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  • 1.
    Andeta, Jemal Ahmed
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Road-traffic accident prediction model: Predicting the Number of Casualties2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient and effective road traffic prediction and management techniques are crucial in intelligent transportation systems. It can positively influence road advancement, safety enhancement, regulation formulation, and route planning to save living things in advance from road traffic accidents. This thesis considers road safety by predicting the number of casualties if an accident occurs using multiple traffic accident attributes. It helps individuals (drivers) or traffic offices to adjust and control their contributions for the occurrence of an accident before emerging it. Three candidate algorithms from different regression fit patterns are proposed and evaluated to conduct the thesis: the bagging, linear, and non-linear fitting patterns. The gradient boosting machines (GBoost) from the bagging, Linearsupport vector regression (LinearSVR) from the linear, and extreme learning machines (ELM) also from the non-linear side are the selected algorithms. RMSE and MAE performance evaluation metrics are applied to evaluate the models. The GBoost achieved a better performance than the other two with a low error rate and minimum prediction interval value for 95% prediction interval. A SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations) interpretation technique is applied to interpret each model at the global interpretation level using SHAP’s beeswarm plots. Finally, suggestions for future improvements are presented via the dataset and hyperparameter tuning.

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  • 2.
    Andreasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Bofacher, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hållbart Inköp: En kvalitativ studie av hur svenska möbelföretag tillämpar CSR i sitt inköpsarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet är idag ett aktuellt ämne som har influerat många industrier och logistikstrukturer. Syftet med denna rapport är att studera hur inköpsfunktionen inom möbelbranschen kan bidra till att öka den hållbara utvecklingen inom företag och därmed påverka den hållbara utvecklingen i samhället. Författarna för denna studie har studerat hur hållbarhetsarbetet ser ut hos fyra svenska möbelföretag samt hur deras kortsiktiga- och långsiktiga mål ser ut. Arbetet med hållbart inköp gynnar flera parter i en försörjningskedja och i samhället. Litteraturen som har använts visar på att det hållbara arbetet oftast brister hos leverantörerna på fabrikerna. Många fabriker finns i länder som är klassificerade som högriskländer, vilket innebär att de inte förhåller sig till exempelvis rättvisa arbetsvillkor eller löner. I de fallen behöver företag interagera leverantörerna i sitt CSR-arbete, utöver sitt interna hållbarhetsarbete, vilket innefattar ett ekonomiskt, miljömässigt och socialt ansvarstagande. Genom att arbeta med CSR-aspekterna kopplat till inköpsarbetet, kan företag uppnå ett hållbart inköp. Författarna för denna studie har analyserat vilka svårigheter som finns i hållbarhetsarbetet och har på så sätt kunnat redogöra för eventuella förbättringsåtgärder. Den teoretiska referensramen lyfter fram teorier som har kunnat användas som riktlinjer för utvecklingsarbetet för hållbart inköp. Det empiriska materialet sammanställer hur företagens inköpsstrategier ser ut för det ekonomiska, miljömässiga och det sociala arbetet idag. Många av de studerade företagen förhåller sig till teorin, även om de har potential att arbeta med teorierna i större utsträckning. Resultatet av denna studie är att det föreligger en gemensam svårighet för de studerade företagen, vilket är att integrera leverantörer och underleverantörer i CSR-arbetet för att uppnå ett hållbart inköp. Eftersom det exempelvis förekommer kulturella skillnader och lagstiftningar, kan det vara svårt att påverka leverantörerna. Därför ingår en del av företagen i samarbete med externa parter som granskar att leverantörerna förhåller sig till företagens krav och till de globala riktlinjerna. Genom att utöva inflytande på leverantörernas arbete och få dem att förstå hur kedjan tillsamman kan bidra till ett hållbart klimat, kan de skapa ett närmare samarbete för att företaget ska uppnå ett hållbart inköp.

  • 3.
    Ardakani, Allahyar
    et al.
    National Center for Ports and Shipping, Australian Maritime College, University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Fei, Jiangang
    National Center for Ports and Shipping, Australian Maritime College, University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Beldar, Pedram
    Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.
    Truck-to-door sequencing in multi-door cross-docking system with dock repeat truck holding patter2020In: International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations, ISSN 1923-2926, E-ISSN 1923-2934, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 201-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-docking is a logistics strategy that consolidates the products of different inbound trucks according to their destinations in order to reduce the inventory, order picking, and transportation costs. It requires a high level of collaboration between inbound trucks, internal operations, and outbound trucks. This article addresses the truck-to-door sequencing problem. Truck-to-door sequencing has been studied by some researchers in different titles such as scheduling and sequencing of inbound and outbound trucks of the cross-dock center. However, previous studies have not considered repeat truck holding pattern. Therefore, it is important to determine the doors and the sequence of the inbound and outbound trucks that should be assigned in a cross-dock center. This paper focuses on optimizing truck-to-door sequencing with consideration of repeat truck holding pattern in inbound trucks in order to minimize makespan. Two methods are considered to solve this problem, including mathematical modeling and a heuristic algorithm. In the first method, a mixed integer-programming model is developed to minimize the makespan. Then, GAMS software is used to solve small-scale problems. In the second approach, a heuristic algorithm is developed to find near-optimal solutions within the shortest time possible and the algorithm is used to solve large-scale problems. The results of the mathematical model and the heuristic algorithm are slightly different and show the good quality of the presented heuristic algorithm.

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  • 4.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    National Road Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Internet of Things data analytics for parking availability prediction and guidance2020In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 31, article id e3862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutting-edge sensors and devices are increasingly deployed within urban areas to make-up the fabric of transmission control protocol/internet protocol con- nectivity driven by Internet of Things (IoT). This immersion into physical urban environments creates new data streams, which could be exploited to deliver novel cloud-based services. Connected vehicles and road-infrastructure data are leveraged in this article to build applications that alleviate notorious parking and induced traffic-congestion issues. To optimize the utility of parking lots, our proposed SmartPark algorithm employs a discrete Markov-chain model to demystify the future state of a parking lot, by the time a vehicle is expected to reach it. The algorithm features three modular sections. First, a search pro- cess is triggered to identify the expected arrival-time periods to all parking lots in the targeted central business district (CBD) area. This process utilizes smart-pole data streams reporting congestion rates across parking area junc- tions. Then, a predictive analytics phase uses consolidated historical data about past parking dynamics to infer a state-transition matrix, showing the transfor- mation of available spots in a parking lot over short periods of time. Finally, this matrix is projected against similar future seasonal periods to figure out the actual vacancy-expectation of a lot. The performance evaluation over an actual busy CBD area in Stockholm (Sweden) shows increased scalability capa- bilities, when further parking resources are made available, compared to a baseline case algorithm. Using standard urban-mobility simulation packages, the traffic-congestion-aware SmartPark is also shown to minimize the journey duration to the selected parking lot while maximizing the chances to find an available spot at the selected lot.

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  • 5.
    Barrow, Devon K.
    et al.
    School of Strategy and Leadership, Faculty of Business and Law, Coventry University, Coventry, West Midlands, United Kingdom.
    Kourentzes, Nikolaos
    Lancaster University Management School, Department of Management Science, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Distributions of forecasting errors of forecast combinations: Implications for inventory management2016In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 177, p. 24-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inventory control systems rely on accurate and robust forecasts of future demand to support decisions such as setting of safety stocks. The combination of multiple forecasts is shown to be effective not only in reducing forecast errors, but also in being less sensitive to limitations of a single model. Research on forecast combination has primarily focused on improving accuracy, largely ignoring the overall shape and distribution of forecast errors. Nonetheless, these are essential for managing the level of aversion to risk and uncertainty for companies. This study examines the forecast error distributions of base and combination forecasts and their implications for inventory performance. It explores whether forecast combinations transform the forecast error distribution towards desired properties for safety stock calculations, typically based on the assumption of normally distributed errors and unbiased forecasts. In addition, it considers the similarity between in- and out-of-sample characteristics of such errors and the impact of different lead times. The effects of established combination methods are explored empirically using a representative set of forecasting methods and a dataset of 229 weekly demand series from a leading household and personal care UK manufacturer. Findings suggest that forecast combinations make the in- and out-of-sample behaviour more consistent, requiring less safety stock on average than base forecasts. Furthermore we find that using in-sample empirical error distributions of combined forecasts approximates well the out-of-sample ones, in contrast to base forecasts. 

