Högskolan i Skövde

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  • 1.
    Andersson, Loa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Where can the Vendace (Coregonus albula) live during the least favourable period of the summer stratification in Lake Mälaren?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal stratification in lakes due to high air temperatures and dynamic wind conditions changes the environment for organisms in the depth gradient. For fish that have narrow requirements for temperature and oxygen conditions, stratification can lead to a significant reduction in habitat volume during the summer when surface temperatures are high. In Sweden, temporal stratification occurs between July and October. The vendace (Coregonus albula) is a cold-water fish that is found in several waters around Sweden. In Lake Mälaren, there is targeted commercial fishing for the species, but the total annual catch has drastically decreased in recent decades. Shrinking habitats and longer periods of temporal stratification during the summer could be a partial explanation. Understanding and predicting changes of the vendace populationin Lake Mälaren requires mapping of available habitat during the summer temporal stratification. This study has investigated the worst habitat conditions in terms of habitat thickness for vendace during the years 2017-2022 in Lake Mälaren based on the habitat requirements temperature ≤18 °C and DO concentration ≥2 mg/L. The spatial distribution in two basins where analysed. The results showed that the vendace had limited available habitat in three of seven water bodies investigated (habitat thickness ≤2.5 m). The spatial analysis of the two basins showed that habitat volume represented 41 % and 11 % of the total volume of water in each basin. The available habitat of the vendace during the summer temporal stratification in Lake Mälaren is thus limited in parts of the lake.

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  • 2.
    Arnesén, Lisa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Vems landskap ska förändras för att öka den biologiska mångfalden?: En studie av skillnaderna i odlingslandskapets konnektivitet med avseende på två skyddsvärda arter med olika preferenser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organisms relevant for nature conservation dont follow administrative borders. Because of this there is a need for a landscape perspective within conservation and planning, and a need for the species of interest to have legal protection. Network analysis adapted for ecological purposes has grown to become a powerful tool for studying and communicating the relationships between species dispersion and access to habitat. In this study the following question is posed: How is the Osmoderma eremita and the Pernis apivorus dispersal possibilities in the small scale cultivated landscape of Borås affected by exploitation in respect to a) dispersal ability, b) habitat quality, c) position of habitat patches in a network? The analysis were based on municipal and regional nature conservation data, which in due to confidentiality is not accounted for in the report by maps, coordinates, etc. Several networks were established for both species to indicate how habitat patches are distributed today and how the species dispersal changes depending on which patches are excluded – this was done to imitate how exploitation can affect the species future survival and dispersion. The results showed that the O.e. is mainly inhibited by its poor dispersal abilities, followed by patch position, while the P.a. is the most affected by degrading habitat quality. The most important conclusions of the study were that the O.e. natural dispersal may be restricted but can be improved by linking small network components together and by maintaining the largest components. As for the P.a. it was concluded that a different type of analysis, focusing on its behaviour and need for different patches for different purposes, would generate more interesting results.

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    Vems landskap ska förändras för att öka den biologiska mångfalden?
  • 3.
    Banks, H. T.
    et al.
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Banks, J. E.
    Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center (UROC) California State University, Monterey Bay Seaside, CA, USA.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Curtsdotter, Alva
    Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Laubmeier, A. N.
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Parameter estimation for an allometric food web model2017In: International journal of pure and applied mathematics, ISSN 1311-8080, E-ISSN 1314-3395, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 143-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of mechanistic models to natural systems is of interest to ecological researchers. We use the mechanistic Allometric Trophic Network (ATN) model, whichis well-studied for controlled and theoretical systems, to describe the dynamics of the aphidRhopalosiphum padi in an agricultural field. We diagnose problems that arise in a first attemptat a least squares parameter estimation on this system, including formulation of the modelfor the inverse problem and information content present in the data. We seek to establishwhether the field data, as it is currently collected, can support parameter estimation for theATN model.

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  • 4.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Analys av grön infrastruktur för barrnaturskog inom projektområde för planerad vindpark vid Trollugnsberget2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar och redovisar ett kunskapsunderlag om förutsättningar för biologisk mångfald knuten till barrnaturskog inom och i närområdet av projektområde för vindkraftspark Trollugnsberget i Smedjebackens kommun. Utifrån underlaget kan OX2 prioritera markanvändning och arbeta för att bibehålla och utveckla en grön infrastruktur som bidrar till att uppfylla miljökvalitetsmålen Ett rikt växt- och djurliv samt Levande skogar.

    Kunskapsunderlaget har tagits fram med en ny metod benämnt Biotope Biodiversity Capacity Indicator (BBCI). BBCI är en indikator som uppskattar ett biotoplandskaps förmåga att hålla biologisk mångfald. Metodutveckling har finansierats av Naturvårdsverkets miljöforskningsanslag och framtagning av det specifika underlaget och analyserna i rapporten har finansierats av OX2.

    BBCI bygger på ekologisk kunskap om hur landskapets struktur påverkar arters överlevnad och biologisk mångfald. Med hjälp av indikatorn kan man undersöka om i) landskapet som helhet är hållbart ur ett biologiskt mångfaldsperspektiv, ii) hur många och vilka patcher1 som inte är hållbara i sig själva och iii) hur känsligt landskapets biologiska mångfald är för negativ påverkan på specifika patcher och var en förstärkning skulle kunna göra störst nytta.

    BBCI har beräknats för barrnaturskog som finns inom projektområdet för vindparken samt i dess närhet. Som underlag och indata till biotoplandskapens struktur användes data från genomförd naturvärdesinventering samt från skogsbolagens nyckelbiotopsklassificering. I rapporten redovisas barrnaturskogens långsiktiga hållbarhet för biologisk mångfald och dess känslighet för tidsperspektivet 100 år. Beräkningar har gjorts utifrån två olika fokusarter2 där fokusart 1 har mindre arealkrav jämfört med fokusart 2. Resultaten visar att befintliga förekomster av barrnaturskog inte är hållbara i ett 100-årsperspektiv, varken för fokusart 1 eller 2. Åtgärder som stärker barrnaturskogens förutsättningar att hålla biologisk mångfald är därför att rekommendera.

    1 Patcher kallas de fragment eller avgränsade ytor som finns i landskapet och som består av den biotop som studeras. En patch är ett avgränsat fragment av biotopen som omges av andra typer av livsmiljöer än den som biotopen består av.

    2 BBCI bygger på modellering av fokusarter. En fokusarts möjlighet att fortleva i landskapet indikerar även att många andra arter, som är en del av det ekosystem fokusarten representerar, också kan fortleva i landskapet och därmed biologisk mångfald.

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  • 5.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Ekologisk funktionalitet av värdekärnor för barrskogar inom Västra Götalands län: Ett strategiskt underlag för planering av förändrad skogsskötsel av barrskogsområden inom Västra Götalands län i syfte att stärka skogarnas förutsättningar att stödja biologisk mångfald och skogens klimatnytta2022Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsstyrelsen redovisar i sin utvärdering av miljömålet Levande skogar 2019 att centrala hinder för uppfyllelse av miljömålet är minskande och fragmenterade livsmiljöer och minskande och/eller små populationer av ett antal hotade arter knutna till skogsekosystemet. En väg framåt för att vända denna trend är att framtidens skogsbruk bland annat bör utvecklas utifrån ett landskapsperspektiv och där hyggesfria skogsbruksmetoder ökar i omfattning.

    Länsstyrelserna i Sverige har genom sitt arbete med regionala handlingsplaner för grön infrastruktur identifierat så kallade värdekärnor – områden av stor betydelse för skogsarternas överlevnad. I denna studie har Västra Götalands läns värdekärnor analyserats med avseende på deras förmåga att stödja biologisk mångfald i ett landskapsperspektiv. Arbetet har gjorts i samverkan med Länsstyrelsen för Västra götalands län.

    Metoden som använts är Biotope Biodiversity Capacity Indicator (BBCI). Metoden har utvecklats inom forskningsprojektet “Landscape biodiversity capacity: a tool for measuring, monitoring and managing” finansierat av Naturvårdsverkets miljöforskningsanslag (2019-2022).

    Resultaten visar vilka geografiskt avgränsade värdekärnor som idag har hög ekologisk funktionalitet och som utgör biologiska överlevnads- och spridningshotspots för arter knutna till barrskogar. Vidare visar resultaten att endast sju kommuner har BBCI-värden över 1, det vill säga, ett hållbart skogslandskap som kan hålla fokusarten i ett 100-årsperspektiv.

    För att nå de svenska miljömålen Levande skogar och Ett rikt växt- och djurliv samt skapa bättre förutsättningar för skogens biologiska mångfald att fortleva behöver nuvarande skogsmetoder med trakthyggesbruk anpassas till brukningsformer som tar större hänsyn till skogens ekosystem. Resultaten från denna studie kan ge prioriteringsunderlag för inom vilka produktionsskogar en så kallad återvildning genom förändrad brukningsmetod skulle kunna resultera i betydelsefull ökad ekologisk funktionalitet på landskapsnivå för de västgötska barrskogarna.     

