i.e.  the  saved  configuration  can  be  opened  in  any  JVM system, and vice versa.      Case study: A simulation of an assembly station using an ABB IRB 140 robot is studied and implemented using the runtime simulator of the Java platform, in which some basic FBs have been also created in a library. This project also includes: (1) implementation of user interface and (2) FB serialization in XML. It  is  anticipated  that  the  developed  environment  will  be  able  to  save  and  open  FBs  configurations either in XML or in Java Class, following the specification of IEC 61499. It will allow portability and reusability.  Because  of  the  portability,  the  so-designed  FBs  can  be  validated  using  another  FB environment such as FBDK (Function Block Development Kit).

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Hultberg, Carl
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Realtidsstyrning av robotiserad kameraplattform2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV) that supplies materials to the Swedish military, has a part of its organization located in Karlsborg called test and evaluation of land combat systems. The photogroup of test and evaluation wishes to control a robotized camera platform, of the brand Vinten, in real time using a number of different positioning systems like joystick, Doppler-position radar, their self-constructed system UNIPOS and using a predicted trajectory of a launched projectile. The main goal of the project is therefore to create a control system to maneuver the camera platform with the assistance of mentioned data sources. The theoretical framework and literature review gave the members of the project the knowledge base, in serial communication and data protocols, needed to complete the project and gave understanding about earlier similar projects and choose to follow the structure of the systems development model Rational Unified Process (RUP). FMV wanted the main control unit to be a PC to be able to remotely control the system and to be able to make further developments. RUP was used to give the work structure and to make sure the quality of the end product was satisfactory. The development process consists, in accordance with the RUP structure, of a number of iterations that all add some function to the system. In close cooperation with the staff at FMV the system is developed and continuously tested to ensure the quality. A simple manual has been developed to make usage of the system easier. Every data source wanted by FMV has been handled in some way throughout the project and the result was a portable system that can be ran on any PC. Tests using drones, grenade launchers and a response-test was performed to verify that the functions of the system lives up to the goals that were set up and to evaluate the systems possibilities and limitations. The tests showed that real time control is possible to some extent with all systems and that the limitations lies in the delays that exists both in signal transfers and in the camera platforms built in filters for soft movements.

  • 7.
    Bentabol Muñoz, Emilio
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bosque Ibáñez, Carlos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    González Ruiz, Pedro
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Hurtado de Mendoza, Jose Manuel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Linking Wise-ShopFloor to an ABB IRB-140 Robot: Remote control, monitoring, and programming of an ABB robot IRC 5 through the internet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is integrate the new robot IRB140 from ABB inside the application Wise ShopFloor (Web-based integrated sensor-driven e-ShopFloor) and the integration of a web camera inside the application as well. In order to integrate the ABB IRB140 inside the application, a Java 3D model has to be created, the kinematics and collision constrains have to be defined also and the GUI application modified to fit the virtual model and the camera inside the application. The user has to be able to jog the web camera and zoom it. Changes in the server side have been done in order to introduce new functionalities such as the sessions management, the communication mechanism now is more general using Java inheritance.

  • 8.
    Bermúdez Román, Abel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Gaztelumendi Arriaga, Javier
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Building and programming an autonomous robot using a Raspberry Pi as a PLC2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PLC programming students are often limited to simulated systems or soft PLCs, because the high price of the hardware and the software licenses make it difficult for faculties to use real equipment for teaching. This paper describes the design and building of a PLC controlled self-balancing robot with CodeSys and Raspberry Pi as a low-cost demonstrator model that students can use as a base to interact with a real system. A first prototype has been developed, which can be used in the future to get students involved in beginner automation courses without having to build a system from scratch.

  • 9.
    Bi, Z.M.
    et al.
    Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Dynamic control model of a cobot with three omni-wheels2010In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 558-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new collaborative robot with omni-wheels has been proposed and its dynamic control has been developed and validated. Collaborative robots (Cobots) have been introduced to guide and assist human operators to move heavy objects in a given trajectory. Most of the existing cobots use steering wheels; typical drawbacks of using steering wheels include the difficulties to (i) follow a trajectory with a curvature larger than that of the base platform, (ii) mount encoders on steering wheels due to self-spinning of the wheels, and (iii) quarantine dynamic control performance since it is purely kinematic  control.  The  new  collaborative  robot  is  proposed  to  overcome  the  above-mentioned shortcomings. The methodologies for its dynamic control are focused and the simulation has been conducted to validate the control performance of the system.

  • 10.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A New Look at Habits using Simulation Theory2017In: Proceedings of the Digitalisation for a Sustainable Society: Embodied, Embedded, Networked, Empowered through Information, Computation & Cognition, Göteborg, Sweden, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habits as a form of behavior re-execution without explicit deliberation is discussed in terms of implicit anticipation, to be contrasted with explicit anticipation and mental simulation. Two hypotheses, addressing how habits and mental simulation may be implemented in the brain and to what degree they represent two modes brain function, are formulated. Arguments for and against the two hypotheses are discussed shortly, specifically addressing whether habits and mental simulation represent two distinct functions, or to what degree there may be intermediate forms of habit execution involving partial deliberation. A potential role of habits in memory consolidation is also hypnotized.

  • 11.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Janlert, Lars Erik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Simultaneous control and recognition of demonstrated behavior2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for Learning from Demonstration (LFD) is presented and evaluated on a simulated Robosoft Kompai robot. The presented algorithm, called Predictive Sequence Learning (PSL), builds fuzzy rules describing temporal relations between sensory-motor events recorded while a human operator is tele-operating the robot. The generated rule base can be used to control the robot and to predict expected sensor events in response to executed actions. The rule base can be trained under different contexts, represented as fuzzy sets. In the present work, contexts are used to represent different behaviors. Several behaviors can in this way be stored in the same rule base and partly share information. The context that best matches present circumstances can be identified using the predictive model and the robot can in this way automatically identify the most suitable behavior for precent circumstances. The performance of PSL as a method for LFD is evaluated with, and without, contextual information. The results indicate that PSL without contexts can learn and reproduce simple behaviors. The system also successfully identifies the most suitable context in almost all test cases. The robot's ability to reproduce more complex behaviors, with partly overlapping and conflicting information, significantly increases with the use of contexts. The results support a further development of PSL as a component of a dynamic hierarchical system performing control and predictions on several levels of abstraction. 