  • 6.
    Barrow, Devon
    et al.
    Birmingham Business School Department of Management, United Kingdom.
    Kourentzes, Nikolaos
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Lancaster University Management School Department of Management Science, United Kingdom.
    Sandberg, Rickard
    Stockholm School of Economics Center for Data Analytics, Sweden.
    Niklewski, Jacek
    Coventry University Faculty of Business, Environment and Society, United Kingdom.
    Automatic robust estimation for exponential smoothing: Perspectives from statistics and machine learning2020In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 160, article id 113637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge in automating the production of a large number of forecasts, as often required in many business applications, is the need for robust and reliable predictions. Increased noise, outliers and structural changes in the series, all too common in practice, can severely affect the quality of forecasting. We investigate ways to increase the reliability of exponential smoothing forecasts, the most widely used family of forecasting models in business forecasting. We consider two alternative sets of approaches, one stemming from statistics and one from machine learning. To this end, we adapt M-estimators, boosting and inverse boosting to parameter estimation for exponential smoothing.  We propose appropriate modifications that are necessary for time series forecasting while aiming to obtain scalable algorithms. We evaluate the various estimation methods using multiple real datasets and find that several approaches outperform the widely used maximum likelihood estimation. The novelty of this work lies in (1) demonstrating the usefulness of M-estimators, (2) and of inverse boosting, which outperforms standard boosting approaches, and (3) a comparative look at statistics versus machine learning inspired approaches.

  • 7.
    Cholat, Nils
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Vall, Ludvig
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Citylogistik: med fokus på urbana konsolideringscenter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In line with a constant and increasing urbanization, higher requirements are placed on the logistical flows in and out of urban areas. This entails, among other things, increased congestion and negative environmental impact due to the increased amount of transport. The management of logistical activities in urban areas has been gathered under the concept of city logistics. The idea of city logistics is to see the involved stakeholders as units in a larger logistic system. The logistics system has the task of streamlining and reducing the number of transports, which can be achieved through urban consolidation centers (UCC).

    The purpose of the study is to identify different aspects from the stakeholders' perspective, which argues for or against the introduction of a UCC. The study is intended to be directed at authorities whose interest is to introduce a UCC.

    The study’s issue focuses on developing advantages and disadvantages that arise for the relevant stakeholders in the city logistics when introducing a UCC terminal. To answer this issue and fulfill the purpose, interviews have been conducted with people related to UCC projects. The interviews are then supplemented with information from documents linked to these projects.

    The result shows that UCC is a city logistics solution that often requires compromises from the different stakeholders to achieve a common goal. This means that stakeholders often experience both advantages and disadvantages in connection with the implementation of a UCC. The stakeholder’s advantages and disadvantages should also be carefully weighed against each other, as an advantage for a stakeholder can be interpreted as a disadvantage for another.

     

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  • 8.
    Dahlberg, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Fohlén, Weronica
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hållbarhetsutvärdering - LCSA Analys: av trucksystem inom intern materialhantering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of organizations that choose to work with sustainability is increasing due to the potential competitiveness it causes. Working with sustainability may include sustainability evaluations, which can be done through the LCSA analysis method. The purpose of this report is to evaluate and analyze a manufacturing company's current climate impact due to carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from diesel-powered forklifts within internal material handling. Further, the report aims to illustrate how a sustainability evaluation can be conducted to identify ecological, economic and social impact. In the report, a sustainability evaluation of forklift systems is performed to identify the theoretically best alternative, compared to a case company's current situation. The method used for the sustainability evaluation is LCSA analysis. In addition to the results of the sustainability evaluation, the interface between theoretically and practically best forklift system alternatives is considered.  The case company Volvo GTO in Skövde, currently have 18 diesel-powered forklifts, which have different capacities and functions. The current fuel for all forklifts is Diesel Mk1. The flows today generally set high demands on the forklifts technical capacity, for example on, travel speed, climbing ability, traction force and lifting and lowering speed. In the year 2017, the 18 diesel-powered forklifts contributed with a climate impact of approximately 237 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents, considering the entire life cycle of Diesel Mk1 and the forklift fleets total run time.  Regarding the sustainability evaluation LCSA analysis, it is performed on forklift systems powered by Diesel Mk1, HVO-Diesel, lead acid batteries and lithium-ion batteries within the capacities 3.5, 5 and 8-tonne. The analysis considers the three pillars of sustainability. Further, the technical specifications of the forklift systems are considered and compared with the current diesel-powered fleet. Generally, a lower technical capacity can be seen in the electric forklift systems, which may affect the ability to implement those at the case company. Theoretically lowest ecological and social impact can be seen within the lithium-ion battery-powered forklift systems, the lowest impact on the economic pillar is seen in the lead acid battery systems. Based on the case company's current flows and demands, the authors recommend HVO-Diesel-powered forklift systems, as they have the same technical capabilities as well as lower ecological and social impacts. Limitations has been set for the reports analyzes, regarding process boundaries and impact indicators. For future sustainability evaluations, the authors recommend that wider process boundaries and more impact indicators are applied to identify the total impact within the pillars of sustainability. The report comprehends examples of impact beyond selected process boundaries, such as emissions affecting over time or exploitation. During the progress of this report, information gaps have been discovered in different areas. Regarding research of sustainability evaluations, proven methods are lacking. Therefore, established methods for evaluation are desired. A gap in research of forklift theory has also been noted.

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    Hållbarhetsutvärdering - LCSA Analys: av trucksystem inom intern materialhantering
  • 9.
    Durst, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Davies, Lidia
    Department of Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang Dieter
    Department of Business Administration, School of Business and Governance, Tallinn University of Technology (TalTech), Estonia.
    SMEs in the face of crisis: The supply chain risk management perspective2022In: Increasing Supply Chain Performance in Digital Society / [ed] Ramona Diana Leon; Raul Rodriguez; Juan Jose Alfaro Saiz, IGI Global, 2022, p. 205-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COVID-19 has shown how fragile our societies and economies are. Supply chains have particularly been affected. We all had to learn again that the basic supply of some goods is not as crisis-proof as we thought. Moreover, the strong division of labour and the concentration on a few companies in certain areas present considerable weaknesses in the case of a new external crisis such as the pandemic. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have been affected by the current pandemic, particularly as they are highly sensitive to external threats. Using data collected between December 2020 and January 2021 through semi-structured interviews conducted with owners and/or managers of SMEs located in six different European countries (i.e., Austria, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Italy, and Portugal), the chapter aims to provide fresh perspectives on how SMEs address supply chain risk management in times of an external and dynamic crisis. 

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kundorderstyrd tillverkning – Påverkande faktorer, förutsättningar och problem: En övergripande studie om hur små och medelstora företag flyttar kundorderpunkten och går mot mer kundanpassning.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a holistic view of which factors small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have to consider, in moving their customer order decoupling point (CODP) further from the customer, thereby becoming more customized. The study also investigate whether SMEs and larger enterprises differ in the strategic questions relating to what influences an enterprise to become more customized, which prerequisites are required and which problems enterprises should anticipate and prepare for. These questions are important, given that strategic change is challenging, and can take considerable time to accomplish; it therefore needs to be based on the right decisions. This study is motivated by the fact that the markets SMEs are selling to tend to become more and more complex and harder to anticipate. Increased globalisation and use of IT and ICT have lead to greater uncertainty in customer demand. At the same time customers have ever more demanding needs and specifications; if these are not met, they will go elsewhere rather than reducing or adapting them. This complexity requires a more customized production and is a way to gain commercial advantages.    

     

    Customised production includes many benefits such as reduced uncertainty, by producing totally customized products less capital bound is tied up. But meanwhile many challenges such as reduced production efficiency, furthermore flexibility must be increased and higher demands on communications and IT systems are often necessary. The study starts with a wide and thorough theoretical overhaul around the movement of the CODP, but also addresses other parts of the organization to get the all-important big picture. This theoretical work is leading to a work-model which is used in six interviews within SMEs. In order to get a thorough picture, the enterprises that take part in the study are from different line of business and have from 18 to 235 employees. During these interviews, conducted on a single occasion per company, the model and related questions are discussed. Thereby an analysis of the interviews and the theory is done, with the model as the starting-point.

     

    The result of this study is a basic model, which SMEs can use as an analytical tool, and a checklist, to facilitate a move towards a make-to-order manufacturing strategy, thereby gaining more flexibility. The study provides a basic generic framework which can be adapted and tailored by the company in question to see which parts are relevant to specific circumstances. 

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  • 11.
    Fredriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Helm, Olivia
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Skapa förutsättningar för closed-loop supply chain: För detaljhandelsföretag i modebranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Due to the enormous consumption of textiles and clothing that takes place in some parts of the world, a changed approach is needed to handle the textiles and clothing that are purchased both during and after use. The companies that design, manufacture and sell the products also have a big impact. In order to reduce the use of finite resources, a strategy that changes today's linear flows into a closed cycle, where resources are recycled, a so-called Closed-loop supply chain, is required. The purpose of the study is to investigate how four Swedish retailers in the fashion industry work with Closed-loop supply chain and the possibilities and challenges with the concept. The purpose is also to find out how companies work with recycling and sustainability that are relevant parts of a functioning circular flow

    Implementation

    The theoretical reference framework describes the Closed-loop supply chain concept and the components that are included; forward and reverse supply chain. It also takes up seven process steps that must be handled to create a Closed-loop supply chain for clothes and textiles.To investigate how the four Swedish retail companies in the fashion industry work to achieve a circular flow, a profound review of the respective company's sustainability reports has been made. In the empirical section, apart from the four Swedish retail companies, there are also a number of organizations that in one way or another work to allow circular flow in the textile and fashion industry. In order to get a reflection of consumers' awareness and attitude towards recycling opportunities, a survey was also conducted.