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  • 6.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Dept of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Pimenov, Aexander
    Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany / Environmental Research Inst., Univ. College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Palmer, Catherine
    Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany.
    Emmerson, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, Queen's Univ. Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Dept of Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ecological communities are vulnerable to realistic extinction sequences2015In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 486-496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bergman, Jimmy
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Cellulär automat simulerar utbredning av Taraxacum2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöks vilken grad av inomartskonkurrens som ger upphov till ett observerat utbredningsmönster av maskrosor (Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia). Maskrosor har både fröspridning och vegetativ förökning. Studien hypotiserar att utbredningen kan beskrivas utifrån enkla regler för spridning och konkurrens. Dessa används i simuleringar med en binär cellulär automat där utveckling sker i deterministiska tidssteg. Modellen består av ett rutnät där en tom cell antingen kan förbli tom eller koloniseras, medan en upptagen cell antingen kan överleva eller dö ut. Reglerna efterliknar situationer med hög respektive låg känslighet för inomartskonkurrens. De mått på jämförelse mellan observation och simulering som används är mönstrets fraktala dimension, mönstrets tendens att aggregera och storleken på den enklaste algoritm som beskriver datan. Två olika initialvillkor används för att testa modellens robusthet. Den observerade utbredningen kontrolleras även mot slumpmässig fördelning. Resultaten visar att den observerade utbredningen är klusterartad. Simulering med en högre inomartskonkurrens beskriver utbredningen väl sett till aggregering och fraktal dimension. Lägre inomartskonkurrens beskriver dock maskrosornas verkliga utbredning sett till algoritmisk komplexitet, vilket tolkas som att individer kan leva närmare inpå varandra än vad regeln om högre inomartskonkurrens förutsätter. För vald klusterstorlek är simuleringarna ej känsliga för initialvillkoren, men då hela fördelningen av antal celler per klusterstorlek i stickprov på ett tidssteg analyseras har initialvillkoren fakstiskt betydelse. Sett till fördelningen av cell per klusterstorlek liknar ingen simulering den observerade utbredningen. Därmed kan modellen tänkas inrymma den vegetativa förökningen medan fröspridningen, som är stokastisk, ej inryms på samma vis.

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    examensarbete_jbergman
  • 8.
    Bergström, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm Recilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frelat, Romain
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haapasaari, Päivi
    University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Haas, Bianca
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg Germany.
    Heikinheimo, Outi
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jernberg, Susanna
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Large, Scott
    ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lindegren, Martin
    Centre for Ocean Life, DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Levin, Phil
    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, USA.
    Lehikoinen, Annukka
    Helsinki University, Kotka Maritime Research Centre, Kotka, Finland.
    Möllmann, Christian
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Nordström, Marie
    Åbo Akademi University, Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo, Finland.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Otto, Saskia
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Peltonen, Heikki
    Marine Research Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Précuchét, Laurence
    Centre for Ocean Life, DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Putnis, Ivars
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment BIOR, Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Romakkaniemi, Atso
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Oulun yliopisto, Finland.
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Torres, Marian
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Laura
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Weigel, Benjamin
    Åbo Akademi University, Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo, Finland.
    Wesslander, Karin
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Marine Environment, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Zagrodzka, Zuzanna
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Interim Report of the ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB): 18-22 April 2016 Helsinki, Finland2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB) meeting was held in Helsinki (Finland), 18-22 April 2016. The meeting was attended by 26 participants from five countries and chaired by Laura Uusitalo, Fin-land, Saskia Otto, Germany, Martin Lindegren, Denmark, and Lena Bergström, Swe-den. This was the first year of the new three-year Terms of Reference (ToR) for WGIAB. The main working activities in 2016 were to A) develop the trait-based ap-proach of understanding the ecosystem function, and B) explore the social-ecological system, including indicator development, revising the conceptual model, and devel-oping case studies. As a primary outcome of the ToR A, we built on our previous work on integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs) in the Baltic Sea, but extended it beyond considering changes in abundances of a few dominant species, to accounting for community-wide changes in a number of key traits across multiple trophic levels. These traits represent various ecosystem functions upon which we derive important ecosystem services. By investigating temporal changes in the community weighted mean traits of phyto-plankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, and fish, we demonstrated whether trait reor-ganizations at the level of entire communities occurred in the Central Baltic Sea as a result of the 1980s regime shift. Using in total 29 traits combined for all groups we found indications of two breakpoints across all four taxonomic groups over the last decades, i.e. one around 1990 and one around 2000. Further work will focus on ex-ploring the nature of the changes in trait composition and on standardizing the num-ber of traits and data types (i.e. binary, continuous or categorical) across taxonomic group.In addition, we collected data on key functional groups and abiotic variables in all main sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, setting the stage for a cross-regional comparison of temporal patterns and trends in lower trophic level in the face of recent develop-ments in climate-related drivers.With reference to Tor B, to explore how social indicators could be used in parallel with biological indicators in an integrated assessment framework, we developed a conceptual model of interrelationships between ecosystem and society. We used the model as a basis for mapping factors to be accounted for in the ecosystem-based management using the Baltic salmon and clupeid species as case studies. The models depict 1) the structure of the foodweb relevant to the target species, 2) the key com-munity level and population traits that contribute to the state of the species, 3) main pressures affecting the foodweb and their effects on the species, 4) key management measures, and 5) benefits that the species can produce for society.To support the development of Ecosystem Overview the group members evaluated the probability of occurrence and the magnitude of the effect of 15 pressures occur-ring in the Baltic Sea. The top five pressures identified were input of nutrients, in-creased temperature, decreased salinity, input of hazardous substances, and input or spread of non-indigenous species.The work will continue intersessionally and the next meeting of WGIAB is planned to be held in Lisbon, Portugal, back-to-back with WGCOMEDA and WGEAWESS.

  • 9.
    Björnerås, Caroline
    et al.
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Škerlep, Martin
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Gollnisch, Raphael
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Herzog, Simon David
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Ekelund Ugge, Gustaf
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Hegg, Alexander
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Hu, Nan
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Lee, Marcus
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Pärssinen, Varpu
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Sha, Yongcui
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Vinterstare, Jerker
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Huan
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden / River Ecology and Management Research Group RivEM, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Rengefors, Karin
    Lund University, Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Sweden.
    Langerhans, R. Brian
    North Carolina State University, Department of Biological Sciences and W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology, Raleigh, USA.
    Inland blue holes of The Bahamas - chemistry and biology in a unique aquatic environment2020In: Fundamental and Applied Limnology, ISSN 1863-9135, Vol. 194, no 2, p. 95-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While lake systems in temperate regions have been extensively studied, tropical and subtropical systems have received less attention. Here, we describe the water chemistry and biota of ten inland blue holes on Andros Island, The Bahamas, representative of the morphological, abiotic, and biotic variation among Androsian inland blue holes. The majority of the studied blue holes were vertically stratified with oxic freshwater overlying anoxic saline groundwater of marine origin. Water chemistry (e.g. total phosphorus and nitrogen) in shallow waters was similar among blue holes, while turbidity and water color varied. Presence of hydrogen sulfide and reduced iron in and below the halocline indicate reducing conditions in all stratified blue holes. The biota above the halocline was also similar among blue holes with a few taxa dominating the phytoplankton community, and the zooplankton community consisting of copepods and rotifers. The Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) was present in all investigated blue holes, often accompanied by other small planktivorous fish, while the piscivorous bigmouth sleeper (Gobiomorus donnitor) was only present in some of the blue holes. Our field study reinforces that inland blue holes are highly interesting for biogeochemical research, and provide naturally replicated systems for evolutionary studies.

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  • 10.
    Blomstrand, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Studie av kantzoner i Valleområdet och Varaslätten: Inventering av invertebrater, träd, mossor och lavar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotones are areas where different ecosystems meet, and they vary in sharpness and range. The areas provide a great biological diversity since they are a mixture of the meeting areas and provide special microclimate. The biological diversity is affected by the width, length and structure of the ecotone and they have a biological significance in that they provide habitat, protection and food to many species. To demonstrate where in the landscape there are ecotones the tool GIS can be used. In this work GIS have been used to define which areas the work is concentrated on and to randomize out points for inventory in the ecotones in these areas. Inventory of the ecotones was made with the help of twenty 5x2 meters big inventory boxes, ten in the Valle area and ten on the Vara flat. Invertebrates, trees, mosses and lichens where inventoried in the boxes. The aim of this work was to see how the biological diversity in ecotones between forest and open land differ between the Valle area and the Vara flat. A study was also made to see whether the cardinal direction the ecotones lie in have an impact on the invertebrate fauna or not. None of the tests made showed any statistically significant difference between the Valle area and the Vara flat. Nor was there any statistically significant difference in invertebrate fauna depending on cardinal direction of the ecotone. Nevertheless, there are indications that the areas differ in invertebrate fauna and number of tree individuals. 

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    Examensarbete - Johanna Blomstrand
  • 11.
    Borrvall, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ebenman, Bo
    Linköping University.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Linköping University.
    Biodiversity lessens the risk of cascading extinction in model food webs2000In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 3, p. 131-136Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Boström, Marja L.
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ugge, Gustaf
    Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Jan Åke
    Centre for Analysis and Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berglund, Olof
    Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bioaccumulation and Trophodynamics of the Antidepressants Sertraline and Fluoxetine in Laboratory-Constructed, 3-Level Aquatic Food Chains2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 1029-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although reports of pharmaceutical bioconcentration in aquatic organisms are increasing, less is known about trophic transfer in aquatic food webs. The bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of sertraline and fluoxetine, 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) frequently detected in aquatic environments, were tested by exposing constructed aquatic food chains to SSRIs under controlled laboratory conditions. Both of these ionizable, weak base pharmaceuticals showed lower bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) with increasing trophic level (i.e., no biomagnifications) in 2 3-level food chains (Acer platanoides, fed to Asellus aquaticus, in turn fed to Notonecta glauca or Pungitius pungitius). Mean sertraline BAFs in A. platanoides, A. aquaticus, N. glauca, and P. pungitus were 2200L/kg, 360L/kg, 26L/kg, and 49L/kg, respectively, and mean fluoxetine BAFs 1300L/kg, 110L/kg, 11L/kg, and 41L/kg, respectively. The weak influence of diet was further demonstrated by measured BAFs being equal to or lower than measured bioconcentration factors (BCFs). Organism lipid content was not positively correlated with BAFs, suggesting that other processes are driving interspecific differences in SSRI bioaccumulation. The empirically derived parameter values were introduced into a proposed bioaccumulation model, and a poor correlation was found between modeled and empirical BAFs (predicted r(2)=-0.63). In conclusion, the apparent lack of biomagnification of these ionizable pharmaceuticals suggests that environmental concern should not necessarily focus only on higher trophic levels, but also on species showing high BCFs at any trophic level.