  • 12.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Umeå Universitet.
    Janlert, Lars-Erik
    Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Umeå Universitet.
    Simultaneous recognition and reproduction of demonstrated behavior2015In: Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, ISSN 2212-683X, Vol. 12, p. 43-53, article id BICA114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions of sensory-motor interactions with the world is often referred to as a key component in cognition. We here demonstrate that prediction of sensory-motor events, i.e., relationships between percepts and actions, is sufficient to learn navigation skills for a robot navigating in an apartment environment. In the evaluated application, the simulated Robosoft Kompai robot learns from human demonstrations. The system builds fuzzy rules describing temporal relations between sensory-motor events recorded while a human operator is tele-operating the robot. With this architecture, referred to as Predictive Sequence Learning (PSL), learned associations can be used to control the robot and to predict expected sensor events in response to executed actions. The predictive component of PSL is used in two ways: 1) to identify which behavior that best matches current context and 2) to decide when to learn, i.e., update the confidence of different sensory-motor associations. Using this approach, knowledge interference due to over-fitting of an increasingly complex world model can be avoided. The system can also automatically estimate the confidence in the currently executed behavior and decide when to switch to an alternate behavior. The performance of PSL as a method for learning from demonstration is evaluated with, and without, contextual information. The results indicate that PSL without contextual information can learn and reproduce simple behaviors, but fails when the behavioral repertoire becomes more diverse. When a contextual layer is added, PSL successfully identifies the most suitable behavior in almost all test cases. The robot's ability to reproduce more complex behaviors, with partly overlapping and conflicting information, significantly increases with the use of contextual information. The results support a further development of PSL as a component of a dynamic hierarchical system performing control and predictions on several levels of abstraction. 

  • 13.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandamirskaya, Yulia
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Simultaneous Planning and Action: Neural-dynamic Sequencing of Elementary Behaviors in Robot Navigation2015In: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 243-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A technique for Simultaneous Planning and Action (SPA) based on Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) is presented. The model builds on previous workon representation of sequential behavior as attractors in dynamic neural fields. Here, we demonstrate how chains of competing attractors can be used to represent dynamic plans towards a goal state. The presentwork can be seen as an addition to a growing body of work that demonstratesthe role of DFT as a bridge between low-level reactive approachesand high-level symbol processing mechanisms. The architecture is evaluatedon a set of planning problems using a simulated e-puck robot, including analysis of the system's behavior in response to noise and temporary blockages ofthe planned route. The system makes no explicit distinction betweenplanning and execution phases, allowing continuous adaptation of the planned path. The proposed architecture exploits the DFT property of stability in relation to noise and changes in the environment. The neural dynamics are also exploited such that stay-or-switch action selection emerges where blockage of a planned path occurs: stay until the transient blockage is removed versus switch to an alternative route to the goal.

  • 14.
    Birtic, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    An Open Data Model for Emulation Models of Industrial Components2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emulation is a technology, historically mostly used for virtual commissioning of automated industrial systems, and operator training. Trends show that new areas for deployment are being investigated. One way to broaden the scope of emulation technology is to increase emulation detail level. The University of Skövde conduct research within emulation technology, and are developing a higher detail level emulation platform performing  on component level. For transparent and systematic development of component models on this level, an open, extensible, and flexible data model for emulation models of industrial components is wanted. This thesis is contributing to this endeavour by developing a first draft of such a data model. A demonstration is also conducted by implementing a few components into the developing emulation environment, using XML as file format. An iterative "design and creation" methodology was used to develop and implement an object oriented data model. A selected set of industrial components were used to develop and demonstrate the data model, and the final result is visually represented as a class diagram together with explanatory documentation. Using the methodology and data modelling strategy used in this thesis, systematic and transparent development of emulation models on component level is possible in an extensible and flexible manner.

  • 15.
    Boberg, Arvid
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    HRC implementation in laboratory environment: Development of a HRC demonstrator2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eurofins is one of the world's largest laboratories which, among other things, offer chemical and microbiological analyses in agriculture, food and environment. Several 100.000 tests of various foods are executed each year at Eurofins’ facility in Jönköping and the current processes include much repeated manual tasks which could cause ergonomic problems. The company therefore wants to investigate the possibilities of utilizing Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) at their facility. Human-Robot Collaboration is a growing concept that has made a big impression in both robot development and Industry 4.0. A HRC approach allow humans and robots to share their workspaces and work side by side, without being separated by a protective fence which is common among traditional industrial robots. Human-Robot Collaboration is therefore believed to be able to optimize the workflows and relieve human workers from unergonomic tasks.

    The overall aim of the research project presented is to help the company to gain a better understanding about the existing HRC technologies. To achieve this goal, the state-of-the-art of HRC had to be investigated and the needs, possibilities and limitations of HRC applications had to be identified at Eurofins’ facility. Once these have been addressed, a demonstrator could be built which could be used for evaluating the applicability and suitability of HRC at Eurofins.

    The research project presented used the design science research process. The state-of-the-art of HRC was studied in a comprehensive literature review, reviewing sterile robots and mobile robotics as well. The presented literature review could identify possible research gaps in both HRC in laboratory environments and mobile solutions for HRC applications. These areas studied in the literature review formed together the basis of the prepared observations and interviews, used to generate the necessary data to develop the design science research artefact, the demonstrator.

    ABB's software for robotic simulation and offline programming, RobotStudio, were used in the development of the demonstrator, with the collaborative robot YuMi chosen for the HRC implementation. The demonstrator presented in the research project has been built, tested and refined in accordance to the design science research process. When the demonstrator could illustrate an applicable solution, it was evaluated for its performance and quality using a mixed methods approach.

    Limitations were identified in both the performance and quality of the demonstrator's illustrated HRC implementation, including adaptability and sterility constraints. The research project presented could conclude that a HRC application would be possible at a station which were of interest by the company, but would however not be recommended due to the identified constraints. Instead, the company were recommended to look for stations which are more standardized and have less hygienic requirements. By the end of the research project, additional knowledge was contributed to the company, including how HRC can affect today's working methods at Eurofins and in laboratory environments in general.