    Results

    In order to create the right conditions for a Closed-loop supply chain, it is necessary to adapt both the forward and the reverse supply chain. The forward supply chain requires that the garments are designed to be easily recycled and that they are handled by the consumer in a sustainable way. The reverse supply chain primarily requires that the clothes are collected. Furthermore, the collected clothes are forwarded for sorting and then a decision of the garments reuse options has to be taken. Finally, the product is redistributed either back into any process in the forward supply chain or sold in a secondary market. From the information obtained from the sustainability reports and other information gathering, it has been found that retail companies have a long way to go until a Closed-loop supply chain operates to 100%.

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  • 12.
    Friberg, Adam
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. adamfriberg93@gmail.com.
    Komayesh, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Business. danielkomayesh@hotmail.com.
    Gröna leverantörsval: Hur kan företag gå tillväga för att inkludera miljöcertifiering, utsläpp av koldioxidekvivalenter och återvinningsgrad som kriterier vid val samt utvärdering av leverantörer?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze companies’ implementation of environmental responsibility regarding supplier selection as well as supplier evaluation. The objective of this paper is to provide a description of which criteria are most commonly used in supplier selection and evaluation, as well as which evaluation criteria companies could include to achieve green supplier selection.

    To fulfill the purpose of this paper we have done a literature study as well as an interview study. The motive of these studies is based on purchasing’s and procurement’s increasing responsibility regarding environmental impact. The supplier selection process has in many cases a huge impact on a supply chain’s environmental performance. This results in a necessity for companies and organizations to achieve a balance between economic and environmental aspects when it comes to supplier selection and evaluation.

    The most commonly used criteria in supplier selection and evaluation consists of quality, delivery performance and price/cost. In addition, there is also a lot of different environmental criteria that companies could take into consideration to achieve green supplier selection. For example, these green criteria may consist of environmental certification, carbon dioxide emissions and recycling.

    By analyzing the literature study as well as the empirical study similarities and differences have been discovered. The discovered similarities and differences is mainly based on how companies include environmental aspects in supplier selection and evaluation, compared to how green supplier selection theoretically is described. A general conclusion based on the analysis in this paper indicates that a great improvement is necessary regarding the implementation of environmental criteria in supplier selection and evaluation.

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  • 13.
    Frisk, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Sellman, Stefan
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Flisberg, Patrik
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rönnqvist, Mikael
    Département de génie mécanique, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Route optimization as an instrument to improve animal welfare and economics in pre-slaughter logistics2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0193223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year, more than three million animals are transported from farms to abattoirs in Sweden. Animal transport is related to economic and environmental costs and a negative impact on animal welfare. Time and the number of pick-up stops between farms and abattoirs are two key parameters for animal welfare. Both are highly dependent on efficient and qualitative transportation planning, which may be difficult if done manually. We have examined the benefits of using route optimization in cattle transportation planning. To simulate the effects of various planning time windows and transportation time regulations and number of pick-up stops along each route, we have used data that represent one year of cattle transport. Our optimization model is a development of a model used in forestry transport that solves a general pick-up and delivery vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize transportation costs. We have shown that the length of the planning time window has a significant impact on the animal transport time, the total driving time and the total distance driven; these parameters that will not only affect animal welfare but also affect the economy and environment in the pre-slaughter logistic chain. In addition, we have shown that changes in animal transportation regulations, such as minimizing the number of allowed pick-up stops on each route or minimizing animal transportation time, will have positive effects on animal welfare measured in transportation hours and number of pick-up stops. However, this leads to an increase in working time and driven distances, leading to higher transportation costs for the transport and negative environmental impact.

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  • 14.
    Greijer, Jonna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Sillrén, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Samarbeten vid outsourcing av logistiska funktioner: En kvalitativ intervjustudie av samarbeten inom svenska företag som outsourcar sin distribution2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within companies, a variety of logistic activities take place. This may include purchasing raw materials, production, material handling, warehousing or distribution of goods to customers. Producing companies must take a stand on several different alternative logistics solutions to carry out these activities. One of the options that companies can use is outsourcing. Companies can, in addition to carrying out activities within the company, also choose to take the decision to outsource, which means that some of their activities are transferred to external parties who are assigned a certain responsibility. Outsourcing can take place in varying degrees and be designed in different ways. When a company chooses to outsource one or more logistics functions, a partnership arises between the company that is outsourcing and the company that offers the service.

    The purpose of the report is to develop a deeper understanding of how the collaboration can look between a producing company that outsources parts of its distribution and the company that offers the service. The intention of the study is to make a comparison between what the literature and what Swedish companies indicate and then conduct an analysis. The interview study conducted will show how collaboration is formed between the interviewed companies and their outsourcing suppliers in order to be able to describe what types of collaborations can be designed in these types of outsourcing relationships.

    The result of the report indicates that companies that outsource base their choice of supplier on financial stability, that the supplier has the right equipment and capacity, special knowledge of the goods that will be distributed, sustainability, cost, quality requirements (delivery reliability) and the reputation of the supplier.

    The most common cooperation is that of arm's length distance/ cost stage. There are also collaborations in the form of partnerships at the basic level and the semi-developed partnership/ resource stage. There is also a fully developed partnership/ partnership stage, the joint ventures/ partnership stage and vertical integration, but these cannot be achieved when outsourcing only transport and/or warehouse functions.

    Factors that enables a successful collaboration are clearly designed contracts, clear and open communication, building partnerships, clear measures, and continuous evaluation of vendor performance.

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  • 15.
    Hammad, Yassert A.
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
    El Ansari, Walid
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Shallik, Nabil A.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
    Bali, Souad
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Feki, Abdellatif M.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Quality, safety and efficiency in practice: Risk assessment and standardisation of anesthesia equipment and supplies in operating theaters of high-volume tertiary-care academic medical center2019In: Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology, ISSN 0544-0440, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Operating theatres (OTs) are valuable and costly resources that need to be appropriately designed and stocked for efficient, quality and safe patient care. We assessed the logistic inefficiency including the availability and location layout of necessary supplies across OTs of a high-volume tertiary-care academic medical center. Methods: A blinded observer (anesthesia technologist) was allocated to 10 OTs. For each OT, the availability, quantity and time spent to locate and obtain a set of required items were recorded (baseline values). We then developed an OT mapping plan to determine the specific item/s to be stocked in specific locations, and one OT was standardized to this configuration map. A blinded observer was then allocated to this standardized OT and time spent to obtain the same set of items was again recorded. Six of our regular OTs were then standardized to the same configuration, and the time to obtain the items by a blinded observer were again recorded for each OT. T tests compared the time required to locate items in the standardized OT vs. regular OTs; paired t tests compared the time required in each OT vs. itself before and after standardization. Results: The observer required significantly more time in each of the 10 regular OTs compared to the standardized OT. The time spent by the observer to obtain the required items significantly and considerably decreased in each of 6 OTs after their standardization, compared to the time required before their standardization. Conclusion: This quality improvement project successfully reduced the time required to identify and locate different supplies, which impacts on the efficiency and quality of patient care. For anesthesia staff moving from one anesthetizing location to another within the institution, consistencies in location and number of anesthesia equipment and supplies create higher levels of safety and professionalism.

  • 16.
    Hasic, Sanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. sannahas@outlook.com.
    Petio, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Business. daniel_petio@hotmail.com.
    Drönar-redo eller drönar-framtid?: En undersökning av möjligheten att inventera med drönare i lager2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report has been to investigate the possibilities of automating the inventory process with the help of drones as well as investigating how this can make the inventory process more efficient. Furthermore, the report will highlight the specifications that a drone would have to meet in order for this to be possible at all, as well as investigate how this could lead to a more effective inventory process and minimizing the risk of accidents that occurs during the inventory process. The structure of the report consists of different specifications that are presented where the authors selected requirement specifications which are considered most suitable based on the chosen theory and empirical studies. In order to answer the purpose of this assignment, there were a few questions that needed some research in order to find relevant answers where four companies were interviewed. With these questions, we would be able to get an idea of ​​how the inventory process looked at different companies and what difficulties they experienced in the processes. All the interviewed companies often experienced common problems in their inventory processes and told the authors that an automated solution was something to be expected in the near future. Furthermore, they considered that the inventory process was time-consuming and a non-value-creating activity where one could put the resources elsewhere if there was a drone able to perform the expected work because of, despite the fact that the inventory was considered to be non-value-creating, it is still an activity that must be performed since it is a legal requirement, but also to maintain a high level of service and good delivery ability. Furthermore, a plan for how the drone should work is presented and how it possibly would make the inventory process more effective and minimize the risk of accidents that can occur on goods and staff. The authors believe that the technology for achieving this is available, but it is more about using the technology and designing the warehouse to make this as optimal as possible. Furthermore, the authors believe that it will take time until it can be fully automated and will initially, have to be supplemented with support from the human factor.