  • 13.
    Bourlat, Sarah J.
    et al.
    Centre for Biodiversity Monitoring, Leibniz Institute for the Analysis of Biodiversity Change/ZFMK, Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Tschan, Georg F.
    Centre for Biodiversity Monitoring, Leibniz Institute for the Analysis of Biodiversity Change/ZFMK, Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Martin, Sebastian
    Centre for Biodiversity Monitoring, Leibniz Institute for the Analysis of Biodiversity Change/ZFMK, Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Iqram, Muhammad
    Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    A red listing gap analysis of molluscs and crustaceans in Northern Europe: What has happened in the last 10 years?2023In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 286, article id 110247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the current rates of species extinction on a global level, Red List assessments need to speed up to inform conservation management in a timely manner. This study analyzed the progress made over the last 10 years in red listing aquatic invertebrates in Northern Europe. A survey of 43 freshwater molluscs and 1492 marine crustaceans was carried out for their Red List status in twelve countries during a twenty year interval (2003−2022). Our survey demonstrated that many countries have no national Red List or outdated Red Lists for the freshwater molluscs and only four countries have assessed their existing crustacean species. Alarmingly, we find 13 % fewer occurrence records for the crustaceans and 48 % fewer records for the freshwater molluscs in GBIF in the last 10 years (2013−2022) than in the 10 years previously (2003−2012). A barcode gap analysis reveals more barcodes for the 16S gene (77 %) than for the COI gene (63 %) for the freshwater molluscs and even fewer barcodes for the marine crustaceans (17 % for 16S and 40 % for the COI gene). With the current methods, regular comprehensive red listing of aquatic invertebrates is unrealistic. Here we present a set of scripts that allow automated occurrence and barcode gap analyses on unrepresented species groups. Finally, we discuss ways to increase the number of occurrence records and speed up red listing under existing European frameworks through whole community screening of ecosystems using molecular and other emerging tools.

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  • 14.
    Carlquist Segell, Maja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Reptilförekomster och kopplingar till miljöfaktorer på Billingen: Inventering av reptilfauna med artificial cover objects på lokal nivå i Västsverige2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity loss is the most exceeded planetary boundary, and entails some of the largest threats against biosphere integrity. Reptiles are functional parts of ecosystems, but habitat loss and changes in land use and climate are causing global population declines. Ecological monitoring enables understanding of species’ conditions, and development of conservation measures. This occurrence study aims to investigate local reptile fauna, surveyed using artificial cover objects (ACOs), in two areas on Billingen, one of Western Sweden’s table mountains, in Skövde municipality 2021. Environmental, survey and weather data were collected, and relations between observations and environmental factors were tested with statistical t-test for positive differences between data groups. Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix and Vipera berus, all regionally common reptile species, were observed in the investigated area. Nine observationswere made during 20 rain-free days in June and July, with temperatures above 18°C. Solarexposure, biotope qualities Forest edges and Nectar resources, and the open biotopes Pasture and Powerline corridor, occurred in significantly higher extent where observations were made, than on sites without observations. Soil moisture, Human presence, Natural values and Environmental protection did not exhibit any significance. The results correspond to other studies on the reptilespecies’ habitat, and may apply on a local scale despite a relatively small data amount. Effective conservation measures for local reptiles can imply maintaining and creating spaces with high solar radiation and structural complexity, continued but not extended low-intensity grazing, and increasing tree species mixture and edge zones in production forests. Knowledge on reptile ecology and population monitoring needs to increase. Further studies on reptiles and biodiversity conservation on local scales are recommended.

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  • 15.
    Carrelli, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    FÖRSTUDIE OM RESTAURERING AV VÄNGA MOSSE2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vänga bog is one of the six large peat bogs in the Borås municipality which all have high biodiversity. All of these bogs are threatened by encroachment of shrubs and trees. This report presents a study of how the shrubs and trees are invading Vänga bog, and what the possible causes might be.

    A comparison of vegetation via five aerial photos over Vänga bog from 1955, 1964, 1983, 1996 and 2007, was conducted using ArcGIS. Aerial photos are made up of pixels and the method used was to dived the pixels in two values (open ground and shrubs-trees) and then to calculate how the area of shrubs and trees has changed over time. The analysis shows that there was an increase in growth of 43.5% from 1955 to 2007 and that the annual growth varied considerably between the different periods.

    Four factors were examined to determine the possible cause of such changes, namely, temperature, precipitation, atmospheric nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) and sulphur deposition. The analysis contained within this report shows that temperature, precipitation and nitrogen deposits have a positive correlation to the growth of shrubs and trees. However, sulphur deposition exhibited the strongest correlation, indicating an inhibiting effect on growth of shrubs and trees during the end of the last century. These are new results when sulphur deposition was assumed to be a potential cause of growth of shrubs and trees on bogs in southern Sweden.

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    Restaurering av Vänga Mosse
  • 16.
    Cohen, Joel
    et al.
    The Rockefeller University and Columbia University, New York, USA.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    The Rockefeller University, New York, USA.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.
    Ecological community description using the food web, species abundance, and body size2003In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 1781-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Crawford, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Foundation Nordens Ark, Åby säteri, Hunnebostrand, Sweden ; Queen’s University Belfast, School of Biological Sciences, UK.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Niklasson, Mats
    Foundation Nordens Ark, Åby säteri, Hunnebostrand, Sweden ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Using Video Footage for Observing Honey Bee Behaviour at Hive Entrances2022In: Bee world, ISSN 0005-772X, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 139-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Video recording is a common method to study animal behaviour. In honey bee studies, short video-recordings are often used to learn more about a behaviour, but rarely used for their quantification. Standard methods for observing bee behaviour involve behavioural assays or direct observation of a limited subset of marked bees within an observation hive. This means that behaviour at the hive entrance may be overlooked. Here we describe a 4-camera set up for the study of behaviour at hive entrances. With minimal disturbance, we were able to record and quantify all previously described behaviours (9 in total - including self-grooming in drones) on and around the hive entrance. We briefly discuss the general feasibility of video footage and the relative frequency of each observed behaviour. Our conclusion is that video footage is a useful and perhaps overlooked method for unbiased quantification and comparisons of bee behaviour at the hive entrance. With this paper we are publishing some example short video-recordings as online supplementary material for educational purposes.

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  • 18.
    Ebenman, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Annie
    Department of Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Department of Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Department of Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Evolution of stable population dynamics through natural selection1996In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 263, no 1374, p. 1145-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ekelund Ugge, Gustaf Magnus Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Lund University.
    Transcriptional biomarkers of toxicity – powerful tools or random noise?: An applied perspective from studies on bivalves2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic organisms are constantly at risk of being exposed to potentially harmful chemical compounds of natural or anthropogenic origin. Biological life can for instance respond to chemical stressors by changes in gene expression, and thus, certain gene transcripts can potentially function as biomarkers, i.e. early warnings, of toxicity and chemical stress. A major challenge for biomarker application is the extrapolation of transcriptional data to potential effects at the organism level or above. Importantly, successful biomarker use also requires basal understanding of how to distinguish actual responses from background noise. The aim of this thesis is, based on response magnitude and variation, to evaluate the biomarker potential in a set of putative transcriptional biomarkers of general toxicity and chemical stress.

    Specifically, I addressed a selection of six transcripts involved in cytoprotection and oxidative stress: catalase (cat), glutathione-S-transferase (gst), heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (hsp70, hsp90), metallothionein (mt) and superoxide dismutase (sod). Moreover, I used metal exposures to serve as a proxy for general chemical stress, and due to their ecological relevance and nature as sedentary filter-feeders, I used bivalves as study organisms.

    In a series of experiments, I tested transcriptional responses in the freshwater duck mussel, Anodonta anatina, exposed to copper or an industrial wastewater effluent, to address response robustness and sensitivity, and potential controlled (e.g. exposure concentration) and random (e.g. gravidness) sources of variation. In addition, I performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on transcriptional responses in metal exposed bivalves to (1) evaluate what responses to expect from arbitrary metal exposures, (2) assess the influence from metal concentration (expressed as toxic unit), exposure time and analyzed tissue, and (3) address potential impacts from publication bias in the scientific literature.

    Response magnitudes were generally small in relationship to the observed variation, both for A. anatina and bivalves in general. The expected response to an arbitrary metal exposure would generally be close to zero, based on both experimental observations and on the estimated impact from publication bias. Although many of the transcripts demonstrated concentration-response relationships, large background noise might in practice obscure the small responses even at relatively high exposures. As demonstrated in A. anatina under copper exposure, this can be the case already for single species under high resolution exposures to single pollutants. As demonstrated by the meta-regression, this problem can only be expected to increase further upon extrapolation between different species and exposure scenarios, due to increasing heterogeneity and random variation. Similar patterns can also be expected for time-dependent response variation, although the meta-regression revealed a general trend of slightly increasing response magnitude with increasing exposure times.

    In A. anatina, gravidness was identified as a source of random variability that can potentially affect the baseline of most assessed biomarkers, particularly when quantified in gills. Response magnitudes and variability in this species were generally similar for selected transcripts as for two biochemical biomarkers included for comparison (AChE, GST), suggesting that the transcripts might not capture early warnings more efficiently than other molecular endpoints that are more toxicologically relevant. Overall, high concentrations and long exposure durations presumably increase the likelihood of a detectable transcriptional response, but not to an extent that justifies universal application as biomarkers of general toxicity and chemical stress. Consequently, without a strictly defined and validated application, this approach on its own appears unlikely to be successful for future environmental risk assessment and monitoring. Ultimately, efficient use of transcriptional biomarkers might require additional implementation of complementary approaches offered by current molecular techniques.