  • 16.
    Boberg, Arvid
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Virtual lead-through robot programming: Programming virtual robot by demonstration2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the development of an application which allows a user to program a robot in a virtual environment by the use of hand motions and gestures. The application is inspired by the use of robot lead-through programming which is an easy and hands-on approach for programming robots, but instead of performing it online which creates loss in productivity the strength from offline programming where the user operates in a virtual environment is used as well. Thus, this is a method which saves on the economy and prevents contamination of the environment. To convey hand gesture information into the application which will be implemented for RobotStudio, a Kinect sensor is used for entering the data into the virtual environment. Similar work has been performed before where, by using hand movements, a physical robot’s movement can be manipulated, but for virtual robots not so much. The results could simplify the process of programming robots and supports the work towards Human-Robot Collaboration as it allows people to interact and communicate with robots, a major focus of this work. The application was developed in the programming language C# and has two different functions that interact with each other, one for the Kinect and its tracking and the other for installing the application in RobotStudio and implementing the calculated data into the robot. The Kinect’s functionality is utilized through three simple hand gestures to jog and create targets for the robot: open, closed and “lasso”. A prototype of this application was completed which through motions allowed the user to teach a virtual robot desired tasks by moving it to different positions and saving them by doing hand gestures. The prototype could be applied to both one-armed robots as well as to a two-armed robot such as ABB’s YuMi. The robot's orientation while running was too complicated to be developed and implemented in time and became the application's main bottleneck, but remained as one of several other suggestions for further work in this project.

  • 17.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brewster, Rodney
    Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Stockholm.
    Assessing Instructions in Augmented Reality for Human-Robot Collaborative Assembly by Using Demonstrators2017In: Manufacturing Systems 4.0 - Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai, Yue Wang, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 63, p. 89-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are becoming more adaptive and aware of their surroundings. This has opened up the research area of tight human-robot collaboration,where humans and robots work directly interconnected rather than in separate cells. The manufacturing industry is in constant need ofdeveloping new products. This means that operators are in constant need of learning new ways of manufacturing. If instructions to operatorsand interaction between operators and robots can be virtualized this has the potential of being more modifiable and available to the operators.Augmented Reality has previously shown to be effective in giving operators instructions in assembly, but there are still knowledge gapsregarding evaluation and general design guidelines. This paper has two aims. Firstly it aims to assess if demonstrators can be used to simulatehuman-robot collaboration. Secondly it aims to assess if Augmented Reality-based interfaces can be used to guide test-persons through apreviously unknown assembly procedure. The long-term goal of the demonstrator is to function as a test-module for how to efficiently instructoperators collaborating with a robot. Pilot-tests have shown that Augmented Reality instructions can give enough information for untrainedworkers to perform simple assembly-tasks where parts of the steps are done with direct collaboration with a robot. Misunderstandings of theinstructions from the test-persons led to multiple errors during assembly so future research is needed in how to efficiently design instructions.

  • 18.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Siegmund, Florian
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    R-HV: A Metric for Computing Hyper-volume for Reference Point-based EMOs2015In: Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing: 5th International Conference, SEMCCO 2014, Bhubaneswar, India, December 18-20, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Bijaya Ketan Panigrahi, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam Suganthan & Swagatam Das, Springer, 2015, p. 98-110Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For evaluating performance of a multi-objective optimizationfor finding the entire efficient front, a number of metrics, such as hypervolume, inverse generational distance, etc. exists. However, for evaluatingan EMO algorithm for finding a subset of the efficient frontier, the existing metrics are inadequate. There does not exist many performancemetrics for evaluating a partial preferred efficient set. In this paper, wesuggest a metric which can be used for such purposes for both attainableand unattainable reference points. Results on a number of two-objectiveproblems reveal its working principle and its importance in assessingdifferent algorithms. The results are promising and encouraging for itsfurther use.

  • 19.
    Egaña Iztueta, Lander
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Roda Martínez, Javier
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Function Block Algorithms for Adaptive Robotic Control2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is the creation of an adaptive Function Block control system, and the implementation of Artificial Intelligence integrated within the Function Block control system, using IEC 61499 standard to control an ABB 6-axis virtual robot, simulated in the software RobotStudio. To develop these objectives, we studied a lot of necessary concepts and how to use three different softwares. To learn how to use the softwares, some tests were carried out. RobotStudio is a program developed by ABB Robotics Company where an ABB robot and a station are simulated. There, we designed and created a virtual assembly cell with the virtual IRB140 robot and the necessary pieces to simulate the system. To control the robot and the direct access to the different tools of RobotStudio, it is necessary to use an application programming interface (API) developed by ABB Robotics Company. C sharp (C#) language is used to program using the API, but this language is not supported by the Function Block programming software nxtStudio. Because of this, we used VisualStudio software. In this software, we use the API libraries to start and stop the robot and load a RAPID file in the controller. In a RAPID file the instructions that the robot must follow are written. So, we had to learn about how to program in C# language and how to use VisualStudio software. Also, to learn about IEC 61499 standard it was necessary to read some books. This standard determines how an application should be programmed through function blocks. A function block is a unit of program with a certain functionality which contains data and variables that can be manipulated in the same function block by several algorithms. To program in this standard we learnt how to use nxtStudio software, consuming a lot of time because the program is quite complex and it is not much used in the industrial world yet. Some tests were performed to learn different programing skills in this standard, such as how to use UDP communication protocol and how to program interfaces. Learning UDP communication was really useful because it is necessary for communication between nxtStudio and other programs, and also learning how to use interfaces to let the user access the program. Once we had learnt about how to use and program the different softwares and languages, we began to program the project. Then, we had some troubles with nxtStudio because strings longer than fourteen characters cannot be used here. So, a motion alarm was developed in VisualStudio program. And another important limitation of nxtStudio is that C++ language cannot be used. Therefore, the creation of an Artificial Intelligence system was not possible. So, we created a Function Block control system. This system is a logistical system realised through loops, conditions and counters. All this makes the robot more adaptive. As the AI could not be carried out because of the different limitations, we theoretically designed the AI system. It will be possible to implement the AI when the limitations and the problems are solved.

  • 20.
    Einevik, Johan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Kurri, John
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Emulering av en produktioncell med Visionguidning: Virtuell idrifttagning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using a virtual twin of a production cell, makes it possible for programming and different functional testing of panels to be performed in early stages of development. A virtual twin contributes to a simpler debugging and to identify problems and minimize cost in commissioning of the production cell. The aim for the project is to investigate how well an emulated cell will perform compared to the real production cell in a factory acceptance test. Another objective is to investigate how you can use real CAD models in the emulation and what type of criteria the models should meet. The project had a lot of challenges and one of them was the difficulty to emulate the safety systems. This was solved by bypassing the safety in the PLC program. One important thing about emulation is communication between the different software used in the system. In this project, it proved successful to distribute the software on three computers to ease the workload of the programs used in the emulation. To use the emulated model instead of the real system is still in the research phase but in this project a lot of useful applications could be identified that could change commissioning in the future.