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  • 17.
    Helgesson, Evelina
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Effektivisering av material- och lagerhantering: En fallstudie på CG Lindhs AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett tillverkande företag behöver ständigt arbeta med att eliminera de aktiviteter som inte skapar värde för verksamheten, det vill säga de aktiviteter som kund inte är beredd att betala för. Det är således viktigt för tillverkande företag att eliminera dessa aktiviteter för att ha möjlighet att konkurrera på marknaden. Materialhantering är en aktivitet som är extra resurskrävande men som inte skapar något extra värde för kund, detta då de flesta aktiviteter som sker på verkstadsgolvet, det vill säga även materialhantering, mestadels går åt till att leta, hämta, vänta samt lossa och lasta material. Med andra ord är materialhantering en av företagets mest omfattande flaskhalsar. Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för vad slöserier har för påverkan på material- samt lagerhanteringen i en producerande verksamhet, för att sedan ge förbättringsförslag på hur denna process kan effektiviseras. Studien är utförd på företaget CG Lindhs AB som utför producering av gardinstänger, gardinskenor och invändigt solskydd och företaget är beläget i Alingsås kommun. För att uppnå syftet med studien utfördes en processkartläggning som granskade flödena i fabriken. Dessutom gjordes en granskning över Lindhs produktionsupplägg som sedan tillsammans med processkartläggning användes som grund för en analys. Med hjälp av analysen kunde ett par slöserier identifieras. De identifierade slöserierna går, i största mån, att koppla till den bristande strategi som råder gällande produktionsupplägget samt saknaden av ett system som styr vart nytt inlevererat material ska placeras. Efter det att analysen var genomförd startade arbetet med att ta fram förbättringsförslag som skulle möjliggöra en reducering av de identifierade slöserierna. Avslutningsvis presenteras de förbättringsförslag som tagits fram samt en diskussion kring förslagen och framtida forskning inom området.

  • 18.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lättilä, Lauri
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Agent based decision support in the supply chain context2011In: Proceedings of the 3rd Rapid Modeling Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lättilä, Lauri
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Unit, Finland.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Unit, Finland.
    Agent-based decision support in maintenance service operations2009In: Proceedings of the 16th International Annual EurOMA Conference, Göteborg, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Finland.
    Torkkeli, Marko
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Finland.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lorentz, Harri
    Turku School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    From Northern Europe to Russia and Asia, and Vice Versa: Traffic Flow Analysis – Current Situation and Development trends2006In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Industrial Logistics, ICIL '2006: Kaunas, Lithuania, 26 - 29 June 2006 / [ed] Algirdas Bargelis; Petri Helo, Kaunas: Technologija , 2006, p. 96-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of European manufacturers have enlarged their manufacturing networks to Asia, in most of the occasions to China and India. Also the growing demand in Asia as well as in Russia creates increasing need for cost efficient and lead time wise supply chain solutions. It depends on the used manufacturing and supply chain strategy, whether manufacturing units in a company's network use market focused (factory in particular region serves that market needs) or product group based (one manufacturing unit takes global delivery responsibility) control. In either case, manufacturers at the moment use "local sourcing" strategy to enhance supply chain control and responsiveness. However, this approach is incapable to use global sourcing opportunities, and utilize cheap raw materials and semi-finished items from Asia and Russia to be used in European manufacturing units. The constraints in this process are the transportation costs and delays; sea container transportation from Asia is cheap, but takes long time to be shipped to Europe (nearly two months), and correspondingly air transportation is expensive, and sets restrictions for the package size and weight. At the moment a third alternative also exist, where items are transported between Europe, Russia and Asia through Trans-Asian Railway network. This route provides moderate cost efficiency (as compared to air transportation) and lead time advantage (as compared to sea containers).

    In this paper we analyze the survey research results, which was targeted on the largest manufacturers and retailers in Finland and Sweden. Based on the survey analysis, we estimate how transportation modal split (between road, sea, railway and air) will evolve in the future, and how traffic flows develop between Europe, Russia, South-Korea, India, China, and Japan. We also present estimation from the future transportation costs development. In the analysis phase we also consider, how large volumes could be shifted to railway connection, and how wise customer picking could smoothen the transportation amounts from and to Russia/Asia. Also avenues for further research are being proposed based on our quantitative analysis.

  • 21.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Finland.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Torkkeli, Marko
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Finland.
    Lorentz, Harri
    Turku School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    From Northern Europe to Russia and Asia, and vice versa: traffic flow analysis – current situation and development trends2010In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 205-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European manufacturers have enlarged their manufacturing networks to Asia. Also, the growing demand in Asia as well as in Russia creates challenge for supply chain solutions. This research presents survey research results, targeted on the largest manufacturers and retailers in Finland and Sweden. We estimate how transportation modal split (road, sea, railway and air) will evolve in the future, and how traffic flows will develop between Europe, Russia, and Asian countries. We also present an estimation of the future transportation costs development. In the analysis phase, it is also considered how large volumes could be shifted to favour railway connection.

  • 22.
    Huertas, Ana
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Decision support system for feeding policy selection in production settings: Research proposal2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Competitiveness is highly important in automotive industry. Customers’ satisfaction is decisive and that has turned out in high vehicle customization. Customization implies for example that a vehicle model can include several types of engines; inferring in high engine model variety on the assembly systems. Production lines balancing and ergonomic factors within assembly operations usually trigger unbalances on the logistics resources utilization. A proper feeding policy selection can palliate the impact of the unbalances generated by the assembly operations, improve the performance of the system and reduce cost. Selection among different policies is often done by following qualitative criteria which are influenced by product structure, operational constraints, company-specific practices and tradition. This project consists of the development of a decision support system for feeding policy selection in production settings. This system will automatically select the feeding policy at a single component level and evaluate the impact brought by this decision when interacting with the production setting. 

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  • 23.
    Hultén, Gösta
    Intelligent logistik, Stockholm.
    "Järnvägsgods från Asien en chans för Norden"2010In: Intelligent logistik: inköp, logistik, produktion, affärer, ISSN 1653-9451, no 5, p. 8-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    –Idag går nästan allt gods i Finland på lastbil och det är inte hållbart. Vår stora chans vore att ta mer importgods på järnväg från Sydostasien, säger Olli-Pekka Hilmola, finsk logistikprofessor.

    /.../

    Olli-Pekka Hilmola, professor i logistik vid Tekniska Högskolan i Lappeenranta, Kouvola Unit.

    /.../

    Som gästprofessor i logistik vid Högskolan i Skövde har Olli-Pekka Hilmola fått en ovanlig möjlighet att studera skillnader och likheter i de båda ländernas logistiksystem

    /.../

    Innovationer inom logistik kommer idag också från Kina. –Tillsammans med den kinesiske gästprofessorn Lihui Wang har vi ett projekt i Skövde där vi testar att använda Iphone i logistikkedjan.

  • 24.
    Håkansson, Nina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Flisberg, P.
    Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Algers, B.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Rönnqvist, M.
    Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden / University Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
    Wennergren, U.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping, Sweden.
    Improvement of animal welfare by strategic analysis and logistic optimisation of animal slaughter transportation2016In: Animal Welfare, ISSN 0962-7286, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transportation of animals to slaughterhouses is a major welfare concern. The number of slaughterhouses has decreased over time in Europe due to centralisation. This is expected to increase transport time for animals and as a consequence negatively affect animal welfare. We propose an optimisation model based on a facility location model to perform strategic analysis to improve transportation logistics. The model is tested on the Swedish slaughter transport system. We show that, by strategic planning and redirection of transports while keeping the slaughterhouse capacities as of the originaldata, the potential exists to reduce transport distance by 25% for pigs and 40% for cattle. Furthermore, we demonstrated that approximately 50% of Swedish slaughterhouses can be shut down with a minimal effect on total transport distances. This implies that in terms of the overall welfare picture, the decision of which animals to send where plays a for more significant role than the number of slaughterhouses. In addition, by changing relative weights on distances in the optimisation function the amount of individualtransports with longjourney times can be decreased. We also show results from altered slaughterhouse capacity and geographical location of slaughterhouses. This is the first time an entire country has been analysed in great detail with respect to the location, capacity and number of slaughterhouses. The focus is mainly on the analysis of unique and detailed information of actual animal transports in Sweden and a demonstration of the potential impact redirection of the transports and/ or altering of slaughterhouses can have on animal welfare.