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    Gustaf M.O. Ekelund Ugge - PhD thesis
  • 20.
    Ekelund Ugge, Gustaf Magnus Oskar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Molecular biomarker responses in the freshwater mussel Anodonta anatina exposed to an industrial wastewater effluent2022In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 2158-2170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a selection of molecular biomarkers, we evaluated responses in freshwater mussels (Anodonta anatina) exposed to effluent from an industrial wastewater treatment facility. The aims of this work were to (1) assess biomarkers of general toxicity under sublethal exposure to an anthropogenic mixture of chemicals, represented by an arbitrary effluent, and (2) evaluate the potential of A. anatina as a bioindicator of pollution. Adult mussels (n = in total 32; 24 males and 8 females) were exposed (96 h) in the laboratory to a fixed dilution of effluent or to a control treatment of standardized freshwater. Metal concentrations were in general higher in the effluent, by an order of magnitude or more, compared to the control. Toxic unit estimates were used as proxies of chemical stress, and Cu, Ni, and Zn were identified as potential major contributors (Cu> Ni > Zn). Six transcriptional (cat, gst, hsp70, hsp90, mt, sod) and two biochemical (AChE, GST) biomarkers were analyzed in two tissues, gills, and digestive glands. Out of the 16 responses (eight biomarkers x two tissues), 14 effect sizes were small (within +/- 28 % of control) and differences non-significant (p > 0.05). Results did however show that (1) AChE activity increased by 40% in gills of exposed mussels compared to control, (2) hsp90 expression was 100% higher in exposed female gills compared to control, and (3) three marker signals (AChE in both tissues, and hsp70 in gills) differed between sexes, independent of treatment. Results highlight a need for further investigation of molecular biomarker variability and robustness in A. anatina.

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  • 21.
    Fant, Sanna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Uppföljning av hotade och sällsynta växtarter på och kring Mösseberg, Falköping2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mösseberg is a plateau mountain with an interesting nature and with a great variety of habitats and plant species. In this project the inventory has been performed in meadows, dry grasslands, gullies, scree slopes, wetlands and broad-leaved deciduous forests. This project aims to perform an inventory of 25 threatened and rare plant species in the municipality of Falköping, because of a sub target in the conservation program of Falköping. It is also a follow-up of an honours thesis performed in 2008. The project also surveyed how the plant species status had changed from previous years, what the reason to the changes are and what management actions that can improve the species’ status in the future. Of the 25 focal species that were included in the inventory of 2011, 22 species were found. The highest species richness was found in habitat D, Bestorpskärret, with large amounts of the five focal species that grow here. The results of the inventory in 2011 are both positive and negative. Most focal species were found, some species have increased in number and a small number was not found at all. Some species occur in very small numbers.

    According to Västergötlands Flora (Bertilsson et al 2002) the greatest threats today are overgrowth, eutrophication, pesticides, draining and acidification. Examples of these have been seen during the inventory, especially over-growth due to un-managed meadows and eutrophication. Also, some of the populations are quite small. There are a number of problems with small populations, like decreased adaptability and survivability.

    The future of threatened vascular plant species in Falköping vary from habitat to habitat. Some areas are prioritized and managed very well while others are threatened by overgrowth. If management recommendations are followed, the probability for a positive change is quite high for several species. But some plant populations are so small that the future of these is critical even if management recommendations are followed. In Falköping, the economy and the distribution of resources is limiting for conservation and management actions. Management actions would also be better if the team carrying out the work had more knowledge about the nature and specific needs of the species. 

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  • 22.
    Freij, Mathilda
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Restaureringens roll gällande Hornborgasjöns förmåga till kväve- och fosforretention2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today Lake Hornborga is one of Europe’s most important bird lakes but that has not always been the case. Before natural and cultural conservation interests were given credit the lake was drained in favor of agricultural purposes and left to overgrow. The lake was restored in the early 90’s which meant an increased area and higher water levels in the lake.

     

    The water quality of the lake has been regularly tested in both the inlets and the outlet. This report sought to use some of this data to examine the retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake, as well as the changes in retention due to the restauration. This was made by using the mean differences between the inlets and the outlet. The mean difference will indicate if less content is pouring out of the lake than in to the lake.

     

    The analysis shows that the mean differences in total nitrogen between the inlets and the outlet have increased after the restauration. No distinction can be shown in most of the tests regarding the mean differences in total phosphorus. In fact one of the tests shows that the mean differences in total phosphorus between the inlets and the outlet have significantly decreased. These results indicates that the restauration of Lake Hornborga have increased its ability to reduce contents of nitrogen but not phosphorus. However, more comprehensive studies with more accurate methods are needed to prove these results.

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    Restaureringens roll gällande Hornborgasjöns förmåga till kväve- och fosforretention
  • 23.
    Fäger, Lisa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    En analys av sambandet mellan artrikedom och ekosystemtjänster i Filsbäckskogen2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The function of ecosystem and their services is dependent on biodiversity. Nature conservation species includes species with high protection value, species that indicate areas with high natural values or species as in themselves is important for biodiversity. The municipality of Lidköping have the ambition to promote biodiversity and make more multifunctional areas. Urban forests play an important role for the purpose. Information about which ecosystemservices, qualities and species that exists today in the forests requires to take legitimate decisions about future management. The aim of the research is to map ecosystemservices in Filsbäckskogen and investigate if there is a statistical connection between presences of ecosystemservices within an area and number of species within the same area. A fieldinventory of ecosystemservices with a tool named ESTER, collection of speciesfinds, statistical analysis and work in GIS is all included in the methodology. In total there were 35 finds of nature conservation species and ten different species. The result shows that there is a positive correlation in eleven ecosystem services and for five of them the parameters are significantly different from zero. Four ecosystem services show negative correlation and one of them is significantly different from zero. Several biotope qualities can be found in the study area. High ecosystem service value can correlate with the presence of nature conservation species in areas because, like ecosystem services, they are dependent on the same structure in nature. The study has great development potential due to several sources of error. The work prepares the way for similar but larger and more developed studies in the future.

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  • 24.
    Gagic, Vesna
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bartomeus, Ignasio
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden / Departamento de Ecología Integrativa, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Sevilla, Spain.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Taylor, Astrid
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winqvist, Camilla
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fischer, Christina
    Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technische Universität München, Restoration Ecology, Germany.
    Slade, Eleanor M.
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, Biocentre, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Emmerson, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Medical Biology Centre, Belfast, UK.
    Potts, Simon G.
    School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, Reading University, Reading, UK.
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Department of Agroecology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Weisser, Wolfgang
    Terrestrial Ecology Research Group, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Center for Food and Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Freising, Germany.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indices2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1801, article id UNSP 20142620Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hagström, Moa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Fönsteruttag som verktyg i bevarandet av vätternrödingen (Salvelinus alpinus)2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vättern is the fifth largest lake in Europe and has a unique cold-water ecology, the lake sustains Europes most valuable stock of arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Back in the day  the arctic charr was heavily exploited with catches reaching over 70 tonnes on some years. Since the mid-20th century catches decreased until they reached 3 tonnes in 2009. Since  then, measures such as protected areas, minimum length requirements and limitations on recreational fishing has been taken to protect the arctic charr. The aim of this study is to decide if the age- and size structure of the arctic charr in Vättern has changed as well as  whether a maximum length requirement would be a possible measure to protect the  population of charr in Vättern. Large fich females produce proportionally more eggs of a better quality than smaller females, they have a longer spawning period and their offspring  has a higher survival rate. Protecting larger individuals could thus have a positive effect on  the entire population. By analyzing sample fishing data from the years 2005-2020 with  chi2-tests and unbalacend two-way anovas showed that the mean age int the sample had  increased while the average size per age had decreased. By using the SELECT-modell to  analyse selection we showed that selection over time is similar, but it varies between males and females. By comparing different possible harvest windows against the selection curves its possible to predict what window and mech size is most suitable.