  • 21.
    Ekedahl, Adam
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Förändring av arbetssätt med hjälp av emulering: Vid automationsprojekt mot industrin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Projektengagemang AB i Skövde har detta projekt genomförts för att studera möjligheten att kvalitetssäkra automationsprojekt bättre med hjälp av emulering. I projektets sammanhang innebär det att representera hela eller delar av automationssystemet virtuellt. För att lyckas med projektet har forskning inom områden som projektledning och virtuella miljöer studerats för att undersöka vad som i dagsläget är möjligt att genomföra. Med hjälp av litteraturen utformades ett intervjuprotokoll för genomförande av en intervjustudie. Beställande och levererande företag av automationsutrustning har bidragit för att ge en realistisk bild av hur automationsprojekt genomförs, kvalitetssäkras samt vad som idag är problematiskt. Sammanställningen och analysen av intervjustudien tyder på att vikt skall läggas vid planering och nedbrytning av projekt, för att ha en tydlig plan från början. Samt att virtuella miljöer kan användas för att testa programkod tidigare i projekt, alltså i mindre kritiska lägen. Efter en granskning av Projektengagemangs förutsättningar i förhållande till intervjustudien framkom att det finns brister och förbättringspotential gällande programstruktur och kvalitetssäkring. Förslaget för att öka kvalitetssäkringen med hjälp av emulering innefattar skapandet av ett arbetskoncept där en emuleringsmodell tillsammans med en kravspecifikation används för framtagning av ett grundprogram. Samt att företagets konstruktionsgranskning utökas till att inkludera kontroll av både programmering och eventuell emuleringsmodell. I förslaget till Projektengagemang lämnas 2 olika konfigurationer som skulle kunna användas för att inkludera skapandet och användning av emuleringsmodeller i projekt. Vilket skulle öka kvalitetssäkringen markant. I dagsläget påverkas inte ledtiden markant med införandet av emulering, dock finns möjligheten på längre sikt. Ytterligare kravställningar behöver tas i beaktning innan val av mjukvaror sker, eftersom förutsättningarna för varje projekt påverkar byggnationen av en emuleringsmodell.

  • 22.
    Ericson, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Vision-Based Perception for Localization of Autonomous Agricultural Robots2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis Stefan investigates how cameras can be used for localization of an agricultural mobile robot. He focuses on relative measurement that can be used to determine where a weeding tool is operating relative a weed detection sensor. It incorporates downward-facing perspective cameras, forward-facing perspective cameras and omnidirectional cameras. Stefan shows how the camera’s ego-motion can be estimated to obtain not only the position in 3D but also the orientation. He also shows how line structures in the field can be used to navigate a robot along the rows.

  • 23.
    Ericson, Stefan K.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Åstrand, Björn S.
    School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Analysis of two visual odometry systems for use in an agricultural field environment2018In: Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 1537-5110, E-ISSN 1537-5129, Vol. 166, p. 116-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses two visual odometry systems for use in an agricultural field environment. The impact of various design parameters and camera setups are evaluated in a simulation environment. Four real field experiments were conducted using a mobile robot operating in an agricultural field. The robot was controlled to travel in a regular back-and-forth pattern with headland turns. The experimental runs were 1.8–3.1 km long and consisted of 32–63,000 frames. The results indicate that a camera angle of 75° gives the best results with the least error. An increased camera resolution only improves the result slightly. The algorithm must be able to reduce error accumulation by adapting the frame rate to minimise error. The results also illustrate the difficulties of estimating roll and pitch using a downward-facing camera. The best results for full 6-DOF position estimation were obtained on a 1.8-km run using 6680 frames captured from the forward-facing cameras. The translation error (x,y,z) is 3.76% and the rotational error (i.e., roll, pitch, and yaw) is 0.0482 deg m−1. The main contributions of this paper are an analysis of design option impacts on visual odometry results and a comparison of two state-of-the-art visual odometry algorithms, applied to agricultural field data.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-01 00:01
  • 24.
    Expósito, Idir
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Mujika, Itsaso
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Reductions in Energy Consumption through Process Optimisation and Variable Production2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is becoming an important objective for modern manufacturing industry. The aim of this work is to improve energy efficiency of an automated system. Since a majority of production processes are limited by an external bottleneck, the hypothesis of this work is that reducing the processing rate of the restricted processes can lead to saving in energy and resources. A methodology based on optimisation at process, cell and line levels is developed and evaluated over different scenarios.The developed methodology is then applied to a simulated production cell to study its efficacy quantitatively. In this particular case, the proposed approach yields a decrease in energy consumption of 49% at maximum production capacity. This decrease can be greater if there is an external factor such as low demand or another stage in the production line.

  • 25.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Using Speech Recognition, Haptic Control and Augmented Reality to enable Human-Robot Collaboration in Assembly Manufacturing: Research Proposal2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years robots have become more adaptive and aware of the surroundings which enables them for use in human-robot collaboration. By introducing robots into the same working cell as the human, then the two can collaborate by letting the robot deal with heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while the human focuses on tasks that needs the flexibility of the human. Collaborative robots already exists today in the market but the usage of these robots are mainly to work in close proximity.

    Usually a teaching pendant is used to program a robot by moving it using a joystick or buttons. Using this teaching pendant for programming is usually quite slow and requires training which means that few can operate it. However, recent research shows that there exist several application using multi-modal communication systems to improve the programming of a robot. This kind of programming will be necessary to collaborate with a robot in the industry since the human in a collaborative task might have to teach the robot how to execute its task.

    This project aims to introduce a programming-by-guidance system into assembly manufacturing where the human can assist the robot by teaching the robot how to execute its task. Three technologies will be combined, speech recognition, haptic control, and augmented reality. The hypothesis is that with these three technologies an effective and intuitive programming-by-guidance system can be used within the assembly manufacturing industry. This project have three main motivators: Allowing workers, with no robot programming expertise, to teach the robot how to execute its task in an assembly manufacturing system; Reducing the development time of the robot by introducing advanced programming-by-guidance technology; Showing that augmented reality can add additional information that is useful when programming the robot.

  • 26.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Human-robot collaboration – towards new metrics for selection of communication technologies2018In: 51st CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Lihui Wang, Elsevier, 2018, , p. 6p. 123-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robot manufacturers have in recent years developed collaborative robots and these gains more and more interest within the manufacturing industry. Collaborative robots ensure that humans and robots can work together without the robot being dangerous for the human. However, collaborative robots themselves are not enough to achieve collaboration between a human and a robot; collaboration is only possible if a proper communication between the human and the robot can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to identify and categorize technologies that can be used to enable such communication between a human and an industrial robot.