  • 25.
    Jäger, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The future of third party logistics: Key issues for a logistics integrator and their customers2006In: PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2006: Effektivitet och samverkan i försörjningskedjor: Artiklar från konferensen på Högskolan Väst i Trollhättan den 23-24 augusti 2006 / [ed] Oscar Jellbo; Rikard Sjöström, Stockholm: Logistikföreningen PLAN , 2006, p. 205-218Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Jäger, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The Future of Third-Party Logistics: Key Issues for a Logistics Integrator2006In: Contemporary Research Issues in International Railway Logistics / [ed] Olli-Pekka Hilmola, Kouvola: Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2006, p. 67-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Logistics has increasingly been recognized as a vital part of an organization’s competitive resources. With an increased outsourcing of the logistics function, due to increasing competition and high customer expectations on service-level, there is a need for more professional and well-equipped logistics services. This need is emphasized by the tendency that competition increasingly takes place between supply-chains more than between companies. There is a development of actors, known as third-party logistics providers or logistics integrators, who can take the role as integrator for several companies in a supply chain. This article focuses on the driving forces of these actors and how they can stay competitive by providing customers specific logistics solutions. A case study is presented of a Logistics Integrator and three of its customers with a varying degree of integrated collaboration in the logistic chain, and some key issues are presented from the provider’s and the customer’s perspective.

  • 27.
    Jäger, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hermansson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Logistics actors - Key issues for a service developer2008In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing FAIM 2008: June 30th – July 2nd, 2008 University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Leo J. de Vin, Amos H. C. Ng, Peter Thorvald, William G. Sullivan, Munir Ahmad, Skövde, Sweden: University of Skövde , 2008, Vol. 2, p. 1329-1336Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Kamal, Omar
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hållbar citylogistik: Hur kan en omlastningscentral bidra till hållbar citylogistik och vilka hinder finns det?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När Sveriges befolkning ökar så växer städer och då stiger behovet av transporter för t.ex. livsmedel och kläder. Detta leder då till att städerna får en ökad press på att tillhandahålla väl fungerande vägar och lokaltrafik för att en god och ett effektivt godsdistributionssystem ska uppnås. Då detta har en viktig roll för konkurrenskraften i ett stadsområde har arbetet med citylogistik blivit en viktig del av stadsplaneringen med syfte att bättra på städernas trafikmiljö. Med hjälp av en omlastningscentral (UCC) skulle man kunna effektivisera och optimera transporterna.

    Syftet och frågeställningen med denna rapport är att ta reda på hur en omlastningscentral bidrar till en hållbar citylogistik och vilka hinder det finns.

    Den teoretiska referensramen har utformats med teorier kopplade till citylogistik som t.ex. hållbarhet och JIT men även viktig information och teorier om omlastningscentraler som har hjälpt mig att svara på rapportens frågeställning. Då detta är en kvalitativ studie så gjordes det intervjuer med två högtuppsatta personer som jobbade i olika centraler. Med empiri insamlingen så kunde jag göra en analys på hur verkligheten speglade teorin i referensramen. I analysen analyserades hållbarhet principen som bygger på tre hörnstenar, social hållbarhet, miljömässigt hållbarhet och ekonomisk hållbarhet. För att utmana och bidra till en hållbar utveckling av citylogistiken så analyserades även en så kallade lösningsmix, den består av logistik, teknologi och politiskt engagemang.

    I slutsatsen av rapporten blev det tydligt hur social, ekonomiskt och miljömässighållbarhet är beroende av varandra för att kunna bidra till en hållbar citylogistik. Dock utmaningen för en hållbar utveckling är logistiken, teknologin och politiken, dessa är avgörande för en hållbar citylogistik. Ekonomin visade sig ha en stor betydelse hos en omlastningscentrals överlevnad och ses som ett hinder för ett miljötänk hos en omlastningscentral

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    Hållbar citylogistik- Omar Kamal
  • 29.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Atif, Yacine
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Högskolan i Skövde.
    Sustainable smart-parking management for connected and autonomous vehicles2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic induced by parking-spot seekers is a growing challenge and constitutes a considerable portion of the traffic in city centers. New opportunities to solve this problem are emerging by connected vehicles and infrastructure. For instance, ultrasonic and magnetic sensors are already mounted on the ceiling of many parking lots to detect the availability of a parking spot. These sensors can provide parking spot availability information in real-time. Further, traffic-aware smart sensors which can detect the movement of individual vehicles are also available in many city and highway areas. This report suggests an algorithm for a cloud-based parking service that exploits these streams of data to choose the best parking lot in a given parking area.

    The parking seeking problem is subject to a range of criteria that may include user, municipality and parking operator preferences. Users may have some preferences with respect to walking distance to destination. Municipalities prefer to spread the traffic to reduce congestion in the urban core. Parking operators seek to maximize parking lot utilization in order to increase the revenue on real-estate investments. To solve this problem, an optimization algorithm based on multicriteria decision making process is used.

    The proposed SmartPark algorithm employs a discrete Markov-chain model to demystify the future state of a parking lot. The algorithm features three modular sections:

    • First, a search process is triggered to identify the expected arrival time periods to all parking lots in the targeted parking area. This process utilizes smart pole data streams reporting congestion rates across the targeted parking area.

    • Then, a predictive analytics phase uses consolidated historical data about past parking dynamics to infer a state transition matrix, showing the transformation of available spots in a parking lot over short periods of time.

    • Finally, this matrix is projected against similar future seasonal periods to predict the actual vacancy of a parking lot at the arrival time.

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  • 30.
    Kourentzes, Nikolaos
    Department of Management Science, Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Demand Forecasting for Managers2018In: International Journal of Forecasting, ISSN 0169-2070, E-ISSN 1872-8200, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 117-118Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kourentzes, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Lancaster University Management School, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Li, Dong
    The York Management School, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Strauss, Arne K.
    Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Unconstraining methods for revenue management systems under small demand2019In: Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, ISSN 1476-6930, E-ISSN 1477-657X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 27-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sales data often only represent a part of the demand for a service product owing to constraints such as capacity or booking limits. Unconstraining methods are concerned with estimating the true demand from such constrained sales data. This paper addresses the frequently encountered situation of observing only a few sales events at the individual product level and proposes variants of small demand forecasting methods to be used for unconstraining. The usual procedure is to aggregate data; however, in that case we lose information on when restrictions were imposed or lifted within a given booking profile. Our proposed methods exploit this information and are able to approximate convex, concave or homogeneous booking curves. Furthermore, they are numerically robust due to our proposed group-based parameter optimization. Empirical results on accuracy and revenue performance based on data from a major car rental company indicate revenue improvements over a best practice benchmark by statistically significant 0.5–1.4% in typical scenarios.

  • 32.
    Kourentzes, Nikolaos
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Department of Management Science, Lancaster University Management School, UK.
    Trapero, Juan R.
    Department of Business Administration, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Barrow, Devon K.
    Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham, UK.
    Optimising forecasting models for inventory planning2020In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 225, article id 107597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inaccurate forecasts can be costly for company operations, in terms of stock-outs and lost sales, or over-stocking, while not meeting service level targets. The forecasting literature, often disjoint from the needs of the forecast users, has focused on providing optimal models in terms of likelihood and various accuracy metrics. However, there is evidence that this does not always lead to better inventory performance, as often the translation between forecast errors and inventory results is not linear. In this study, we consider an approach to parametrising forecasting models by directly considering appropriate inventory metrics and the current inventory policy. We propose a way to combine the competing multiple inventory objectives, i.e. meeting demand, while eliminating excessive stock, and use the resulting cost function to identify inventory optimal parameters for forecasting models. We evaluate the proposed parametrisation against established alternatives and demonstrate its performance on real data. Furthermore, we explore the connection between forecast accuracy and inventory performance and discuss the extent to which the former is an appropriate proxy of the latter. 

  • 33.
    Köks, Tönu
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Industrial Management.
    Nordqvist, Anders R.
    University of Skövde, Department of Industrial Management.
    Using discrete event simulation to analyse production capacity utilization2003In: ICOM 2003: International Conference on Mechatronics / [ed] R. M. Parkin; A. Al-Haibeh; M. R. Jackson, Professional Engineering Publishing, 2003, p. 117-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer simulation, because it can be applied to operational problems that are too difficult to model and solve analytically, is an especially effective tool to help analyse Supply/Demand Chain (S/DC) [1] capacity utilization issues [2]. As part of the ongoing research project daisy [3] has a case study for analysing the benefit of interfacing an Enterprise Resource planning system (ERP) with a system for computer simulation. Connecting simulation tools to systems for ERP in order to import necessary input data to simulate production plans would be a proper way to apply computer simulation tools to this type of problems. Simulating production plans could have different purposes, e.g. minimizing waste of resources or setting accurate delivery dates. Technically the connection between the two systems, i.e. the simulation system and the ERP system, could be made in an uncomplicated manner, for instance using files or network-based solutions. Different purposes will require different response time between the two systems involved and thereby different solutions for the connection. The main question in this study is not the technical connection but rather which data to import and the needed quality of these data in order to analyse capacity utilisation. For those ho have built real life simulation models lack of realistically data is a well-known fact. This is due to obsolete or inaccurate product data in ERP systems.

