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  • 1.
    Berg Junker, Maria Constance
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of romantic love and romantic attachment2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of neuroscience, being in love and feeling romantically attached to a partner is described as a dynamic process. Romantic love may be viewed as a motivational system, changing throughout time and place, fluctuating on the interest and motivation of the individual. Early memories and attachment towards a caregiver, lay the foundation for later attachment behavior, also known as attachment styles. In this thesis, an exploratory approach is present. The thesis aims to introduce and describe the neural correlates of romantic love and romantic attachment. Brain regions concerned with reward, emotion and thought processing, such as the reward circuitry network of the brain and the limbic system, are being investigated. So are other brain areas involved in romantic love and romantic attachment. Research findings suggest that brain areas responsible for affection, emotional control, learning, memory and social judgment are all involved in the complex processes of being in love and feeling romantically attached. These findings are represented by the involvement of the frontal lobe, cerebral cortex, limbic system, orbitofrontal cortex, and hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), caudate tail, including the reward pathways of the brain. Distribution and regulation of neurotransmitters such as; vasopressin, oxytocin, dopamine, corticosterone and serotonin are all present in the state of romantic  attachment and romantic love. Overlapping evidence confirms the involvement of the reward circuitry network, together with the limbic system as crucial in the formation and maintenance of a romantic relationship.

  • 2.
    Cinarli, Pembe
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Strategy to tag Actin II in Plasmodium berghei2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is a disease that is caused by parasite called Plasmodium spp. and trasmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes to the host. The disease has great impact around the world and there are half a million deaths and several hundred million infections every year. Studies revealed that there are two actin isoforms in the parasite, actin I and actin II. Absence of actin II has severe effect on the development of the parasite in the mosquito but the molecular function is still unknown. Identification of interacting proteins is of great importance to understand further the function of the protein. To achieve this goal actin II has to be enriched and this required a tagged version of the protein. In this project purification of the protein was to be achieved through biotinylation. In this method the protein of interest is biotinylated by BirA ligase in the cell and is then purified by , streptavidin. The project involved transfection of vector for Plasmodium berghei, containing the BirA gene and a stage-specific promoter (cdpk4). The construct was integrated in the chromosomal locus Sil6 and introduced to wild-type and actin II knock out parasites. Genotyping by PCR revealed integration of the insert in wild type parasites and phenotypic anaylsis showed no difference between BirA wild type and wild type control parasites. The expression of the BirA ligase in the parasite was investigated with Western blot but no signal was detected.

  • 3.
    Eldblom, Hans
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Facial width-to-height ratio as a cue of threat: An ERP study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential (ERP) component associated with increased affective processing. Studies have shown that stimuli with high evolutionary significance (e.g. a threatening face) induce increased activity over centro-parietal areas of the brain. In an electrophysiological context, this is hypothesized to be indexed by greater LPP amplitudes. The facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is a facial-masculinity metric which refers to cheekbone width, divided by upper facial height (top of the lip to between the brows). For the first time, LPP amplitudes were examined in subjects upon observing faces with high vs. low facial fWHRs. Prior studies suggest that faces with high fWHRs are perceived as more threatening than faces with low fWHRs. Consequently, fWHR has by some researchers been proposed to serve as a cue of threat. Two separate tasks in the present study were used to investigate this. In the aggression task, males with high fWHRs were judged as more aggressive. Moreover, when put in a threatening context, high fWHR faces also elicited greater LPP amplitudes in subjects compared to faces with low fWHRs. Conversely, in the self-regulation task, differences in LPP amplitudes did not reach significance. In this task, statistical power was low due to few blocks/trials in the ERP experiment and subjects were not primed on threat, which may explain the non-significant results. Taken together, the results provide modest support to the theory that fWHR serve as a cue of threat. Future studies will need to take the present study’s limitations into consideration