  • 27.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brewster, Rodney
    Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human-Robot Collaboration Demonstrator Combining Speech Recognition and Haptic Control2017In: Manufacturing Systems 4.0 - Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai, Yue Wang, 2017, Vol. 63, p. 396-401Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years human-robot collaboration has been an important topic in manufacturing industries. By introducing robots into the same working cell as humans, the advantages of both humans and robots can be utilized. A robot can handle heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while a human can handle tasks that require the flexibility of humans. If a worker is to collaborate with a robot it is important to have an intuitive way of communicating with the robot. Currently, the way of interacting with a robot is through a teaching pendant, where the robot is controlled using buttons or a joystick. However, speech and touch are two communication methods natural to humans, where speech recognition and haptic control technologies can be used to interpret these communication methods. These technologies have been heavily researched in several research areas, including human-robot interaction. However, research of combining these two technologies to achieve a more natural communication in industrial human-robot collaboration is limited. A demonstrator has thus been developed which includes both speech recognition and haptic control technologies to control a collaborative robot from Universal Robots. This demonstrator will function as an experimental platform to further research on how the speech recognition and haptic control can be used in human-robot collaboration. The demonstrator has proven that the two technologies can be integrated with a collaborative industrial robot, where the human and the robot collaborate to assemble a simple car model. The demonstrator has been used in public appearances and a pilot study, which have contributed in further improvements of the demonstrator. Further research will focus on making the communication more intuitive for the human and the demonstrator will be used as the platform for continued research.

  • 28.
    Hedenberg, Klas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Åstrand, Bjorn
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    3D Sensors on Driverless Trucks for Detection of Overhanging Objects in the Pathway2016In: Autonomous Industrial Vehicles: From the Laboratory to the Factory Floor / [ed] Roger Bostelman, Elena Messina, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2016, p. 41-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-operated and driverless trucks often collaborate in a mixed work space in industries and warehouses. This is more efficient and flexible than using only one kind of truck. However, because driverless trucks need to give way to driven trucks, a reliable detection system is required. Several challenges exist in the development of such a system. The first is to select interesting situations and objects. Overhanging objects are often found in industrial environments (e.g., tines on a forklift). Second is choosing a system that has the ability to detect those situations. (The traditional laser scanner situated two decimetres above the floor does not detect overhanging objects.) Third is to ensure that the perception system is reliable. A solution used on trucks today is to mount a two-dimensional laser scanner on top and tilt the scanner toward the floor. However, objects at the top of the truck will be detected too late, and a collision cannot always be avoided. Our aim is to replace the upper two-dimensional laser scanner with a three-dimensional camera, structural light, or time-of-flight (TOF) camera. It is important to maximize the field of view in the desired detection volume. Hence, the sensor placement is important. We conducted laboratory experiments to check and compare the various sensors' capabilities for different colors, using tines and a model of a tine in a controlled industrial environment. We also conducted field experiments in a warehouse. Our conclusion is that both the tested structural light and TOF sensors have problems detecting black items that are non-perpendicular to the sensor. It is important to optimize the light economy—meaning the illumination power, field of view, and exposure time—in order to detect as many different objects as possible.

  • 29.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    University of Skövde.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    University of Skövde.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Web based monitoring and control of distant Robotic Operations2012In: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference MSEC2012 June 4-8, 2012, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, ASME Press, 2012, p. 605-612Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the production efficiency while facing today’s manufacturing uncertainty, responsive and adaptive capabilities for rapid production changes are essential. This paper presents how dynamic control and real-time monitoring (embedded in a web-based Wise-ShopFloor framework) can integrate virtual models with real shop floors. Wise-ShopFloor (Web-based integrated sensor-driven e-ShopFloor)uses Java technologies (e.g., Java Servlet and Java3D) for implementing the system. It allows the operators, both remote and on-site, to monitor and control machines, devices and operations on a shop floor, based on run-time information from the connected machines, devices and their sensors. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the approach towards web-based adaptive manufacturing. The first demonstrating how OPC-technology is used to improve the monitoring and control capabilities of the production and the second one focusing  on remote control of a robot eliminating the need of motion planning and tedious robot programming.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik / Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems (AASS), Örebro university,Sweden.
    de Vin, Leo J.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Design and development of an augmented environment with high user mobility for training purposes2008In: Proceedings of the 11th Mechatronics Forum Biennial International Conference: 23 – 25 June2008, Universith of Limerick, Ireland / [ed] Toal, D., Limerick: University of Limerick , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the design and development of a novel cost effective simulator for training of situation awareness, strategy and co-operation. By mixing real and virtual realities in combination with wireless and body-mounted hardware, the result is an augmented environment that allows for high physical mobility against a relatively low cost.

  • 31.
    Johansson, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Virtuell driftsättning: Verifiering av PLC logik mot simuleringsprogram2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To shorten project lead times Volvo Cars Skövde decided to explore the possibilities regarding verifi-cation of PLC-logic in simulation programs. The overall objective of the thesis was to analyze the pos-sibilities for establishing communication between the flow simulation program Plant Simulation and a PLC-device. A thorough understanding of the area virtual commissioning was obtained by writing the frame of reference and a literature review which served as basis for the continued practical work. Through a collection of interviews, discussions and an extensive literature review a better under-standing regarding how the communication between the different programs works, along with im-portant points that should be considered under a virtual commissioning project was obtained. A hy-pothetical system was developed in Plant Simulation by Volvo Cars Skövde to be used as a test sys-tem. The Simumatik3D model was created by emulating the Plant Simulation model and at the same time developing the PLC-logic in Siemens Step 7. During the development progress subsystems were verified in Simumatik3D against the created PLC-logic until the model was fully developed. To make sure that both the Simumatik3D model and the Plant Simulation model was valid a number of valida-tion points were tested. After the validation test the experimental phase started were different sce-narios were analyzed and tested to bring up any problems in the models to the surface. A thorough evaluation is presented in which the entire construction phase of the models is evaluated in terms of time required, advantages and disadvantages and communication with the PLC-device. The two pro-grams Simumatik3D and Plant Simulation was evaluated against one another in order to find out which program that is the most suited for virtual verification of PLC-logic. An overall methodology was developed based on the evaluation carried out and the experience gained from the implementa-tion of the work. The result from the developed methodology is presented which describes the parti-tion between the client and supplier, the communication between them and a visualization of the methodology-process. The result from the evaluation showed that Simumatik3D was more suitable for verification of PLC logic on a detailed level. The evaluation also showed that the PLC logic could be verified with Plant Simulation, but not on the same detailed level. Plant Simulation was more suit-able for making simulation models more realistic. Virtual commissioning of PLC-logic is a new con-cept on Volvo Cars Skövde and therefore can the result from this thesis form a basis for future work in this area. Virtual verification of PLC-logic is discussed in which several important aspects to think about is presented. The projects main goal to virtually verify PLC-logic in simulation programs was achieved and yielded good results, the partial objectives resulted in a thorough evaluation and future recommendations.