  • 34.
    Köks, Tönu
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Industrial Management.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, Department of Industrial Management.
    The role of advanced planning systems and simulation in supply/demand chain management2003In: International Conference on Industrial Logistics 2003, Proceedings / [ed] L. Barros; P. Helo; T. Kekale, International Centre for Innovation and Industrial Logistics - ICIIL , 2003, p. 313-317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) has become a commonly used tool for the modelling and analysis of logistics. A more novel approach to manufacturing problems is Advanced Planning Systems (APS). These are used in an optimization process for the planning of production, inventory, and transportations often integrated with ERP-systems. Supply/Demand Chains can be approached from a strategic, tactical, or operational level. Simulation tools and APS-systems are different approaches to a similar problem. The simulation approach involves connecting an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system with a simulation system. The simulation system contains a model of the production, and 'real-time'-data is used to produce a realistic production plan, e. g. to minimize waste of resources, or setting more accurate delivery dates. APS-systems are using simultaneous data when considering resource allocation. APS-systems normally use a separate module for calculation and optimization. The optimization activity produces an improved plan where trade-offs are examined. In this paper a conceptual model is proposed and an overview is given on the two software tools, and their advantages and disadvantages. Their usefulness is discussed in the context of physical material flow in Supply Chain (SC). Finally some results and experiences from industrial simulation studies are presented.

  • 35.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Thill, Serge
    Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Conceptual Tools for Exploring Perspectives of Different Kinds of Road-Users2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic domain is increasingly inhabited by vehicles with driving support systems and automation to the degree where the idea of fully autonomous vehicles is gaining popularity as a credible prediction about the near future. As more aspects of driving become automated, the role of the driver, and the way they perceive their vehicle, surroundings, and fellow road users, change. To address some of the emerging kinds of interaction between different agents in the traffic environment, it is important to take social phenomena and abilities into account, even to the extent of considering highly automated vehicles to be social agents in their own right. To benefit from that, it is important to frame the perception of the traffic environment, as well as the road users in it, in an appropriate theoretical context. We propose that there are helpful concepts related to functional and subjective perception, derived from gestalt psychology and Umweltlehre, that can fill this theoretical need, and support better understanding of vehicles of various degrees of automation.

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  • 36.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Från Asien via Borås: Hur importföretag i Sverige kan minska lagerhållna volymer samt genomflöde i sina centrallager2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to study the imports of goods from Asia to Sweden, and to present improvements on how companies in the textile industry can reduce their inventory volumes and goods flow in their central warehouse. The study has been done with a little help from a textile company in Borås, which manufactures and imports all their products from Asia. The textile company wants to be anonymous, therefore the author of this report has chosen to entitle it as Company X. Company X has a turnover of approximately 500 million SEK, and they currently interlining all their goods in their central warehouse in Borås. Parts of the goods are already earmarked for specific retailers, therefore the author has chosen to concentrate on these flows only, to delimit the work a bit. In other words, the purpose of the report is to provide different scenarios that show how the goods can be delivered directly to their retailers, without having to take the route through Borås.In order to find the pros and cons of the different scenarios, a literature study was initially made to create a solid information base. Then several visits at Company X and semi structured interviews were conducted with different stakeholders in the supply chain. There were several respondents from different companies and positions, all to make the results of the study as beneficial as possible for all involved.The analysis shows three different scenarios, based on Company X's prerequisites and work delimitations, which all contributes to a reduce of Company X stored volumes and goods flow in its central warehouse.Scenario 1: The retailer takes over the responsibility of the goods already in a hub in Asia. The goods are sorted out to respective retailer already in the factory or in a hub/terminal in Asia, before the retailer meets up and take over the responsibility of the goods at the hub. Then it is up to the retailer how they want to ship the goods from Asia to Sweden, and at that time Company X releases all the responsibility. This scenario means that the supply chain is short and cost-focused, and Company X will be able to reduce their costs that arise from shipping the goods.Scenario 2: The retailer takes over the responsibility for the goods at a terminal/hub in Gothenburg. Before that, the goods have been cross-docked (sorted out to respective retailers) either in a hub/terminal in Asia or in the terminal/hub in Gothenburg. From the hub in Gothenburg it is the retailer’s responsibility to handle the freight to their own warehouse.Scenario 3: Is equivalent to what it looks like for Company X today, where the retailer takes over the responsibility for the goods when it arrives at their own warehouse. The difference is that the goods do not pass at the central warehouse in Borås. Instead, the goods are cross-docked in a hub in Asia, alternatively in a hub in Gothenburg, before it delivers to the retailers.The author of this report believes that Company X must do a deeper investigation before a scenario may be implemented, as the author of the report did not have access to all purchase- and sales data.viiOne conclusion that has been drawn is that scenario 3 should be most favourable to Company X both at the present and at a long term. They retain the maximum control of delivery, which means that information about price and manufacturing does not end up in wrong hands, which could lead to a loss of customer and new stong competitors.

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  • 37.
    Ljungqvist, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Larsson, Natalie
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Vad kostar din soffa?: En studie på hur hållbara inköpsprocesser kan utvecklas inom möbelbranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is not entirely obvious how sustainable purchasing processes could be developed and implemented in companies today. Sustainable purchasing processes are important to increase the social and environmental responsibility. This to avoid that the material procurement, and thereby the production of furniture, has a negative impact on the people and the planet.

    This study aims to explain how sustainable purchasing processes could be developed in the furniture industry with respect to social and environmental responsibility in order to contribute to a sustainable consumption and production of furniture. Three interviews have been conducted with three different furniture companies in order to exemplify how sustainable purchasing processes could be developed based on literature. To fulfil the purpose of this study, articles, books and internet sources have been used to form the theories and models.

    The result from this study shows a set of steps which can be implemented in the traditional purchasing process in order to increase a social and environmental responsibility associated with material procurement. The result also shows the extent to which the different steps are appropriate to perform and will exemplify how companies could implement these steps. Further result clarifies that the circular economy and different kinds of sustainability labels affect whether the finished furniture may become sustainable. Developing sustainable purchasing processes may require a lot of time and money, but it has a crucial role to play in contributing to a sustainable consumption and production of furniture.

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  • 38.
    Lu, Xin
    et al.
    Department of Computing and Informatics, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Wei
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Li, Weidong
    School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, China.
    Jing, Yanguo
    Faculty of Business, Computing and Digital Industries Leeds Trinity University, United Kingdom.
    Li, Xiaoxia
    College of Informatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.
    A Generic Digital Twin Framework for Collaborative Supply Chain Development2022In: 2022 5th International Conference on Computing and Big Data (ICCBD 2022), IEEE, 2022, p. 177-181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current Supply Chains (SCs) are complex and diverse along with fragile to SC disruptions. This leads urgently needs to develop an intelligent, transparent, collaborative and resilient SC system to cope with unexpected SC disruptions. Digital twin (DT) is one of the most promising solutions to develop smart SCs that has been extensively studied recent years. However, SCDT paradigm is still at an early stage. This paper presents a generic and modularized five layers DT framework to provide a flexible and collaborative solution, which can be compatible with different DT systems in various SCs. The feasibility of the proposed framework is validated through a practical implementation in a distributed eyewear industry. 

  • 39.
    Neman, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Öz, Siyabend
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Citylogistik: Godsflöden till och godshantering i ett köpcentrum2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    City logistics is a complex phenomenon that includes all trips to, out of and within a selected urban area with road vehicles whose task is to collect or deliver goods. The cities are a major driving force for an individual country's economy and, since freight transport is fundamental to our existing lifestyle, it is more important than ever that the flow of goods in cities works to increase the availability of products and materials. The increased urbanization in Sweden has increased the demand for freight transport within the cities. However, transport activities lead to increased air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, noise, visual intrusion and traffic congestion that is costly to society. Today in Europe, urban transport accounts for a quarter of the transport's carbon dioxide emissions and 69% of all traffic accidents occur in cities.

    Transport planning is a complicated task that involves many interactions between different stakeholders. There are many different stakeholders along a supply chain, all of which have different requirements and perceptions of freight transport. Companies tend to worry more about how customers should have access to services and products rather than how the products should be delivered. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the complex logistics system that exists in Skövde in order to design city logistics initiative that are sustainable and promote the interests of the stakeholders. Commerce, the city mall of Skövde receives deliveries of goods every day to over 50 stores through two loading docks with limited capacity. To answer the report's problem questions, measurements and observations have been carried out, as well as interviews and questionnaires with the actors involved within the framework of this work. The authors have identified an opportunity to make capacity available on one of the loading docks by building a ramp.

