Högskolan i Skövde

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  • 1.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Den sociala genen2023Inngår i: Psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, nr 1, s. 6-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Den sociala genen som subjekt och objekt2024Inngår i: Psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, nr 1-2, s. 21-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Genforskningen har koncentrerat sig på att urskilja vilka gener som påverkar eller skapar vilka beteenden och tendenser. Det finns till exempel en enda gen SRY, som möjliggör förekomsten av manligt biologiskt kön (Mukherjee, 2018). Det finns en gen FOX P2 som har med språkförmågan att göra. Men det finns tusen andra gener som också har med manligt kön och/eller språkförmåga att göra, som tillåter eller förhindrar manligt kön att uppstå i en viss individ, som hindrar eller tillåter en viss individ i en viss familj med FOX P2 att kunna utveckla normalt tal. Forskningen kring relationer mellan gener och beteenden och fysiologiska egenskaper pågår globalt. Ovan nämnda exempel är två av tusentals.

    Relationerna mellan gener är komplexa; en viss genuppsättning kan inte förutsäga visst beteende med precision. Ändå har till exempel den intensiva adhd-debatten präglats mycket av just behovet att konstatera vissa beteenden och tendenser som bestämda och givna ”av naturen”. I fallet adhd gäller dessutom att man hittills inte har intensivstuderat eller spårat avvikelser på gennivå.

    Neurofysiologin rymmer numera mycket kunskaper om relationen mellan specifika gener och specifika egenskaper. Exempelvis visar autism och Aspberger specifika drag i nervcellerna. Hos personer med autism är enligt vissa studier de trådar som förbinder nervcellerna kortare än hos den fysiologiska normalindividen, och genen FOXP2 är frånvarande hos individer med vissa svårigheter i språklärande. Men hos adhd finner man inte neurofysiologiska särdrag.

  • 3.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Genernas samtal2023Inngår i: Psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, nr 2, s. 27-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Carlsson, Veronica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Emotional attention: A cognitive neuroscience perspective2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Attention is a cognitive mechanism that guides our perception in order to prioritize the limited resources to the most relevant information while ignoring distracting information. Attention can be voluntarily deployed to stimuli during tasks or goals, or the features of the stimulus can capture our attention either by being salient or being emotionally induced. Emotions affect multiple different cognitive processes such as attention because emotional stimuli can be relevant for defending or sustain life. This relationship between attention and emotion indicates that there should be interactive but distinct networks between these cognitive mechanisms as well as a modulative effect on perceptional and attentional systems. Emotions were in general demonstrating a facilitation affect on attentional and saccadic processes as well as broadening or narrowing the scope of attention. The reason behind emotions impact on attention was proposed to be for eliciting a change in the application of resources in order to solve the limited capacity problem and possibly to protect and sustain life. Inconsistent findings as well as limitations for emotional attention studies are discussed.

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  • 5.
    Jelenkovic, Aline
    et al.
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Finland ; Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Spain.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Institute of Gerontology and Aging Research Network - Jönköping (ARN-J), School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Finland ; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Japan.
    Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 19942016Inngår i: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 5, artikkel-id e20320Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886–1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve.

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  • 6.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders2019Inngår i: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Springer, 2019, 1, s. 269-281Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Person-centered care sciences are experiencing rapid progress. Personalization in care services is becoming the norm, and implementation from scientific knowledge is increasingly acknowledged and mandated. Advances in personality and brain disorder research are crucial in assisting the future development of personalized care.  

    Aim: We will attempt to present glimpses into the future of personalized care with support from frontline science, measurement, and practice, updating with input from personality genetics and measurement theory.

    Outline: We present three broad developments: 1) Scientific advancements in understanding how personality and genetics are central in predicting mental health and disorders, with the potential to increase predictive diagnosis and treatment validity 2) Measurement advancements with help of trait dimensions and latent structures, with the potential to increase reliability in assessing personalized care needs and functioning 3) Practical advancements in implementing a personalized approach in care services, with the potential to increase effectiveness and satisfaction with patients. We review this glimpse into the future by referencing key findings in personality and assessment meta-analyses, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), and trait measurements in psychiatric disorders.

    Conclusion: Personalizing care services will benefit practitioners and patients. We suggest and recommend that personalized care diagnosis and treatment is the way forward, and that the future will be potentially revolutionized by incorporating the presented advancements in personality research and brain sciences.

  • 7.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding2019Inngår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 705-711Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this researchby using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22 countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, have underestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strong correlation (r = .69) between a country’s sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additional analyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. We speculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 8.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    et al.
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Finland ; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Japan.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Institute of Gerontology and Aging Research Network — Jönköping (ARN-J), School of Health and Welfare Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland ; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts2017Inngår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 395-405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.

  • 9.
    Vinterstare, Jerker
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ekelund Ugge, Gustaf Magnus Oskar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hegg, Alexander
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Zellmer, Ursula Ronja
    Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lee, Marcus
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Pärssinen, Varpu
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Sha, Yongcui
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnerås, Caroline
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Huan
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Gollnisch, Raphael
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Herzog, Simon D.
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Škerlep, Martin
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hu, Nan
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma
    Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Langerhans, Randall Brian
    Department of Biological Sciences, W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Predation risk and the evolution of a vertebrate stress response: Parallel evolution of stress reactivity and sexual dimorphism2021Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 34, nr 10, s. 1554-1567Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation risk is often invoked to explain variation in stress responses. Yet, the answers to several key questions remain elusive, including the following: (1) how predation risk influences the evolution of stress phenotypes, (2) the relative importance of environmental versus genetic factors in stress reactivity and (3) sexual dimorphism in stress physiology. To address these questions, we explored variation in stress reactivity (ventilation frequency) in a post-Pleistocene radiation of live-bearing fish, where Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabit isolated blue holes that differ in predation risk. Individuals of populations coexisting with predators exhibited similar, relatively low stress reactivity as compared to low-predation populations. We suggest that this dampened stress reactivity has evolved to reduce energy expenditure in environments with frequent and intense stressors, such as piscivorous fish. Importantly, the magnitude of stress responses exhibited by fish from high-predation sites in the wild changed very little after two generations of laboratory rearing in the absence of predators. By comparison, low-predation populations exhibited greater among-population variation and larger changes subsequent to laboratory rearing. These low-predation populations appear to have evolved more dampened stress responses in blue holes with lower food availability. Moreover, females showed a lower ventilation frequency, and this sexual dimorphism was stronger in high-predation populations. This may reflect a greater premium placed on energy efficiency in live-bearing females, especially under high-predation risk where females show higher fecundities. Altogether, by demonstrating parallel adaptive divergence in stress reactivity, we highlight how energetic trade-offs may mould the evolution of the vertebrate stress response under varying predation risk and resource availability.

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