  • 32.
    Lidberg, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Evolving Cuckoo Search: From single-objective to multi-objective2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to produce a novel multi-objective algorithm that is based on Cuckoo Search by Dr. Xin-She Yang. Cuckoo Search is a promising nature-inspired meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, which currently is only able to solve single-objective optimization problems. After an introduction, a number of theoretical points are presented as a basis for the decision of which algorithms to hybridize Cuckoo Search with. These are then reviewed in detail and verified against current benchmark algorithms to evaluate their efficiency.

    To test the proposed algorithm in a new setting, a real-world combinatorial problem is used. The proposed algorithm is then used as an optimization engine for a simulation-based system and compared against a current implementation. 

  • 33.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lund, Anja
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / The Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Designing for a Wearable Affective Interface for the NAO Robot: A Study of Emotion Conveyance by Touch2018In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We here present results and analysis from a study of affective tactile communication between human and humanoid robot (the NAO robot). In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to the NAO via touch. In this study, we sought to understand the potential for using a wearable affective (tactile) interface, or WAffI. The aims of our study were to address the following: (i) how emotions and affective states can be conveyed (encoded) to such a humanoid robot, (ii) what are the effects of dressing the NAO in the WAffI on emotion conveyance and (iii) what is the potential for decoding emotion and affective states. We found that subjects conveyed touch for longer duration and over more locations on the robot when the NAO was dressed with WAffI than when it was not. Our analysis illuminates ways by which affective valence, and separate emotions, might be decoded by a humanoid robot according to the different features of touch: intensity, duration, location, type. Finally, we discuss the types of sensors and their distribution as they may be embedded within the WAffI and that would likely benefit Human-NAO (and Human-Humanoid) interaction along the affective tactile dimension.

  • 34.
    Lundahl, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Utmaningar och möjligheter vid införande av Robotic Process Automation för verksamheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automation has been a hot topic for many businesses for a number of years now. The term is usually related to automation of physical machinery like robots to speed up production and assembling of cars. But with currently technology, the automation has taken a step further. Automation is now capable of automating back-office processes. Robotic Process Automation, also known as RPA, is a technology that is capable of imitating the users step in a business process and replicate it automatically, without human intervention.

    The purpose of this study is to determine the challenges and opportunities related to the implementation of RPA in businesses. By performing interviews and examining existing material about RPA, this study aims to deliver a deeper and wider understanding of the rising technology that is Robotic Process Automation.

  • 35.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Active collision avoidance for human-robot collaboration driven by vision sensors2017In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 970-980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Establishing safe human-robot collaboration is an essential factor for improving efficiency and flexibility in today's manufacturing environment. Targeting safety in human-robot collaboration, this paper reports a novel approach for effective online collision avoidance in an augmented environment, where virtual three-dimensional (3D) models of robots and real images of human operators from depth cameras are used for monitoring and collision detection. A prototype system is developed and linked to industrial robot controllers for adaptive robot control, without the need of programming by the operators. The result of collision detection reveals four safety strategies: the system can alert an operator, stop a robot, move away the robot, or modify the robot's trajectory away from an approaching operator. These strategies can be activated based on the operator's existence and location with respect to the robot. The case study of the research further discusses the possibility of implementing the developed method in realistic applications, for example, collaboration between robots and humans in an assembly line.

  • 36.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy-Efficient Robot Configuration for Assembly2017In: Journal of manufacturing science and engineering, ISSN 1087-1357, E-ISSN 1528-8935, Vol. 139, no 5, article id 051007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing the energy consumption of robot movements has been one of the main focuses for most of today's robotic simulation software. This optimization is based on minimizing a robot's joint movements. In many cases, it does not take into consideration the dynamic features. Therefore, reducing energy consumption is still a challenging task and it involves studying the robot's kinematic and dynamic models together with application requirements. This research aims to minimize the robot energy consumption during assembly. Given a trajectory and based on the inverse kinematics and dynamics of a robot, a set of attainable configurations for the robot can be determined, perused by calculating the suitable forces and torques on the joints and links of the robot. The energy consumption is then calculated for each configuration and based on the assigned trajectory. The ones with the lowest energy consumption are selected. Given that the energy-efficient robot configurations lead to reduced overall energy consumption, this approach becomes instrumental and can be embedded in energy-efficient robotic assembly.

  • 37.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Remote monitoring and controlling for robotic path following operations2012In: Proceedings of the SPS12 conference 2012, The Swedish Production Academy , 2012, p. 27-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling a robot's movement requires a prior knowledge about the needed path and configurations to accomplish the movement. The lack of this knowledge causes limitations in the robot's adaptability in dynamic environments. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to improve the ability of the robot to follow any arbitrary path defined by an operator, and (2) to provide the ability for an authorized distant operator to access the system for monitoring and controlling both the robot and the stages of the process. The system developed in this research consists of a calibrated network camera, an industrial robot and an application server. The process starts by having a sketch drown by an operator representing the paths that the robot needs to follow, then the operator can remotely take a snapshot of the paths and retrieve the contours that represent the paths; after that the system sends them to the robot controller to perform the task of path following. The results have shown that the system can perform the required task within a relatively short time and with a reasonable level of quality. This research proves that it is possible to build an adaptive robotic system that can follow efficiently any arbitrary path without the need for defining it in advance.

  • 38.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics. Department of Automation and Systems Technology, Aalto University, Finland.
    Kyrki, Ville
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, Aalto University, Finland.
    Transferring Physical Skills From Humans to Robots: Multimodal Programming by Demonstration for In-Contact Tasks2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto Univeristy, Finland.
    Steinmetz, Franz
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, Oberpfaffenhofen-Weßling, Germany.
    Kyrki, Ville
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto Univeristy, Finland.
    On handing down our tools to robots: Single-phase kinesthetic teaching for dynamic in-contact tasks2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: ICRA 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 5628-5634Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a (generalizable) method aimed tosimultaneously transfer positional and force requirements en-coded in a physical human skill (wood planing) from a humaninstructor to a robotic arm through kinesthetic teaching. Weachieve our goal through a novel use of a common sensoryconfiguration, constituted by a force/torque sensor mountedbetween the tool and the flange of a robotic arm. The roboticarm is endowed with integrated torque sensors at each joint.The mathematical model used to capture the general dynamicof the interaction between the human user and the wood surfaceis based on Dynamic Movement Primitives. During reenactmentof the task, the system can imitate and generalize the demon-strated spatial requirements, as well as their associated forceprofiles. Therefore, the robotic arm acquires the capacity toreproduce the dynamic profile for in-contact tasks requiringan articulated coordination in the distribution of forces. Forexample, the capacity to effectively operate the plane on a woodplank over multiple strokes, according to the demonstration ofthe human instructor.