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  • 26.
    Hardisty, Alex R.
    et al.
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Comp Sci & Informat, Queens Bldg,5 Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales, United Kingdom.
    Bacall, Finn
    Univ Manchester, Sch Comp Sci, Kilburn Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England, United Kingdom.
    Beard, Niall
    Univ Manchester, Sch Comp Sci, Kilburn Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England, United Kingdom.
    Balcázar-Vargas, Maria-Paula
    Univ Amsterdam, IBED, POB 94248, NL-1090 Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Balech, Bachir
    Natl Res Council CNR, Inst Biomembranes & Bioenerget IBBE, Via Amendola 165-A, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Barcza, Zoltán
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Dept Meteorol, Pazmany Setany 1-A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Bourlat, Sarah J.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Box 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    De Giovanni, Renato
    Ctr Referencia Informacao Ambiental, Ave Dr Romeu Tortima 388, BR-13084791 Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    de Jong, Yde
    Univ Amsterdam, IBED, POB 94248, NL-1090 Amsterdam, Netherlands / Univ Eastern Finland, SIB Labs, Joensuu Sci Pk,POB 111, Joensuu 80101, Finland.
    De Leo, Francesca
    Natl Res Council CNR, Inst Biomembranes & Bioenerget IBBE, Via Amendola 165-A, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Dobor, Laura
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Dept Meteorol, Pazmany Setany 1-A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Donvito, Giacinto
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Inst Nucl Phys, Via E Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy.
    Fellows, Donal
    Univ Manchester, Sch Comp Sci, Kilburn Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.
    Guerra, Antonio Fernandez
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Celsiusstr 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany / Jacobs Univ Bremen GmbH, Campus Ring 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Ferreira, Nuno
    Stichting EGI Eu, Sci Pk 140, NL-1098 Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Fetyukova, Yuliya
    Univ Eastern Finland, SIB Labs, Joensuu Sci Pk,POB 111, Joensuu 80101, Finland.
    Fosso, Bruno
    Natl Res Council CNR, Inst Biomembranes & Bioenerget IBBE, Via Amendola 165-A, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Giddy, Jonathan
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Comp Sci & Informat, Queens Bldg,5 Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales.
    Goble, Carole
    Univ Manchester, Sch Comp Sci, Kilburn Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.
    Güntsch, Anton
    Free Univ Berlin, Bot Garden & Bot Museum Berlin, Konigin Luise Str 6-8, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Haines, Robert
    Univ Manchester, IT Serv, Kilburn Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England, United Kingdom.
    Hernández Ernst, Vera
    Fraunhofer Inst Intelligent Anal & Informat Syst, D-53757 St Augustin, Germany.
    Hettling, Hannes
    Nat Biodivers Ctr, Postbus 9517, NL-2300 Leiden, Netherlands.
    Hidy, Dóra
    Szent Istvan Univ, MTASZIE Plant Ecol Res Grp, Pater Ku 1, H-2103 Godollo, Hungary.
    Horváth, Ferenc
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Ctr Ecol Res, Inst Ecol & Bot, Alkotmany U 2-4, H-2163 Vacratot, Hungary.
    Ittzés, Dóra
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Ctr Ecol Res, Inst Ecol & Bot, Alkotmany U 2-4, H-2163 Vacratot, Hungary.
    Ittzés, Péter
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Ctr Ecol Res, Inst Ecol & Bot, Alkotmany U 2-4, H-2163 Vacratot, Hungary.
    Jones, Andrew
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Comp Sci & Informat, Queens Bldg,5 Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales.
    Kottmann, Renzo
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Celsiusstr 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Kulawik, Robert
    Fraunhofer Inst Intelligent Anal & Informat Syst, D-53757 St Augustin, Germany.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr ArtDatabanken, Backlasavagen 10, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, POB 27, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Mathew, Cherian
    Free Univ Berlin, Bot Garden & Bot Museum Berlin, Konigin Luise Str 6-8, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Morrison, Norman
    Univ Manchester, Sch Comp Sci, Kilburn Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England, United Kingdom.
    Nenadic, Aleksandra
    Univ Manchester, Sch Comp Sci, Kilburn Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England, United Kingdom.
    Nieva de la Hidalga, Abraham
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Comp Sci & Informat, Queens Bldg,5 Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales, United Kingdom.
    Obst, Matthias
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Box 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oostermeijer, Gerard
    Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94248, 1090 Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Paymal, Elisabeth
    FRB, 195 Rue St Jacques, F-75005 Paris, France.
    Pesole, Graziano
    Institute of Biomembranes and Bioenergetics (IBBE), National Research Council (CNR), via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy / Department of Biosciences, Biotechnology and Biop‑ harmaceutics, University of Bari “A. Moro”, via Orabona, 1514, 70126 Bari, Italy.
    Pinto, Salvatore
    Stichting EGI (EGI.eu), Science Park 140, 1098 Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Poigné, Axel
    Fraunhofer Inst Intelligent Anal & Informat Syst, D-53757 St Augustin, Germany.
    Quevedo Fernandez, Francisco
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Comp Sci & Informat, Queens Bldg,5 Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales, United Kingdom.
    Santamaria, Monica
    Natl Res Council CNR, Inst Biomembranes & Bioenerget IBBE, Via Amendola 165-A, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Saarenmaa, Hannu
    SIB Labs, Joensuu Sci‑ ence Park, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland.
    Sipos, Gergely
    Stichting EGI Eu, Sci Pk 140, NL-1098 Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sylla, Karl-Heinz
    Fraunhofer Inst Intelligent Anal & Informat Syst, D-53757 St Augustin, Germany.
    Tähtinen, Marko
    Univ Helsinki, Finnish Museum Nat Hist, POB 17, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Vicario, Saverio
    Natl Res Council CNR, Inst Biomed Technol ITB, Via Amendola 122-D, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Aldo Vos, Rutger
    Univ Amsterdam, IBED, POB 94248, NL-1090 Amsterdam, Netherlands / Nat Biodivers Ctr, Postbus 9517, NL-2300 Leiden, Netherlands.
    Williams, Alan R.
    Univ Manchester, Sch Comp Sci, Kilburn Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England, United Kingdom.
    Yilmaz, Pelin
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Celsiusstr 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    BioVeL: a virtual laboratory for data analysis and modelling in biodiversity science and ecology2016In: BMC Ecology, E-ISSN 1472-6785, Vol. 16, article id 49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Making forecasts about biodiversity and giving support to policy relies increasingly on large collections of data held electronically, and on substantial computational capability and capacity to analyse, model, simulate and predict using such data. However, the physically distributed nature of data resources and of expertise in advanced analytical tools creates many challenges for the modern scientist. Across the wider biological sciences, presenting such capabilities on the Internet (as "Web services") and using scientific workflow systems to compose them for particular tasks is a practical way to carry out robust "in silico" science. However, use of this approach in biodiversity science and ecology has thus far been quite limited. Results: BioVeL is a virtual laboratory for data analysis and modelling in biodiversity science and ecology, freely accessible via the Internet. BioVeL includes functions for accessing and analysing data through curated Web services; for performing complex in silico analysis through exposure of R programs, workflows, and batch processing functions; for on- line collaboration through sharing of workflows and workflow runs; for experiment documentation through reproducibility and repeatability; and for computational support via seamless connections to supporting computing infrastructures. We developed and improved more than 60 Web services with significant potential in many different kinds of data analysis and modelling tasks. We composed reusable workflows using these Web services, also incorporating R programs. Deploying these tools into an easy-to-use and accessible 'virtual laboratory', free via the Internet, we applied the workflows in several diverse case studies. We opened the virtual laboratory for public use and through a programme of external engagement we actively encouraged scientists and third party application and tool developers to try out the services and contribute to the activity. Conclusions: Our work shows we can deliver an operational, scalable and flexible Internet-based virtual laboratory to meet new demands for data processing and analysis in biodiversity science and ecology. In particular, we have successfully integrated existing and popular tools and practices from different scientific disciplines to be used in biodiversity and ecological research.

  • 27.
    Hedlin, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Påverkan på stormusslors (Unionoida) miljö som kan motverka livskraftiga bestånd: En studie över redoxförhållanden och kantzoners sammansättning i fyra vattensystem i Västra Götalands län2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater mussels, who have a central role in aquatic ecosystems, are considered one of the most vulnerable and threatened freshwater organism groups. Sweden has nine species of large freshwater mussels, which of four are listed in the national Red List. Most studies and research have been focused on the freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) and its possible threats. Studies of more common species like the duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and swollen river mussel (Unio tumidus) in Västra Götaland district, indicates severe difficulties of recruitment and viable populations. The most vulnerable phase in the life of freshwater mussels is considered to be the juvenile phase, when they are embedded in the sediment.

    The aim of this study has been to measure the quality of sediments at 12 of the earlier studied sites in Västra Götaland district. Redox potentials, which is a master variable in aquatic ecosystems and control parts of the chemistry in sediments, have been measured to analyze a possible correlation to the poor recruitment. The structure of the riparian buffer zones of the mussel’s unique catchment areas, have also been analyzed. The buffer zones are closely linked to the sediment ecosystems and have a fundamental role in the function of the ecosystems of streams.

    Analysis of regression trees indicated the most impacting factor on the mussel density, to be the difference of the mean redox value between the sediment surface and the depth of five centimeters. The variable with most impact on the recruitment was the proportion of area between catchment and lake. A none-parametric test showed a positive correlation between the proportion of marshes in the riparian buffer zone and the recruitment of A. anatina. A negative correlation existed between the proportion of young forests in the buffer zone and the recruitment of U. tumidus.

    More extended studies of redox potentials than was possible in this thesis, could contribute with valuable information of the quality of juvenile habitat. Further studies of the freshwater mussels could facilitate the evaluation of viable populations.

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  • 28.
    Henriksson, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ålder vid reproduktion hos den allmänna dammusslan (Anodonta anatina)2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Molluscs (Mollusca) belong to one of the most threatened taxonomic groups in the world and mussels (Bivalvia) have been observed to drastically decrease. The reduced growth of the mussel population may depend on factors such as decrease of the host fishes, acidification, invasive species, pollution and siltation of the seabed. All species of large mussels (Unionoida) are sensitive to eutrophication and physical changes in their habitat and can thus be used as indicators of territories with high conservation value or as an indicator of the chemical quality of the water. For a mussel population to be viable it requires a mean the proportion of juveniles (rejuvenation) in the population between 10 to 20 percentages. In Västra Götaland country only half of the previously 33 studied populations show satisfactory rejuvenation. When a mussel is considered to be a juvenile or adult is contentious. Today there are few studies on age at maturity of unionid mussels. Most often estimated values or knowledge of other species age at maturity is used. This work aims to investigate the growth of Anodonta anatina. Growth was measured as the differences in the distance between growth rings on each of the mussel individuals shell. With the annual growth rings an exponential growth rate was calculated that indicated the year in which most of the individuals slowed their growth. The breaking point was found using Von Bertalanffys growth model which indicates growths over time. Knowing the age at which most mussels slows their growth can give us a conclusion of possible age when sexual maturity occurs. The conclusion can be made upon the knowing that an individual starts to allocate the amount of energy available to more features than growth, where reproduction is the most likely. It is important to know the age at which spices reaches sexual maturity due to conservation purposes. A clam is considered very sensitive in its juvenile years. The result in this study shows that growth is slowing at the age of 4 years for one of the studied lakes. In the other two studied, the growth slowed before the mussel attained the age of 3 years. The age at which growth slows differ between lakes and may due to that natural conditions in lakes are various favorable.        