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  • 40.
    Nyström, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Siby, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Vilka kriterier bör beaktas angående materialhantering inför övergång till automatlager?: En Fallstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As manufacturing companies increase their sales they also increasing their production. An increased production will eventually require more space area for a larger machinery as the regular machines no longer suffice. If production for stock is used, the demand for warehouse space will at the same time increase. Both machinery and storage require space and if the company is short on space even before the expansion and the potential for remodelling is low, this might require alternative solutions on how the space can be utilized in a better way. Such a solution can be AutoStore, a three-dimensional automated warehouse. Such a warehouse can facilitate a better use of the bearing surface and is adaptable as it can be implemented in most environments.

    This study aims to answer a number of questions relating to materials handling when changing from Manuel warehouse-system to AutoStore. The study was conducted on a case company planning to implement this kind of warehouse. The problem questions concern what items are suitable to store in AutoStore, in what quantities they should be packaged and how the switch from the old to the new warehouse could be implemented without jeopardizing security of supply. The study was conducted with the help of literature to get a theoretical perspective as well as interviews and visits on both the cases company and other companies that have already undergone an implementation of AutoStore to get a practical perspective.

    The work processes involving material handling described how they work both before and after an implementation of AutoStore to compare the differences. The study resulted in models and matrixes that will facilitate the choice of where an article is best suited, at racking storage or AutoStore and in what packaging quantities that are appropriate to facilitate picking. Furthermore, guidelines are presented for what should be thought of before switching to AutoStore.

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    Vilka kriterier bör beaktas angående materialhantering inför övergång till automatlager?
  • 41.
    Pesonen, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Självkörande fordon: och hur de kan komma att påverka vägtransporter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har utförts genom att granska relevant teoretiskt material som funnits tillgängligt fram till början av andra kvartalet år 2017. Det teoretiska materialet har prövats mot experter på området i form av intervjuer och slutligen har det gemensamma materialet av teori och empiri tolkats av författaren som också förmedlar sina egna tankar kring självkörande fordon.  Studien fokuserar på självkörande vägfordon som bilar och lastbilar och vilka konsekvenser självkörande fordon kan medföra i en framtida situation avseende förflyttning av material, gods och människor i och mellan samhällen. Aspekter som belyses är vilka infrastrukturförändringar som kan tänkas ske och hur miljön kan påverkas. Ett bidrag i denna studie är bedömningen av när fullt självkörande fordon troligtvis kommer finnas tillgängliga och när de har etablerats.  Studien  visar  att  det  finns  potentiellt  stora  vinster  med  att  införa  självkörande  fordon  på allmänna vägar däribland samhällsekonomiska fördelar och kommersiella aspekter som högre säkerhet på väg samt lägre bränsleförbrukning med kolonnkörning och därmed också mindre utsläpp.  Självkörande  fordon  bör  också  kunna  medföra  ett  jämnare  trafikflöde  när trafikolyckorna blir färre och vågliknande mönster i trafiken reduceras eftersom körningen blir allt mer automatiserad. Det bör även leda till kapacitetshöjande effekter på vägarna genom att fler fordon per tidsenhet kan passera ett område och därmed ökad produktivitet. FN:s, EU:s och även Sveriges miljömål bör kunna driva på övergången från fossila fordon till elektriska fordon med olika former av incitament och samtidigt när allt fler går över till elektriska fordon (inom tidsperioden för satta miljömål) är det även troligt att de elektriska fordonen är utrustade med självkörande funktionalitet, inte minst ur säkerhetssynpunkt och därför bör försäljningen av elektriska fordon gynna även försäljningen av självkörande fordon eller självkörande system.  Det finns också risker med självkörande fordon eftersom delar eller hela system i självkörande fordon möjligen kan manipuleras, störas eller inaktiveras. Det finns frågor kring vilka etiska val  en  AI  gör  och  om  den  data  som  samlas  in  och  skickas  från  fordonen  till  datormoln. Självkörande  fordon  kan  också  innebära  en  inskränkning  av  den  personliga  integriteten eftersom  det  möjligen  kommer  finnas  videokameror  i  fordonen,  eller  genom  att  känslig information  som  insamlats  med  fordonen  exponeras  och  resulterar  i  förföljelse,  högre försäkringspremier eller någon annan ovälkommen händelse.  Människan  har  en  begränsad  förmåga  att  tänka  rationellt  (administrative  man)  eftersom människan bedömer vissa möjliga alternativ och vissa konsekvenser av dessa alternativ samt tenderar att välja det första tillfredsställande alternativet som dyker upp. Detta kan skapa vissa hinder för bland annat implementeringen av självkörande fordon. De hinder som identifierats mot självkörande fordon är främst lagar och regler såsom  ansvarsfrågan vid en olycka och avsaknad av unifierade lagar och regler som är anpassade till den nya tekniken. Även acceptans till den nya tekniken kan vara ett hinder och likaså osäkerheten kring framtidens arbetsmarknad eftersom att arbeten kan försvinna och ersättas av maskiner. 

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  • 42.
    Petersson, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Johansson, Michelle
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Förpackning och förpackningsavfall: Vem bär ansvar i en tänkt försörjningskedja för en plastförpackning för livsmedel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increased use of packaging has contributed to an increase of packaging waste. The purpose of this study is to identify how different organizations and consumer in a conceived supply chain affect waste disposal of packaging, how organizations and consumer can act and what obstacles and opportunities they encounter to contribute to a more environmentally friendly food packaging.

    The aesthetic ability of plastics, low weight and that the material is relatively inexpensive contributes to increase the use of plastic for packaging every year, as well as plastic packaging waste. Plastics can cause damage to animals and nature when the waste goes to landfill, and the raw material extraction of fossil raw materials continues if the packaging material is not minimized, reused or recycled. A certain packaging design and choice of material can contribute to increased profitability for the company, e.g. through resource minimization, marketing advantages and easier handling of packaging in the logistics flow. The design can also attract consumers to purchases as well as contribute to reuse, recycling, energy recovery or landfill waste of packaging. The increase in packaging has contributed to policy guidelines on waste management and statutory producer responsibility has develop. Food manufacturers are therefore responsible for the packaging they sell on the market even after consumers have used the product, which means they are responsible for establish collection- and recycling stations as well as waste minimization for packaging.

    The empirical research consists of ten interviewed companies and an anonymous consumer survey, which is divided into six different positions that may exist in a supply chain. All interviews and consumer research have touched upon subjects such as materials, recycling and environmental work that are associated with packaging. Due to the position of the different organizations and consumer in the supply chain and their views, actions and knowledge in different areas of the report, there is a variation in the collected data.

    Despite the organizations different viewpoints of packaging, packaging design and its environmental impact is influenced and influence all the organizations and consumer in the supply chain. To reduce the environmental impact of packaging the organization and consumer should consider packaging design, choice of materials and contribute to more sustainable actions for organizations and consumer. For example, through collaborations, reduced raw material extraction through material minimization, reuse and/or recycling, marketing, sorting waste and recycling processes.

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  • 43.
    Petropoulos, Fotios
    et al.
    Lancaster Centre for Forecasting, Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Kourentzes, Nikolaos
    Lancaster Centre for Forecasting, Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Forecast combinations for intermittent demand2015In: Journal of the Operational Research Society, ISSN 0160-5682, E-ISSN 1476-9360, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 914-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermittent demand is characterised by infrequent demand arrivals, where many periods have zero demand, coupled with varied demand sizes. The dual source of variation renders forecasting for intermittent demand a very challenging task. Many researchers have focused on the development of specialised methods for intermittent demand. However, apart from a case study on hierarchical forecasting, the effects of combining, which is a standard practice for regular demand, have not been investigated. This paper empirically explores the efficiency of forecast combinations in the intermittent demand context. We examine both method and temporal combinations of forecasts. The first are based on combinations of different methods on the same time series, while the latter use combinations of forecasts produced on different views of the time series, based on temporal aggregation. Temporal combinations of single or multiple methods are investigated, leading to a new time-series classification, which leads to model selection and combination. Results suggest that appropriate combinations lead to improved forecasting performance over single methods, as well as simplifying the forecasting process by limiting the need for manual selection of methods or hyper-parameters of good performing benchmarks. This has direct implications for intermittent demand forecasting in practice. 

  • 44.
    Petropoulos, Fotios
    et al.
    Logistics and Operations Management Section, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Kourentzes, Nikolaos
    Department of Management Science, Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster University, United Kingdom.
    Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos
    Bangor Business School, Bangor University, United Kingdom.
    Another look at estimators for intermittent demand2016In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 181, p. 154-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on forecasting for intermittent demand data. We propose a new aggregation framework for intermittent demand forecasting that performs aggregation over the demand volumes, in contrast to the standard framework that employs temporal (over time) aggregation. To achieve this we construct a transformed time series, the inverse intermittent demand series. The new algorithm is expected to work best on erratic and lumpy demand, as a result of the variance reduction of the non-zero demands. The improvement in forecasting performance is empirically demonstrated through an extensive evaluation in more than 8000 time series of two well-researched spare parts data sets from the automotive and defence sectors. Furthermore, a simulation is performed so as to provide a stock-control evaluation. The proposed framework could find popularity among practitioners given its suitability when dealing with clump sizes. As such it could be used in conjunction with existing popular forecasting methods for intermittent demand as an exception handling mechanism when certain types of demand are observed.