  • 4.
    Elhakim, Rawan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    URBANA BLOMYTOR I MARIESTAD TÄTORT: Kunskapsunderlag för tillämpad planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of species has decreased, and our planet is at the beginning of a sixth mass extinction, mainly due to anthropogenic effects. Research shows, among other things, on an insect population collapse, as 41% of the world's insects have fallen, and one-third of which are heading towards extinction. This can lead to a catastrophic breakdown in nature's ecosystem. Government agencies shall develop guidelines for the implementation of an action plan regarding green infrastructure, acting as a basis for the county administrative board's sustainability work. In collaboration with the municipality of Mariestad, simple and cost-effective means shall create a basis for practical commitments, thereby increasing the biodiversity in limiting habitat areas. This is done through the reinforcement of the transition environment in urban environments, and the examination of favourable distribution links for pollinators. In this project, good-, improvement- and potential flower areas have been analysed to theoretically increase connectivity for different pollinators. Sub-results show that there is, 896991-m2 deficiency areas to manage for pollinators with 50 m proliferation distance in Mariestad ́s urban area. Connectivity can then be expected to increase, by 41% overall for these pollinators, and by 37% for the closest possible proliferation. Through measures such as planting of flowering plants, mowing, the use of organic plant soil, growing seedballs, and implementation of green infrastructure, deficiency areas can be converted into oases for pollinating insects. Zoning plans can be changed for anthropogenic purposes, but balancing between what is beneficial to man or nature should not be exclusive of each other. Therefore, this report is a current description, but will eventually be misleading. It would therefore be excellent to supplement with a probability analysis, and a specific management plan for each deficiency area, with emphasis on species significance.

  • 5.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Vetenskaplig utvärdering av åtgärdseffekter mot almsjukan inom projektet LifeELMIAS: Rapport till Naturvårdsverket 2017-10-312017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    EU-projektet ”LifeELMIAS - Saving wooded Natura 2000 habitats from invasive alien fungi species on the Island of Gotland, Sweden” startade i augusti 2013 och avslutas under 2018. Projektet har haft sitt fokus på att bekämpa och i bästa fall utrota almsjukan på Gotland, samt långsiktigt skydda och bevara den biologiska mångfalden som är speciellt knuten till alm och även ask. Projektet drivs av Skogsstyrelsen med flera samarbetspartners bland annat Naturvårdsverket. Från 2013 har bekämpningsåtgärderna finansierats i projektet LifeElmias och det kostar i medeltal 5 miljoner kronor per år. För att kunna ta ställning till hur almsjukan ska hanteras på Gotland efter projektavslut har Naturvårdsverket beställt följande utvärdering. I uppdraget har det ingått att sammanställa vad som genomförts i LifeElmias och vilka slutsatser man kan göra, samt en diskussion om framtida möjligheter.

     

    Så snart almsjukan upptäcktes på Gotland 2005 sattes bekämpningsåtgärder in som har pågått fram till idag. Till och med 2009 spred sig sjukdomen mycket snabbt på ön. Därefter har den stoppats upp och dess spridningstakt har inte ökat signifikant sedan dess. Det finns tyvärr inget som tyder på att det skulle vara möjligt att utrota sjukdomen på Gotland. Ett uppehåll i bekämpningen kommer att innebära att almsjukan återigen går in i en starkt växande fas. Då skulle upp till 90% av almbeståndet kunna slås ut på bara några år. Fram till idag har endast 3% av beståndet på 1 miljon almar insjuknat. Almarterna dör inte ut helt om man slutar med bekämpningen men förekomsterna kommer till största delen bestå av unga träd och buskartade bestånd. Vilken total effekt det har på den biologiska mångfalden generellt går inte att förutsäga. Artsammansättningen kommer dock att förändras och populationsstorlekar påverkas i både negativ och positiv riktning.

     

    Den hittills mest effektiva metoden att bekämpa almsjukan har varit att upptäcka sjuka träd och destruera dem. Nya möjligheter med fjärranalys för att inventera finns inom räckhåll och med hjälp av ekologisk geografisk modellering skulle man kunna finna strategier för att effektivisera kontrollen eller upprätta skyddszoner för specifikt bevarande av almbestånden inom Natura 2000-områdena. Både fjärranalys och ekologisk modellering kräver dock ett utvecklingsarbete med anpassningar för de specifika situationerna med almsjuka, Gotlands geografi, klimat med flera faktorer. Men dessa metoder skulle långsiktigt kunna effektivisera arbetet och minska kostnaderna för ett fortsatt kontrollprogram.