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  • 29.
    Hersi, Maryama
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Analys av förändringar i växtplanktonarters sammansättning i Vänern2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Vänern, which is Sweden's largest lake, has become less nutrient-rich since the environmental monitoring in 1973. Phytoplankton are the first organisms to be affected by environmental changes due to its large populations and short generation times. This study examines the trends that can be seen in the species-composition of phytoplankton and water chemistry in Vänern during the period 1992–2020, and what this may lead to. In a study from 2006, it showed that phytoplankton growth had a greater correlation to the nutrients that can be found in their environment rather than water temperature. The results of the analysis in this report showed that the biomass of phytoplankton increased while the nutrients in the lake decreased during the time period. The results also described, with a rank abundance curve, the increase of toxic algae in Vänern, where Woronichia Naegeliana was highly ranked among all the phytoplankton that could be found in the lake. Since cyanobacteria and toxic algae benefit from higher water temperatures, leading to a larger biomass for these organisms, it can be concluded that there might be a steady rise of these algae in Vänern in the future.

  • 30.
    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald
    et al.
    Dept. Evolutionary Ecology, Kiel, Germany.
    Large, Scott
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Möllmann, Christian
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Müller-Karulis, Bärbel
    Stockholm University, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neuenfeldt, Stefan
    Technical University of Denmark, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Section for Marine Ecology and Oceanography, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Schmidt, Jörn
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Department of Economics, Kiel, Germany.
    Sguotti, Camilla
    Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Tomczak, Maciej
    Stockholm University, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voss, Rudi
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Department of Economics, Kiel, Germany.
    Hamrén, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Report of the Workshop on DEveloping Integrated AdviCE for Baltic Sea ecosystem-based fisheries management (WKDEICE): 18-21 April 2016 Helsinki, Finland2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first ICES Workshop on DEveloping Integrated AdviCE for Baltic Sea ecosystem-based fisheries management (WKDEICE) had the aim to start identifying and devel-oping ways to include environmental and economic considerations into ICES advice on Baltic Sea fish stocks. The WKDEICE meeting was held in Helsinki, Finland, on18–21 April 2016, with 12 participants from three countries and was chaired by Chris-tian Möllmann (Germany), Rudi Voss (Germany), and Maciej T. Tomczak (Sweden). Focusing on Eastern Baltic cod (subdivisions 25-32), WKDEICE addressed five main topics:

    1)developing a strategy for integrating environmental and economic infor-mation in fish stock advice;

    2)conducting an integrated environmental assessment;

    3)conducting a socio-economic assessment;

    4)conducting short-term projections informed by environmental and economic conditions; and

    5)communicating the approach and the results.

    Eastern Baltic cod has been selected as a case study. The exercise will likely be ex-tended to the baltic clupeid stocks of herring and sprat.

    A central point of the meeting was to discuss and design a concept of operationalized Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA) including short-term predictions, to be used in advice on the main Baltic Sea fish stocks. The group developed an operational strategy, and started to quantify potentially useful environmental indicators, focusing on hydrographic conditions influencing cod recruitment. Economic short-term fore-casts were established to include the human dimension, and to provide additional quantitative information on fishing options. The suggested integrated advice frame-work will be further developed using simulation modelling during a next meeting in 2017. This meeting will be coordinated with the ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB) and the Baltic Fisheries Assess-ment Working Group (WGBFAS) to test concepts, apply Management Strategy Eval-uation (MSE) models, and have direct feedback for relevant ICES bodies. 

  • 31.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Coupled dynamics of lemmings and long-distance migratory birds2004In: Biological Resources and Migration / [ed] Dietrich Werner, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2004, p. 219-228Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Holmgren, Noél
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Aps, Robert
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Kuikka, Sakari
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A Concept of Bayesian Regulation in Fisheries Management2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e111614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stochastic variability of biological processes and uncertainty of stock properties compel fisheries managers to look for tools to improve control over the stock. Inspired by animals exploiting hidden prey, we have taken a biomimetic approach combining catch and effort in a concept of Bayesian regulation (BR). The BR provides a real-time Bayesian stock estimate, and can operate without separate stock assessment. We compared the performance of BR with catch-only regulation (CR), alternatively operating with N-target (the stock size giving maximum sustainable yield, MSY) and F-target (the fishing mortality giving MSY) on a stock model of Baltic Sea herring. N-targeted BR gave 3% higher yields than F-targeted BR and CR, and 7% higher yields than N-targeted CR. The BRs reduced coefficient of variance (CV) in fishing mortality compared to CR by 99.6% (from 25.2 to 0.1) when operated with F-target, and by about 80% (from 158.4 to 68.4/70.1 depending on how the prior is set) in stock size when operated with N-target. Even though F-targeted fishery reduced CV in pre-harvest stock size by 19–22%, it increased the dominant period length of population fluctuations from 20 to 60–80 years. In contrast, N-targeted BR made the periodic variation more similar to white noise. We discuss the conditions when BRs can be suitable tools to achieve sustainable yields while minimizing undesirable fluctuations in stock size or fishing effort.

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  • 33.
    Howell, Daniel
    et al.
    Institute of Marine Research, Nordnes, Norway.
    Kempf, Alexander
    Thuenen Institute of Sea Fisheries, Hamburg, Germany.
    Bauer, Barbara
    Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belgrano, Andrea
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Thorpe, Robert
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Suffolk, United Kingdom.
    Vinther, Morten
    DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Bartolino, Valerio
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pope, John
    NRC (Europe) Ltd.
    Lehuta, Sigrid
    French Institute of Research for the Exploitation of the sea (Ifremer), Nantes, France.
    Gaichas, Sarah
    NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, USA.
    Lucey, Sean
    Dept. of Commerce/NOAA/NMFS Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, USA.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Spence, Michael
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Villanueva, Ching
    French Institute of Research for the Exploitation of the Sea (Ifremer), Nantes, France.
    Poos, Jan Jaap
    Wageningen Marine Research, Ijmuiden, the Netherlands.
    Kulatska, Nataliia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Report of the Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM), 10-14 October 2016, Reykjavik, Iceland2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM) met in Reykjavik, Iceland, 10–14 October 2016. In this tenth report of the pan-regional WGSAM, work focused on four (B, E, F, G) of the multi-annual ToRs.

    Based on their knowledge, participants provided an updated inventory of progress of multispecies models in ICES Ecoregions (ToR A), noting those regions where no information was available. Reporting on ToR A was scarce compared to previous years, partly because recent relevant work was reported against ToR E and G instead.

    A Key Run (ToR B) of the Baltic Sea Ecopath with Ecosim (NS-EwE) model was presented and reviewed in detail by 4 WGSAM experts, and approved by the group following implementation of changes agreed in plenary at the meeting and verified by the 4 experts in January. The Key Run is documented in a detail in Annex 3, with key outputs summarised in Section 3 and data files made available on the WGSAM webpage). WGSAM also conducted an informal review of the LeMans modelling framework for potential application in the Irish Sea, and recommended adjustments to the framework for further review. Because the LeMans framework is a within-model ensemble addressing parameter uncertainty, this review also related to ToR D.

    Multispecies model skill assessment (ToR C) and multi-model ensemble methods (ToR D) were not emphasized this year. However, plans were made to coordinate future work for ToR C, and one ToR D presentation reviewed the utility of a dynamic multimodel ensemble for making inferences about the real world. This method can infer results for individual components of aggregate groups; the ensemble model uses correlations in other ecosystem models to determine what the models that group species would have predicted for individual species. A proof of concept for the North Sea was presented.

    Ecosystem indicator analyses (ToR E) were presented from a wide range of ecosystems. A theoretical analysis comparing results from the Celtic and North Seas with 4 “idealized” fleets was presented to analyse the performance of selected indicators in a multispecies mixed fishery. Four indicators including the Large Fish Indicator (LFI) were examined, and shown to have mixed utility in measuring the impact of different fleet sectors, with the best indicator varying by ecosystem. A multivariate analysis of ecosystem responses to multiple drivers was conducted for four US ecosystems using gradient forest method to identify potential ecosystem thresholds. Other multivariate methods were reviewed that draw on the strengths of multiple indicators for the Northeast US shelf ecosystem. A food web based biodiversity indicator was presented with an application for the Baltic Sea. This could be extended to any ecosystem with an EwE or similar model. A community status indicator relating a species-area relationship to the LFI and mean trophic levels was presented for the Swedish west coast.

    Impacts of apex predators on fisheries (ToR F) were examined with one presentation and a group discussion planning further work. A multipecies production model was parameterized to simulate interactions between three fish guilds, fisheries, and one marine mammal guild, concluding that fish reference points and trajectories change with marine mammal interactions. Fishery management was also important to reduce vessel interactions with and ensure prey supply to marine mammals. 4 | ICES WGSAM REPORT 2016 Exploration of practical advice for fisheries management incorporating multispecies, mixed fishery, and environmental factors (ToR G) was evident across regions. Two approaches for incorporating species, fleet, environmental, and other interactions are in progress in the Northeast US. One presentation outlined the New England approach, and another outlined the Mid-Atlantic approach. In New England, a management strategy evaluation is in progress to evaluate harvest control rules that consider herring's role as forage in the ecosystem. The modelling framework and stakeholder workshops were discussed. In the Baltic, a Nash Equilibrium optimisation approach incorporating environmental factors was presented for the cod-herring-sprat fishery to attempt to identify a solution that would give good yield for all species simultaneously. In the North Sea a theoretical analysis using 4 “idealized” fleets was presented to analyse the potential implications of "Pretty Good Yield" ranges around MSY. The model examined the likelihood of the fishery being precautionary for the different species given the uncertainties involved, and concluded that the upper ends of MSY ranges would not guarantee precautionarity.