  • 40.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Tykal, Martin
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Intention Disambiguation: When does action reveal its underlying intention?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Nordby, Johan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Tholin, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    TIDSSTUDIEANALYS AV MANUELL PRODUKTHANTERING VID I- OCH URLASTNING I PRODUKTIONSUTRUSTNINGAR: Produktionssystemutveckling enligt Chaku-Chaku/Hanedashi-principen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project is located at Autoliv Sverige AB (Autoliv) in Vårgårda. Autoliv wants to improve the handle of material in the processes by increasing the availability of the machines. Material is alternately handled by man and machine. The mission is to make one or more concrete that uses the production technique Chaku-Chaku, also known as Hanedashi, as well as being a solution efficient regarding both cost and time and to make use of already existing production equipment.The project is narrowed to just include the top three production cells that demands the most production (operator) time as well as one newly created cell.To be able to calculate the time efficiency on the processes we made a time study and with the analysis of the study we could determine important values of the production for later savings calculations. Four suggestions of improvements were developed and analyzed for time efficiency. Three out of these four were handpicked to be calculated for cost and cost savings of the maximum capacity of the new production or if the yearly production stayed the same. The requirement was that the new maximized production would increase the yearly production by 7%.The first of the handpicked suggestions was to preassemble a component on a separate table instead of assemble it inside of a machine, for this was regarded as a problematic procedure. The solution also contained a new schedule of movements for the operators and a new production cell layout. The second suggestion of improvement aim that when the module has been in one of the assembly machines it will automatically be ejected and therefor made available for the next module. The first and second solutions are recommended to be combined as these can be a complement for each other, as these suggestions are on the same production cell. The third solution was to implement a grasping device that moved aside the module a bit to be processed manually. Thus would make it possible for the next module to be placed inside the machine at the same time. This solution would make two separate waiting times into one synchronized processing. The suggestions of improvements were calculated to result in saved labour if production stayed the same. If the production were maximized the calculations showed the point of break-even. The suggestions would pay-off after 700 units were manufactured on each production cell and further increase the capacity with more than 7%.

  • 42.
    Potros, Bashar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Framställning av mätmetod för att upptäcka defekta luftmunstycken: Framställa en säker och tillförlitlig mätmetod för att mäta mängd vatten i 50 provrör2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To detect defective air nozzles, Ecco Finishing AB in Skara has developed a new test equip-ment to replace an unreliable and uncertain existing test machine. Ecco Finishing AB wants to find a reliable and safe measurement method that will measure the amount of water in 50 test tubes. The overall goal of the thesis is to find a precise and repeatable measurement method for level measurement of fluid in the test tubes. Two measurement methods were evaluated that are most suitable for level measurement, vision systems and measurement by weighing. The reason for the choice of these two measurement methods is the test tubes of the test equipment, and that there are many measuring points and because of the small test tubes. Twenty experiments for vision systems and twenty experiments for weighingmethodwere made to evaluate and describe pros and cons. The experiments of vision systems and weighing were first made in the laboratory phase and then tested on the company's existing test equipment. The results of measurements were saved in an Excel sheet used to evaluate collected data. The evaluations were compared to set goals, reliability, accuracy, repeatabil-ity, automatic reporting of results and time of measurement. Vision systems are recom-mended for continued work and implementation on the existing test equipment

  • 43.
    Potros, Bashar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Framställning av mätmetod för att upptäcka defekta luftmunstycken: Framställa en säker och tillförlitlig mätmetod för att mäta mängd vatten i 50 provrör2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To detect defective air nozzles, Ecco Finishing AB in Skara has developed a new test equip-ment to replace an unreliable and uncertain existing test machine. Ecco Finishing AB wants to find a reliable and safe measurement method that will measure the amount of water in 50 test tubes. The overall goal of the thesis is to find a precise and repeatable measurement method for level measurement of fluid in the test tubes. Two measurement methods were evaluated that are most suitable for level measurement, vision systems and measurement by weighing. The reason for the choice of these two measurement methods is the test tubes of the test equipment, and that there are many measuring points and because of the small test tubes. Twenty experiments for vision systems and twenty experiments for weighing method were made to evaluate and describe pros and cons. The experiments of vision systems and weighing were first made in the laboratory phase and then tested on the company's existing test equipment. The results of measurements were saved in an Excel sheet used to evaluate collected data. The evaluations were compared to set goals, reliability, accuracy, repeatabil-ity, automatic reporting of results and time of measurement. Vision systems are recom-mended for continued work and implementation on the existing test equipment.

  • 44.
    Racca, Mattia
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Finland.
    Pajarinen, Joni
    Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS) and Computational Learning for Autonomous Systems (CLAS) labs at TU Darmstadt.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kyrki, Ville
    School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Finland.
    Learning in-contact control strategies from demonstration2016In: IROS 2016: 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IEEE, 2016, p. 688-695Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning to perform tasks like pulling a door handle or pushing a button, inherently easy for a human, can be surprisingly difficult for a robot. A crucial problem in these kinds of in-contact tasks is the context specificity of pose and force requirements. In this paper, a robot learns in-contact tasks from human kinesthetic demonstrations. To address the need to balance between the position and force constraints, we propose a model based on the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) and Cartesian impedance control. The model captures uncertainty over time and space and allows the robot to smoothly satisfy a task's position and force constraints by online modulation of impedance controller stiffness according to the HSMM state belief. In experiments, a KUKA LWR 4+ robotic arm equipped with a force/torque sensor at the wrist successfully learns from human demonstrations how to pull a door handle and push a button.

  • 45.
    Raupach, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Lindelöw, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Virtual Value Stream Mapping: Evaluation of simulation based value stream mapping using Plant Simulation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    VSM, Value stream mapping, V2SM, virtual value stream mapping, lean, lean manufacturing, DES, discrete event simulation, Tecnomatix Plant Simulation

  • 46.
    Richardson, Kathleen
    et al.
    De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Coeckelbergh, Mark
    De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Wakunuma, Kutoma
    De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gómez, Pablo
    Vrije Universiteit, Brussel, Belgium.
    Vanderborght, Bram
    Vrije Universiteit, Brussel, Belgium.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM): A Social Model of Autism2018In: IEEE technology & society magazine, ISSN 0278-0097, E-ISSN 1937-416X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of social robots for children with autism has been a growth field for the past 15 years. This article reviews studies in robots and autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts socialcommunication development, and the ways social robots could help children with autism develop social skills. Drawing on ethics research from the EU-funded Development of Robot-Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM) project (framework 7), this paper explores how ethics evolves and developed in this European project.