  • 6.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Seeing Blue As Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors2016In: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 261-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some highly hypnotizable individuals have reported changes in objects' color with suggestions given in normal waking state. However, it is not clear whether this occurs only in their imagination. The authors show that, although subjects could imagine colors, a posthypnotic suggestion was necessary for seeing altered colors, even for a hypnotic virtuoso. She reported posthypnotic color alterations also selectively in response to specific target shapes in briefly presented object arrays. Surprisingly, another highly hypnotizable person showed a very different pattern of results. The control participants could not simulate virtuosos' results by applying cognitive strategies. The results imply that hypnosis can alter the functioning of automatic visual processes but only in some of the most hypnotizable individuals.

  • 7.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Subjective visual awareness emerges prior to P32016In: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1601-1611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the neural basis of visual awareness, the subjective experience of seeing, have found several potential neural corre- lates of visual awareness. Some of them may not directly correlate with awareness but with post-perceptual processes, such as reporting one’s awareness of the stimulus. We dissociated potential electrophysiological correlates of visual awareness from those occurring during response selection and thus co-occurring with post-perceptual processing. The participants performed two GO-NOGO conditions. In the aware-GO condition they responded with a key press when they were aware of the stimulus and withheld responding when they were unaware of it. In the unaware-GO condition they withheld responding when they were aware and responded when they were not aware of the stimulus. Thus, event-related potentials could be measured to aware and una- ware trials when responding was required and when not required. The results revealed that the N200 amplitude (180–280 ms) over the occipital and posterior temporal cortex was enhanced in aware trials as compared with trials without awareness. This effect (visual awareness negativity, VAN) did not depend on responding. The amplitude of P3 (350–450 ms) also was enhanced in aware trials as compared with unaware trials. In addition, the amplitudes in the P3 time window depended on responding: they were greater when awareness was mapped to GO-response than when not, suggesting that P3 reflects post-perceptual process- ing, that is, it occurs after awareness has emerged. These findings support theories of visual awareness that assume a relatively early onset of visual awareness before P3. 

  • 8.
    Lawenius, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sambandet mellan fetch och förekomst av stormusslor: En studie i Vänern2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater bivalves are important organisms in the ecosystems they live, they also function as an ecosystem service for the human society. Swedish freshwater bivalves are divided into two groups; one with freshwater clams Sphaeriidae, and freshwater mussel with polyphile bivalves that are larger. Freshwater mussel lives in lakes and rivers, in Lake Vänern four species of the Swedish freshwater mussel have been observed. Fetch is the length of the open water from a point on shore to the nearest land or island. The structure of the lake bottom sediment can vary dependent on what value of fetch a shore has. In this report the freshwater mussel’s relation to the shore fetch is presented. More knowledge of the freshwater mussel is needed to develop a more suitable conservation work for them.   

    Inventory of mussel have been done on 20 different places in the southeast area of Lake Vänern. The results in this study shows a trend towards a relation between presence of freshwater mussel and shore fetch. Analysis on the highest density of mussel when the fetch data is divided in different classes shows a statistic significance for reduced density of mussel with increased fetch. Previous research shows similar results. However, more variables seem to be dependent factors for how and if fetch affect mussel.

  • 9.
    Lidén, Josefin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Intrinsic Motivation and its Neural Correlates2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Why is motivation important? The answer is simple to most of us: it is what makes people push forward and act. Intrinsic motivation is the kind of motivation that arises from within a person, making her or him strive towards a goal for no other reward than the feeling it will bring. Additionally, this kind of motivation has shown correlations with enhanced learning, creativity, performance, optimal development, and well-being. While intrinsic motivation has long been a topic within the field of psychology, the neural correlates underlying it have only recently become of interest for researchers, and studies have shown some interesting but also contradictory findings. Therefore, the aim of this literature review thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation further. Firstly, a background review of motivation in general and intrinsic motivation in particular is presented, focusing on concepts such as the self-determination theory, flow, and cognitive evaluation theory. This is followed by a chapter on motivation- and intrinsic motivation from a neuroscientific perspective, concerning concepts such as the reward system, the undermining effect, and studies examining the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation. These studies show that there was activity in several different areas when participants were intrinsically motivated. However, a frequent pattern of activity in dopaminergic pathways involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was detected in most studies, indicating the involvement of these areas in particular when a person is intrinsically motivated.