  • 34.
    Hupało, Kamil
    et al.
    Aquatische Ökosystemforschung, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Majaneva, Markus
    Department of Natural History, NTNU University Museum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway / Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim, Norway.
    Czachur, Molly Victoria
    Evolutionary Genomics Group, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Sire, Lucas
    Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, UMR 7261, CNRS Université de Tours, France.
    Marquina, Daniel
    Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lijtmaer, Darío A.
    Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” (MACN-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Ivanov, Vladislav
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Čiampor, Fedor, Jr
    Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Čiamporová-Zaťovičová, Zuzana
    Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Mendes, Izabela S.
    Departamento de Genética, Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil / Conservation Genetics Lab, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, PUC Minas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Desiderato, Andrea
    Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil / Department of Functional Ecology, Alfred Wegener Institute & Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Topstad, Lasse
    Department of Natural History, NTNU University Museum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway / Tromsø Museum, University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway.
    Meganck, Kenny
    Barcoding Facility for Organisms and Tissues of Policy Concern (BopCo), Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium.
    Hariz Z. A., Danial
    Centre for Global Sustainability Studies (CGSS), Hamzah Sendut Library, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
    Kjærstad, Gaute
    Department of Natural History, NTNU University Museum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Lin, Xiao‐Long
    College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
    Price, Benjamin
    Natural History Museum, London, UK.
    Stevens, Mark
    Biological and Earth Sciences, South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia / School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Ekrem, Torbjørn
    Department of Natural History, NTNU University Museum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Deiner, Kristy
    Natural History Museum, London, UK / Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    An urban Blitz with a twist: rapid biodiversity assessment using aquatic environmental DNA2021In: Environmental DNA, ISSN 2637-4943, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 200-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As global biodiversity declines, there is an increasing need to create an educated and engaged society. Having people of all ages participate in measuring biodiversity where they live helps to create awareness. Recently, the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) for biodiversity surveys has gained momentum. Here, we explore whether sampling eDNA and sequencing it can be used as a means of rapidly surveying urban biodiversity for educational purposes. We sampled 2 × 1 L of water from each of 15 locations in the city of Trondheim, Norway, including a variety of freshwater, marine, and brackish habitats. DNA was extracted, amplified in triplicate targeting the barcoding fragment of COI gene, and sequenced. The obtained data were analyzed on the novel mBRAVE platform, an online open‐access software and computing resource. The water samples were collected in 2 days by two people, and the laboratory analysis was completed in 5 days by one person. Overall, we detected the presence of 506 BINs identified as belonging to 435 taxa, representing at least 265 putative species. On average, only 5.4% of the taxa were shared among six replicates per site. Based on the observed diversity, three distinct clusters were detected and related to the geographic distribution of sites. There were some taxa shared between the habitats, with a substantial presence of terrestrial biota. Here we propose a new form of BioBlitz, where with noninvasive sampling effort combined with swift processing and straightforward online analyses, hundreds of species can be detected. Thus, using eDNA analysis of water is useful for rapid biodiversity surveys and valuable for educational purposes. We show that rapid eDNA surveys, combined with openly available services and software, can be used as an educational tool to raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity.

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  • 35.
    Händel, Nike
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Åldersbestämning av björk i södra Sverige: Hur kan ålder hos björk uppskattas med hjälp av omkrets, barksprickedjup, sockelutveckling och epifytflora2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity is severely threatened by human activities. Areas that house high natural values are fragmented and modern forestry means that the landscape becomes increasingly homogeneous and more species become red-listed. Aging and dying trees have become less common. Which not only affects the trees themselves but also all the species that are wholly or partly dependent on them. Birch, which is Sweden's most common deciduous tree, has a large number of species depending on them. Several insects, fungi, mosses, lichens, birds and mammals are all dependent on the birch at some stage of the tree's life cycle. Therefore, it is interesting to preserve the growing and aging birches. The purpose of this study was to investigate how age in birch can be estimated using perimeter, bark crack depth, plinth development and epiphytic flora. Birches from four places in Skaraborg were inventoried and assessed. The results of this study show that an individual parameter has difficulty predicting the age of birches in southern Sweden alone. The parameters circumference and bark crack depth can individually partly show a connection to the age of the birch, while plinth development or epiphytic flora cannot. Analyzes show that together in a regression analysis, circumference, bark crack depth and plinth development can explain the birch's age to a greater extent. The study also shows the importance of finding more parameters that can be valuable in predicting the age of birch, as growth drilling of birches has proved difficult.

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  • 36.
    Höglind, Linnéa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Grönfläckig padda - Tillväxt och metamorfos hos yngel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work a hypothesis was tested that says tadpoles of green toad (Bufo viridis) may secrete a certain chemical substance in the water to inhibit the growth of other tadpoles. The hypothesis was based on an Australian study by Crossland & Shine (2012). They did a study on tadpoles of cane toads (Rhinella marina) where they discovered that the tadpoles produce a waterborne chemical in the water that inhibits growth. The idea of using a group with only siblings and a group of tadpoles from several females came from the knowledge that there is something called ”kin recognition" , which tests have shown that there are species with pheromones that can recognize closely related individuals ( Devall et al. 1986). By comparing the two groups of tadpoles where one group lived with only their siblings and the other group lived with tadpoles from all the females in the experiment, we were able to compare the growth in length and weight between the groups. After ten weeks, statistical analyses were done on the results. Before the tadpoles had gone through metamorphosis the tadpole’s length was measured and after metamorphosis the tadpoles instead was weighed. The results showed that there were differences in length but no significant differences in weight between the groups. The group with only siblings showed better growth in length and that could be because they can afford to spend energy on becoming longer and thus have advantage during metamorphosis. The group that lived with tadpoles from all the females perhaps adds more energy to grow in weight and thus have an advantage during metamorphosis.

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    Grönfläckig padda
  • 37.
    Iinatti, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    En modell som förutsäger naturlig skogstyp utifrån geografik information2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is covered by 60 % forestland, and most of it is used in forestry. There is a debate about the forestry methods in Sweden, where clear felling is the most commonly used practice, and alternate methods are being developed. Some of these methods, for example the Lübeck model, is focused on producing the best suited forest for a site, based on the environmental conditions. That forest would probably be of the natural forest type of that location.

    With this study a model is developed to predict natural forest types based on easily available GIS-data and without using remote sensing. Remote sensing is not considered to be useful in this particular case, since only the already existing vegetation can be analyzed using that method. Existing forests are likely to have been planted, and does not necessarily correspond to the type of vegetation that would develop, were there no human impact.

    The study was conducted by using forested areas that could be assumed to be natural (within nature reserves and other protected areas) in Askersund municipality, Örebro county, Sweden. An additive Generalized Linear Model (GZLM) has been used, and the prediction is based on soil, bedrock, elevation data and ground water data.

    The results from the first test, based on the training points on which the model was built, and the validation based on new, independent points from different forest areas, differ. The first test indicate that prediction works well for several of the forest types, while the validation gives the opposite results and shows that the prediction does not actually work.

    If the model was further developed and would become a working tool, it could make forest management easier and more effective, for example when continuous forestry is carried out. Field work could be concentrated to areas where the forest has been predicted to be of desired type.

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    En modell som förutsäger naturlig skogstyp utifrån geografisk information
  • 38.
    Jacob, Ute
    et al.
    Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Population Ecology Unit, Institute for Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Sofia
    EnviroPlanning AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Brey, Thomas
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Eklöf, Anna
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mintenbeck, Katja
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Möllmann, Christian
    Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Morissette, Lyne
    M-Expertise Marine, Sainte-Luce, Canada.
    Rau, Andrea
    Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute for Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Petchey, Owen
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services in a complex marine ecosystem2015In: Aquatic Functional Biodiversity: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective / [ed] Andrea Belgrano, Guy Woodward, Ute Jacob, London: Academic Press, 2015, p. 189-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Jacob, Ute
    et al.
    University of Hamburg, Inst Hydrobiol & Fisheries Sci, Hamburg, Germany.
    Thierry, Aaron
    University of Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England / Microsoft Res, Cambridge, England.
    Brose, Ulrich
    Georg-August University Göttingen JF Blumenbach Inst Zool & Anthropol, Syst Conservat Biol Grp, Göttingen, Germany.
    Arntz, Wofe E.
    Alfred Wegener Inst Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Berg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Brey, Thomas
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research.
    Fetzer, Ingo
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Dept Environm Microbiol, Leipzig, Germany.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Mintenbeck, Katja
    Alfred Wegener Inst Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Möllmann, Christian
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Hydrobiol & Fisheries Sci, Hamburg, Germany.
    Petchey, Owen
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Riede, Jens O.
    Univ Gottingen, JF Blumenbach Inst Zool & Anthropol, Syst Conservat Biol Grp, Gottingen, Germany.
    Dunne, Jennifer A.
    Santa Fe Inst, Santa Fe, NM 87501 USA / Pacific Ecoinformat & Computat Ecol Lab, Berkeley, CA USA.
    The Role of Body Size in Complex Food Webs: A Cold Case2011In: Advances in Ecological Research, ISSN 0065-2504, E-ISSN 2163-582X, Vol. 45, p. 181-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced habitat destruction, overexploitation, introduction of alien species and climate change are causing species to go extinct at unprecedented rates, from local to global scales. There are growing concerns that these kinds of disturbances alter important functions of ecosystems. Our current understanding is that key parameters of a community (e.g. its functional diversity, species composition, and presence/absence of vulnerable species) reflect an ecological network’s ability to resist or rebound from change in response to pressures and disturbances, such as species loss. If the food web structure is relatively simple, we can analyse the roles of different species interactions in determining how environmental impacts translate into species loss. However, when ecosystems harbour species-rich communities, as is the case in most natural systems, then the complex network of ecological interactions makes it a far more challenging task to perceive how species’ functional roles influence the consequences of species loss. One approach to deal with such complexity is to focus on the functional traits of species in order to identify their respective roles: for instance, large species seem to be more susceptible to extinction than smaller species. Here, we introduce and analyse the marine food web from the high Antarctic Weddell Sea Shelf to illustrate the role of species traits in relation to network robustness of this complex food web. Our approach was threefold: firstly, we applied a new classification system to all species, grouping them by traits other than body size; secondly, we tested the relationship between body size and food web parameters within and across these groups and finally, we calculated food web robustness. We addressed questions regarding (i) patterns of species functional/trophic roles, (ii) relationships between species functional roles and body size and (iii) the role of species body size in terms of network robustness. Our results show that when analyzing relationships between trophic structure, body size and network structure, the diversity of predatory species types needs to be considered in future studies.