  • 45.
    Rabet, Rahmat
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.
    Ganji, Maliheh
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran branch, Tehran, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment. Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A simheuristic approach towards supply chain scheduling: Integrating production, maintenance and distribution2024In: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 153, article id 111264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to integrate production, maintenance, and delivery operations among supply chain members. Despite numerous studies in the field of supply chain management, researchers have often overlooked crucial aspects, such as uncertainties in demand and production. For instance, the significant impact of maintenance activities on production flow has been underrepresented in supply chain management literature. This study investigates these gaps in the context of a fertilizer producer case study, which is characterized by seasonal demand and the functional silos syndrome due to old-fashioned management approaches. This study proposes a mathematical model and two multi-objective simheuristics for the Integrated Production, Maintenance, and Distribution Scheduling Problem (IPMDSP) considering demand variation for multiple products and product delivery time-windows using a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles. The IPMDSP is solved using the ϵ-constraint method and simheuristics linking the simulation model to customized and tuned versions of Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The optimization objectives include minimizing maintenance duration, distribution costs, and customer dissatisfaction due to delivery tardiness. The results demonstrate the superiority of the simheuristic empowered by NSGA-II over the MOPSO in solving the IPMDSP. The comparison between the performance of deterministic and stochastic approaches in addressing the problem reveals that neglecting uncertainty caused by maintenance activities can lead to an increase in optimization objectives. Furthermore, the proposed simheuristics achieved significant improvements in minimizing objectives in solving the fertilizer producer case study. 

  • 46.
    Ringeby, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Andersson, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Returhantering av kläder inom e-handel: Öka lönsamheten genom att minimera onödiga returer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the strong growth of e-commerce, the number of returns has also increased and some e-retailers can have a return ratio of 50 % which can cause high costs. Because of this, return management has become an increasingly important part of e-retailers.

    The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of how return management is performed by e-retailers in the apparel business. The problem questions in this study is about what challenges are e-retailers faced with and what activities can they use to respond to these challenges.

    This study is based on a literature review and the interview of four companies. The interviewed companies are different ones in size with a different focus on their e-commerce. This study shows how much the interviewed companies are focusing on their activities around returns and what the outcome can be.

    Return management and its challenges are different for different e-retailers. To overcome their challenges, it is important to have well-functioning activities within avoidance, gatekeeping and return policy that supports the operational returns management process. Regardless size on the companies it is important to achieve a high level of awareness, however, it does not need to be profitable for smaller companies to have a strong focus on their return activities as bigger ones. The purpose of return management is to create a balance between sales and cost.

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    Returhantering av kläder inom e-handel
  • 47.
    Ringeby, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Andersson, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Returhantering av kläder inom e-handel: Öka lönsamheten genom att minimera onödiga returer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the strong growth of e-commerce, the number of returns has also increased and some e-retailers can have a return ratio of 50% which can cause high costs. Because of this, return management has become an increasingly important part of e-retailers.

    The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of how return management is performed by e-retailers in the apparel business. The problem questions in this study is about what challenges are e-retailers faced with and what activities can they use to respond to these challenges.

    This study is based on a literature review and the interview of four companies. The interviewed companies are different ones in size with a different focus on their e-commerce. This study shows how much the interviewed companies are focusing on their activities around returns and what the outcome can be.

    Return management and its challenges are different for different e-retailers. To overcome their challenges, it is important to have well-functioning activities within avoidance, gatekeeping and return policy that supports the operational returns management process. Regardless size on the companies it is important to achieve a high level of awareness, however, it does not need to be profitable for smaller companies to have a strong focus on their return activities as bigger ones. The purpose of return management is to create a balance between sales and cost.

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    fulltext
  • 48.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Integrating Simulation-Based Optimization, Lean, and the Concepts of Industry 4.02017In: Proceedings of the 2017 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] W. K. V. Chan, A. D'Ambrogio, G. Zacharewicz, N. Mustafee, G. Wainer, E. Page, IEEE, 2017, p. 3828-3839Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, due to the need of innovation and adaptation for the mass production of customized goods,many industries are struggling to compete with the manufacturing sector emerging in different countriesaround the world. The understanding and implementation of different improvement techniques isnecessary in order to take part in the so-called fourth industrial revolution, Industry 4.0. This paperinvestigates how two well-known improvement approaches, namely lean and simulation-basedoptimization, can be combined with the concepts of Industry 4.0 to improve efficiency and avoid movingproduction to other countries. Going through an industrial case study, the paper discusses how such acombination could be carried out and how the different strengths of the three approaches can be utilizedtogether. The case study focuses on how the efficiency of a production site can be increased and howIndustry 4.0 can support the improvement of the internal logistics on the shop floor.

  • 49.
    Ryberg, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Skogum, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hållbar citylogistik: En fallstudie över hur flödet av godstransporter i Skövdes stadskärna kan förbättras utifrån ett intressent- och hållbarhetsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to create an attractive urban centre where people thrive, freight transport needs to provide the urban centre businesses with deliveries. However, these urban freight transports have several negative effects on profitability, people and the planet. The aim of this case study is therefore to create a more sustainable city logistics, where the flow of freight transports into, within and out of Skövde's urban centre will be improved from both a stakeholder and sustainability perspective. The study also considers the existing problems and challenges, and what conflicts of interest can arise, in the creation of a sustainable city logistics.

    The theoretical framework presents the content of a sustainable city logistics and which stakeholders and actors are involved in the creation of a sustainable city logistics. Later the negative impacts of urban freight transport are described from a social, economic and environmental perspective, which forms the basis for the theoretical improvement proposals. The proposals for improvement should benefit as many stakeholders as possible in order to be credible, and improve the flow of freight transport into, within and out of Skövde's urban centre.

    In order to study the problems in Skövde's urban centre from the perspective of different stakeholders, the empirical data collection consists of a combined research methodology. The data collection contains a direct observation and quantitative data considering the movement of freight transport in Skövde's urban centre. Furthermore, the study contains surveys and interviews with distributors and receivers in Skövde's urban centre. Each stakeholder has also been given the opportunity to rank which negative impacts of urban freight transport they considered to be more or less important in the creation of a sustainable city logistics in Skövde.

    The analysis is based on both proposals for improvement and the stakeholders' perspective on sustainable city logistics to find out how the flow of freight transport in Skövde's urban centre can be improved from a sustainability perspective in order to benefit several stakeholders. The result contains four recommended improvement proposals that are considered reasonable to implement in Skövde's urban centre within an estimated time horizon.

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    Hållbar citylogistik
  • 50.
    Rydsmo, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Karlsson, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    En fallstudie om varför ett tillverkande företag vill införa en outsourcad e-handel: Finns det enbart fördelar?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased rate of changes results in the transition of an industrial to become a digitized society. This has enabled manufacturing companies today to conduct e-commerce. Opportunities that e-commerce can contribute to is for example: global reach, cost savings and improved relationships with the final customers. The final customer in this report is defined as the consuming customer who is the last one in the supply chain. Establishing a new e-commerce can cause difficulties if the company has no previous experience, thus an alternative is to outsource the new e-commerce. The purpose of the case company in this report is to introduce a new outsourced e-commerce. The purpose of the report is also to assist them in the decision process of whether this service would gain them. Outsourcing can lead to cost savings, but it can also lead to increased dependency. An introduction of e-commerce can involve channel conflicts hence a redistribution of customers in existing channels. It can also lead to a disintermediation as the case company which is a manufacturing company choose to "skip" parts of the distribution chain to get closer to its final customers. Thus, introducing e-commerce does not only affect the case company, it can also affect other actors in the supply chain. 

    The report aims to explore the opportunities and risks that a manufacturing company should consider in the implementation of an outsourced e-commerce. The purpose is also to investigate how companies can determine which activities that should be outsourced. To answer the problem-issues of the report a case company which is considering introducing e-commerce as a new sales channel, is used. The report has been done using literature to obtain a theoretical perspective. To get a practical perspective the authors have made visits at the case company and also done interviews with respondents at the company. 

    The theoretical contribution presents the opportunities and risks with e-commerce and outsourcing, according to scientific sources, which some of them support the empirical data. The authors analyze the respondents attitude to the opportunities and risks which are presented in the theoretical reference frame. The report also serves as a basis for the case company of what to consider when implementing an e-commerce, but also how to introduce outsourcing. 

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