  • 10.
    Liljebjer, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Mental Visualisering i Ledarskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine the link between mental visualization and leadership. As times change so will also the role for a good leader change. I will first examine what distinguishes such a leadership and which qualities characterize a good leader. Futhermore, I will examine the possible problems  that might occur with using modern neuroscience techniques to identify the characteristics that are considered relevant for a good leadership. One such feature that I will examine closer is mental visualization. Where and how is this property active in the brain? Finally, I will try to answer how or if,  visualization is a critical characteristic of good leadership.

  • 11.
    Lindersson, Carl
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Threatening Measures, at Face Value: Electrophysiology Indicating Confounds of the Facial Width-to-Height Ratio2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies support that the relative width of the upper face (facial width-to-height ratio; fWHR) has evolved to signal threat, but these studies rely greatly on subjective facial ratings and measurements prone to confounds. The present study objectively quantifies threat perception to the magnitude of the observers’ electrophysiological reaction, specifically the event-related potential (ERP) called the late positive potential (LPP), and investigate if brow height and jaw width could have confounded previous fWHR studies. Swedish and international students (N = 30, females = 11, Mage = 24 years, SDage = 2.9) were shown computer-generated neutral faces created with the underlying skeletal morphology varying in brow ridge height, cheekbone width and jaw width. Participants first rated how threatening each face was and then viewed 12 blocks of 64 faces while their electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The results supported that the LPP could be used to index threat perception and showed that only brow height significantly affected both facial ratings (p < .001, ɳp2 = .698) and magnitude of the LPP within the 400 to 800 ms latency (p = .02, d = .542). Hence, brow height, not facial width, could explain previous findings. The results contradict the hypothesis that fWHR is an evolved cue of threat and instead support the overgeneralisation hypothesis in that faces with similar features to anger will be perceived as more threatening.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Dynglevande skalbaggar i Västra Götalands län: En jämförelse av dyngbaggefaunan på två olika habitat2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De dynglevande skalbaggarna är en stor tillgång för naturen och för människan. Dyngbaggarna lever både i skogen och på öppna marker och bryter ner spillning från såväl vilda som tama djur. En stor del av de dynglevande skalbaggarna tillhör gruppen bladhorningar (Scarabaeidae) och hela 29 arter av totalt 61 är med på den svenska rödlistan. För att ta reda på hur dyngbaggefaunan ser ut på en ekologisk gård i Tämta, Västra Götalands län, gjordes inventeringar vid tre tidpunkter under sommaren 2009. Varje inventeringstidpunkt bestod av två delinventeringar, en på öppen betesmark och en på betesmark i skog, detta för att se om det fanns några skillnader i artantal och om det var samma arter på de olika habitaten. De båda habitaten betades under perioden av nötkreatur. Samtliga skalbaggar samlades in för att sedan artbestämmas på labb och sammanlagt påträffades 13 olika arter varav en av dem, streckdyngbaggen (Aphodius merdarius), finns med på rödlistan som starkt hotad.

    Av de 13 arter som hittades återfanns 11 av dem på den öppna betesmarken jämfört med skogsmarkens 9 arter. Antalet individer varierade vid de olika tidpunkterna och även om skogsbetesmarken hade fler arter under augustiinventering var det fler individer vid motsvarande inventering på den öppna betesmarken, vilket tyder på en större täthet på de öppna markerna. Flest individer var det på den öppna betesmarken under juli månad. Slutsatsen jag drar av resultaten, med stöd från tidigare studier, är att lokalernas utformning och läge har stor betydelse för dyngbaggarna, men kanske än viktigare för deras levnad och överlevnad är tillgången på bra substrat för boplats och föda och hur platsen i fråga är solexponerad.

  • 13.
    Rahman, Aminur
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Örebro University.
    Bioremediation of Toxic Metals for Protecting Human Health and the Ecosystem2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal pollutants, discharged into the ecosystem as waste by anthropogenic activities, contaminate drinking water for millions of people and animals in many regions of the world. Long term exposure to these metals, leads to several lethal diseases like cancer, keratosis, gangrene, diabetes, cardio- vascular disorders, etc. Therefore, removal of these pollutants from soil, water and environment is of great importance for human welfare. One of the possible eco-friendly solutions to this problem is the use of microorganisms that can accumulate the heavy metals from the contaminated sources, hence reducing the pollutant contents to a safe level.