  • 47.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Richardson, Kathleen
    De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Robot Illusion: Facts and Fiction2018In: Proceedings of Workshop in Explainable Robotics System (HRI), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "To researchers and technicians working with robots on a daily basis, it is most often obvious what is part of the staging and not, and thus it may be easy to forget that illusions like these are not explicit and the that the general public may actually be deceived. Should the disclosure of the illusion be the responsibility of roboticists? Or should the assumption be that human beings, on the basis of their experiences as an audience in film, theatre, music or video gaming, assume the audience is able to enjoy the experience without needing to know everything in advance about how the illusion is created? Therefore, we believe that a discussion of whether or not researchers should be more transparent in what kinds of machines they are presenting is necessary. How can researchers present interactive robots in an engaging way, without misleading the audience?"

  • 48.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Active collision avoidance for human-robot collaborative manufacturing2012In: Proceedings of the SPS12 conference 2012, The Swedish Production Academy , 2012, p. 81-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the human-robot collaborative manufacturing environment where humans and robots coexist, safety protection of human operators in real time is of paramount importance. This paper presents an approach for real-time active collision avoidance in augmented environment, where virtual 3D models of robots and real camera images of operators are used for monitoring and collision detection. A cost-effective depth camera is chosen for surveillance of any mobile foreign objects, including operators, which are not presented in the virtual 3D models. Two redundant Kinect sensors using structured light are used as the depth cameras for better area coverage and for eliminating possible blind spots in the surveillance area. Collision detection is performed by minumum distance. Processing applied on depth images includes background removal, filtering, labeling and points cloud generation. A prototype system is developed and linked to robot controllers for real-time robot control, with zero robot programming. According to the result of collision detection, it can alert an operator, stop a robot, or even move a robot away from an approaching operator. The results of a case study show that this approach can be applied to real-world applications such as human-robot collaborative assembly to safeguard human operators.

  • 49.
    Siegmund, Florian
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Dynamic Resampling for Preference-based Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization of Stochastic Systems: Improving the efficiency of time-constrained optimization2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In preference-based Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization (EMO), the decision maker is looking for a diverse, but locally focused non-dominated front in a preferred area of the objective space, as close as possible to the true Pareto-front. Since solutions found outside the area of interest are considered less important or even irrelevant, the optimization can focus its efforts on the preferred area and find the solutions that the decision maker is looking for more quickly, i.e., with fewer simulation runs. This is particularly important if the available time for optimization is limited, as is the case in many real-world applications. Although previous studies in using this kind of guided-search with preference information, for example, withthe R-NSGA-II algorithm, have shown positive results, only very few of them considered the stochastic outputs of simulated systems.

    In the literature, this phenomenon of stochastic evaluation functions is sometimes called noisy optimization. If an EMO algorithm is run without any countermeasure to noisy evaluation functions, the performance will deteriorate, compared to the case if the true mean objective values are known. While, in general, static resampling of solutions to reduce the uncertainty of all evaluated design solutions can allow EMO algorithms to avoid this problem, it will significantly increase the required simulation time/budget, as many samples will be wasted on candidate solutions which are inferior. In comparison, a Dynamic Resampling (DR) strategy can allow the exploration and exploitation trade-off to be optimized, since the required accuracy about objective values varies between solutions. In a dense, converged population, itis important to know the accurate objective values, whereas noisy objective values are less harmful when an algorithm is exploring the objective space, especially early in the optimization process. Therefore, a well-designed Dynamic Resampling strategy which resamples the solution carefully, according to the resampling need, can help an EMO algorithm achieve better results than a static resampling allocation.

    While there are abundant studies in Simulation-based Optimization that considered Dynamic Resampling, the survey done in this study has found that there is no related work that considered how combinations of Dynamic Resampling and preference-based guided search can further enhance the performance of EMO algorithms, especially if the problems under study involve computationally expensive evaluations, like production systems simulation. The aim of this thesis is therefore to study, design and then to compare new combinations of preference-based EMO algorithms with various DR strategies, in order to improve the solution quality found by simulation-based multi-objective optimization with stochastic outputs, under a limited function evaluation or simulation budget. Specifically, based on the advantages and flexibility offered by interactive, reference point-based approaches, studies of the performance enhancements of R-NSGA-II when augmented with various DR strategies, with increasing degrees of statistical sophistication, as well as several adaptive features in terms of optimization parameters, have been made. The research results have clearly shown that optimization results can be improved, if a hybrid DR strategy is used and adaptive algorithm parameters are chosen according to the noise level and problem complexity. In the case of a limited simulation budget, the results allow the conclusions that both decision maker preferences and DR should be used at the same time to achieve the best results in simulation-based multi-objective optimization.

  • 50.
    Siegmund, Florian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Dynamic Resampling for Guided Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization of Stochastic Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Multi-objective Optimization many solutions have to be evaluated in order to provide the decision maker with a diverse Pareto-front. In Simulation-based Optimization the number of optimization function evaluations is very limited. If preference information is available however, the available function evaluations can be used more effectively by guiding the optimization towards interesting, preferred regions. One such algorithm for guided search is the R-NSGA-II algorithm. It takes reference points provided by the decision maker and guides the optimization towards areas of the Pareto-front close to the reference points.In Simulation-based Optimization the modeled systems are often stochastic and a reliable quality assessment of system configurations by resampling requires many simulation runs. Therefore optimization practitioners make use of dynamic resampling algorithms that distribute the available function evaluations intelligently on the solutions to be evaluated. Criteria for sampling allocation can be a.o. objective value variability, closeness to the Pareto-front indicated by elapsed time, or the dominance relations between different solutions based on distances between objective vectors and their variability.In our work we combine R-NSGA-II with several resampling algorithms based on the above mentioned criteria. Due to the preference information R-NSGA-II has fitness information based on distance to reference points at its disposal. We propose a resampling strategy that allocates more samples to solutions close to a reference point.Previously, we proposed extensions of R-NSGA-II that adapt algorithm parameters like population size, population diversity, or the strength of the Pareto-dominance relation continuously to optimization problem characteristics. We show how resampling algorithms can be integrated with those extensions.The applicability of the proposed algorithms is shown in a case study of an industrial production line for car manufacturing.

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