    In this thesis an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, a chromium resistant bacterium Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA and a nickel resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 were isolated and studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of these isolates are 500 mM sodium arsenate, 5.5 mM potassium chromate and 9 mM nickel chloride, respectively. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that after 120 h of exposure, the intracellular accumulation of arsenic in B1-CDA and chromium in B2-DHA were 5.0 mg/g dwt and 320 μg/g dwt of cell biomass, respectively. However, the arsenic and chromium contents in the liquid medium were reduced to 50% and 81%, respectively. The adsorption values of BA2 when exposed to nickel for 6 h were 238.04 mg of Ni(II) per gram of dead biomass indicating BA2 can reduce nickel content in the solution to 53.89%. Scanning electron micrograph depicted the effect of these metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. The genetic composition of B1-CDA and B2-DHA were studied in detail by sequencing of whole genomes. All genes of B1-CDA and B2-DHA predicted to be associated with resistance to heavy metals were annotated.

    The findings in this study accentuate the significance of these bacteria in removing toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of these isolates in absorbing and thus removing toxic metals could be used as vehicles to cope with metal toxicity of the contaminated effluents discharged to the nature by industries and other human activities.

  • 14.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune-411033, India.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Khaled
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Genome analysis of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA: A bacterium resistant to chromium and/or other heavy metalsIn: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    The Avatars in the Machine: Dreaming as a Simulation of Social Reality2016In: Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century / [ed] Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt, MIT Press, 2016, p. 1295-1322Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    The Simulation Theories of Dreaming: How to Make Theoretical Progress in Dream Science2016In: Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century / [ed] Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt, MIT Press, 2016, p. 1341-1348Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Sernland, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Optimal strategies and information in foraging theory2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I present both theoretical and empirical work where we have studied how humans and animals use information in situations where they need to continually update their information on the density of a resource. We have found that the amount of information, and the way the information is presented, are important factors for how well decisions are adapted to current circumstances. In an empirical study on humans, we found that humans seem to have a default idea of the distribution of a resource. This default idea seems to be plastic, i.e. it is adjusted according to incoming information. The way additional information was presented, as well as the information content, was important for how well the default idea was adjusted to current circumstances.

    By using mathematical models, we have also studied whether access to information from group members, so called public information, is one of the reasons why some species live in groups. When group members aim to maximize its intake rate of food and share both information and food items found equally, and when each individual has to pay all the cost for travelling between foraging patches, the intake rate of food will decrease with increasing group size. The animals will spend a larger proportion of the time on travelling between patches and less time on foraging the larger the group size. In this case, information sharing on food density in patches is not a reason why animals live in groups.

    We have also used mathematical models to study the information dynamics in a group of foraging animals that cannot both search for food and information at the same time. The animals aim to maximize their survival, and are given three behavioural choices in each time step: stay and search for food, stay and scan for information, or leave the current patch. The results show that the choice of behaviour depends on the energy reserves of the individual. An animal with low energy reserves searches for food and leaves the patch if its assessment of potential patch quality decreases to a certain level. An animal with high energy reserves chooses to stay in the patch and scan for information. In our model we assume that when one individual leaves the patch, the rest of the group also leaves. This means that it is those individuals that have low energy reserves that will make the leaving decisions for the group.

    In the end, we use these theories on Bayesian foraging, information updating and decision-making in order to develop a new type of effort-based quota for sustainable fisheries management: an effort-based dynamic quota (EDQ). We show that by using information from ongoing fishing combined with fishing data from earlier years, we can reach a higher maximum sustainable yield compared to using a total allowable catch (TAC).

  • 18.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Methodological Issues in Measuring Dream Emotions2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are central in dreams, specifically in rapid eye movement sleep dreams. Despite a wealth of research on the emotional content of dreams, there is little consensus about the overall emotionality and predominant valence of dreams or about the prevailing specific emotions in dreams. Previous contradictory findings are arguably due to unresolved methodological issues. However, studies that have directly investigated these methodological issues are scarce. In this presentation three studies that investigated the effect of study methodology on the frequency, valence and phenomenological content of dream emotions are discussed. The studies demonstrate that the use of different methods for rating dream emotions (participants who experience the dream vs external judges who analysed the respective dream report) and for collecting dream reports (home vs laboratory setting) leads to very different results and conclusions about the emotional content of dreams. As such, these studies highlight the importance of carefully considering study methodology when conducting and interpreting dream (emotional) content studies.

  • 19.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    I know how you felt last night, or do I?: Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM dreams2014In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 25, p. 51-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiencesin dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated.Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratoryand awakened from every rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage 5 min after the onsetof the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dreamemotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated theparticipants’ emotions expressed in the dream reports, using the same scale. The twoapproaches produced diverging results. Self-ratings, as compared to external ratings,resulted in greater estimates of (a) emotional dreams; (b) positively valenced dreams;(c) positive and negative emotions per dream; and (d) various discrete emotions representedin dreams. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentationof positive emotions in dream reports. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  • 20.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Subjective and objective measures of affective states in REM sleep dreams2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Skenderija, Tea
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Emotion regulation and its influence on decision making: Emotion regulation and decision making2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One thing that may affect our decision making is emotions, and emotions are something we can regulate, this is referred to as emotion regulation. the use of emotion regulation strategies influence our decision making how this process out at the neural level The findings within this will suggest that the emotion regulation strategy reappraisal, compared to suppression, our decision making At the neural level, findings within this will indicate that neural changes may occur when individuals regulate their emotions in relation to making decisions. For instance, decreased activity within the striatum was associated with making less risky decisions when using the emotion regulation strategy reappraisal. On the other hand, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex may be important in mediating the neural systems of emotional states and working memory in order to enable decision making. This will also cover some prominent theories of emotion and decision making. Emotion regulation, as well as strategies for emotion regulation, will be explained.

  • 22.
    Sturesson, André
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the effect of exercise and adult hippocampal neurogenesis on spatial learning and memory2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It was long believed within the scientific community that the adult brain was unable to generate new neurons. In the end of the 1990s the consensus changed and it is since believed that the adult brain can and does generate new neurons after birth, a process referred to as adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two places in the adult brain: the subventricular zone (SVZ) in close proximity to the olfactory bulb and the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampus. The level of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) can be upregulated and one part of the aim was to examine the effect of voluntary chronic aerobic exercise (VCAE) on AHN. It is clear that voluntary chronic aerobic exercise reliably increases AHN. Still, the function of these new brain cells is under debate. Spatial learning and memory are among the main abilities that have been focused on. The other part of the aim was to examine the effect of VCAE and AHN on spatial learning and memory. The reviewed literature suggests that both AHN and spatial learning and memory increase together from VCAE, although it does not show causation, that an increase of AHN from VCAE causally effects spatial learning and memory. More studies are needed to investigate if a causal relationship exists. 

  • 23.
    Svensson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    In vitro study of the antiproliferative properties of Digitoxin glycosides and Keytruda on BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 1900s, cancer patients were often treated by inducing a bacterial infection that stimulated an immune response which lead to a spontaneous passive cancer regression. This discovery lead to today’s modern cancer immunotherapy – an approach in which medical interventions stimulate the body’s own immune system to fight cancer cells. Digitoxin glycosides, a sodium pump inhibitor used mainly to treat heart-related diseases has been reviewed in clinical trials for its anti-tumor like properties. Moreover, A new drug to aid in the war against progressive inoperable metastatic cancers was approved 2014 by FDA. Keytruda was the first monoclonal non-chimeric human IgG4 antibody drug to restore the immune response to activated T-cells by interfering with the tumours’ programmed death ligands (PD-L1) and (PD-L2). Cancer cells express an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote cancer cell proliferation and development. However, in too low or high levels, ROS promote oxidative damage in favour of anti-tumor properties. This study evaluated Digitoxin glycosides and Keytruda as potential anti-tumor therapies and any eventual synergic effects. Digitoxin, as mono-therapy, promoted apoptotic behaviour in pancreatic cancer cells when administrated in the mid- to high-end dosage range. Respectively, this study suggests a combination-therapy using a sub-physiological Keytruda-concentration together with a relatively high Digitoxin concentration produce a significant antiproliferative effect.

1 - 23 of 23
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