  • 40.
    Johansson, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Inplantering av fisk och dess påverkan på biologisk mångfald i Hökensåsområdet: En jämförelse av invertebratfauna mellan sjöar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pisciculture has been shown to affect biodiversity negatively, e.g. owing to increased nutrient loading and modified genetic set by breeding at other qualities then what is advantageous in in the wild. The purpose of this study was to investigate which impact stocked fish has on the invertebrate fauna and thereby biodiversity. The study is performed at Hökensås area in Västra Götalands län, where there are about 20 lakes included in a sport fishing business. There are seven lakes included in the study; four which yearly became stocked with fish and three non-stocked. By bottom fauna samples invertebrate fauna has been collected, identified, counted and measured. No significant differences have been detected between the lake groups considering diversity index, number of taxa or size of taxa. Nor has significant correlation between amount stocked fish/year- and (a) diversity index, (b) number of taxa been shown. A possible factor that may have affected the result is, from a statistical point of view, the low number of lakes, the varying qualities of the lakes and that the collecting of invertebrate fauna was performed too early in the year than optimal. Strong correlation between number of taxa and grade of acidification was detected.

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    Inplantering av fisk och dess påverkan på biologisk mångfald i Hökensåsområdet
  • 41.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Robustness of life histories to environmental variability in complex versus simple life cycles2021In: Theoretical Ecology, ISSN 1874-1738, E-ISSN 1874-1746, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 335-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most animal species have a complex life cycle (CLC) with metamorphosis. It is thus of interest to examine possible benefits of such life histories. The prevailing view is that CLC represents an adaptation for genetic decoupling of juvenile and adult traits, thereby allowing life stages to respond independently to different selective forces. Here I propose an additional potential advantage of CLCs that is, decreased variance in population growth rate due to habitat separation of life stages. Habitat separation of pre- and post-metamorphic stages means that the stages will experience different regimes of environmental variability. This is in contrast to species with simple life cycles (SLC) whose life stages often occupy one and the same habitat. The correlation in the fluctuations of the vital rates of life stages is therefore likely to be weaker in complex than in simple life cycles. By a theoretical framework using an analytical approach, I have (1) derived the relative advantage, in terms of long-run growth rate, of CLC over SLC phenotypes for a broad spectrum of life histories, and (2) explored which life histories that benefit most by a CLC, that is avoid correlation in vital rates between life stages. The direction and magnitude of gain depended on life history type and fluctuating vital rate. One implication of our study is that species with CLCs should, on average, be more robust to increased environmental variability caused by global warming than species with SLCs.

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  • 42.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Berg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Analys av infrastruktur för biologisk mångfald i Biosfärområde Vänerskärgården med Kinnekulle: ett planeringsunderlag för bevarande av biologisk mångfald och prioritering utifrån ett landskapsperspektiv2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar och redovisar ett kunskapsunderlag som tagits fram för arbete med blå och grön infrastruktur i Mariestad, Götene och Lidköping kommun. Utifrån underlaget kan kommunerna prioritera markanvändning så att man bibehåller och utvecklar en grön infrastruktur som bidrar till att uppfylla miljökvalitetsmålet Ett rikt växt-och djurliv1. Andra miljökvalitetsmål som också berörs är Myllrande våtmarker, Levande skogar, Ett rikt odlingslandskap och God bebyggd miljö.

    Kunskapsunderlaget har tagits fram med en ny metod som utvecklats parallellt under projektets gång. Metoden som använts är Biotope Biodiversity Capacity Indicator (BBCI). En indikator som uppskattar ett biotoplandskaps förmåga att hålla biologisk mångfald. Metodutveckling har finansierats av Naturvårdsverkets miljöforskningsanslag och framtagning av det specifika underlaget och analyserna i rapporten har finansierats av ett LONA projekt.

    BBCI bygger på ekologisk kunskap om hur landskapets struktur påverkar arters överlevnadoch biologisk mångfald. Med hjälp av indikatorn kan man undersöka om i) landskapet som helhet är hållbart ur ett biologisk mångfaldsperspektiv, ii) hur många och vilka patcher som inte är hållbara i sig själva och iii) hur känsligt landskapets biologiskamångfald är för påverkan på specifika patcher.

    Sammantaget har BBCI beräknats för fem biotoplandskap, som valts i dialog med de tre kommunerna. De analyserade biotoperna är gräsmark, äldre barrskog, ädellövskog, våtmarker samt fågelskär. Som underlag och indata till biotoplandskapens struktur användes marktäckedata från fler olika databaser. I rapporten redovisas biotoplandskapens långsiktiga hållbarhet för biologisk mångfald och känslighet för tidsperspektivet 100 år. BBCI analyser presenteras dels i ett regionalt perspektiv och dels i ett kommunalt perspektiv.

    1 Miljökvalitetsmålen beskriver det tillstånd i den svenska miljön som ska nås. Det finns 16 miljökvalitetsmål som alla berör viktiga miljöområden. Arbetet med att nå miljökvalitetsmålen och generationsmålet utgör grunden för den nationella miljöpolitiken.

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  • 43.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Institutionen för Biovetenskap, Högskolan i Skövde.
    Berg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Matematiska institutionen vid Linköpings Universitet.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Landskapets förmåga att hålla biologisk mångfald: – en indikator för biologisk mångfald och ett planeringsverktyg för prioritering av markanvändning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes a new tool, developed to facilitate the planning of green infrastruc-ture at the landscape level, and provides via case studies examples of how the tool can be used. The project has been a collaboration with expertise in theoretical ecology, ecology, biodiversity informatics and applied mathematics.

    The research project has developed a model for estimating a landscape’s ability to maintain biodiversity in its various biotopes (Biotope Biodiversity Capacity Indicator, BBCI). A theoretical framework based on ecological knowledge has been developed as a basis for the model.

    The purpose of the BBCI is to be a planning tool to:

    • strengthen landscape biodiversity,
    • improve the conditions for species to use the entire landscape and
    • create better conditions for consideration of biological diversity in connection with societal development.

    To test and describe the usefulness of the tools, four case studies with different focuses have been conducted:

    1. Analysis of the fragmentation in a coniferous forest landscape that is managed with special consideration for nature in Västernorrland County.
    2. Analysis of valuable coniferous forest cores and their capacity for biological diversity within Västra Götaland County, with highlights on the importance of cross-municipal collaboration.
    3. Analysis of potential target conflicts between two biotopes, deciduous forest and open land with trees worthy of protection in Valle.
    4. Analysis of capacity for biodiversity in older deciduous trees in a mixed urban and countryside landscape, Mjölby municipality.

    Parallel to the development of BBCI, a close dialogue and collaboration has taken place with stakeholders and end users. The broad dialogue has resulted in an effective exchange of knowledge.

    The report concludes by describing challenges and development potential of the tool, both in terms of pedagogy and technology as well as how the model can further developed with additional functions.

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  • 44.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Bertilsson, Ann
    Örnborg Kyrkander Biologi och Miljö AB.
    Ökad biologisk mångfald och renare vatten med livskraftiga stormusselbestånd i Göta älvs vattensystem: Dagens situation och åtgärder för att minska vattenkraftens negativa påverkan2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Göta älv är Sveriges största vattendrag. Älven används av många olika intressen. Människan utnyttjande av älven påverkar dock vattenekosystemen negativt. Sötvattenslevande stormusslor har drabbats hårt av människans exploatering av vattendrag och mark kring vattendrag. De är betydelsefulla organismer som tillhandahåller flera ekosystemtjänster.

    Projektets första mål har varit att samla in kunskap om alla de stora sötvattensmusselarternas förekomster i Göta älvs vattensystem (biflöden) från Vänern till havet. Det finns stora kunskapsluckor över musslornas förekomster i Sverige, särskilt de mer vanligt förekommande arterna. Projektets andra mål har varit att samla in miljödata och analysera vilka eventuella miljöproblem som påverkar musselförekomsterna i de olika delarna av vattensystemet. Utifrån resultaten har vi diskuterat olika åtgärder och prioriteringar i generella drag och även kort för respektive biflödessystem.

    Resultatet visar att musselförekomsterna är få och svaga. Musslor har påträffats i knappt en tredjedel av de undersökta 201 lokalerna. Musslor har bara påträffats i 10 av de 25 undersökta biflödessystemen. Positivt är dock att fynd har gjorts av alla de fem arterna allmän dammussla, större dammussla, flat dammussla, spetsig målarmussla och flodpärlmussla. Föryngring har också förekommit någonstans i systemet av dessa arter. Alltså har vi möjlighet att handla!

    Projektet har finasierats av Naturskyddsföreningen och Göta älvs vattenvårdsförbund.

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    Musslor i Göta älv
  • 45.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Bertilsson, Ann
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Rydgård, Mats
    Water Protection Department, County Administrative Board of Västra Götaland, Mariestad, Sweden.
    Spatial distribution and age structure of the freshwater unionid mussels Anodonta anatina and Unio tumidus: Implications for environmental monitoring2013In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 711, no 1, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys of unionid populations have been incorporated into the Swedish national environmental monitoring program. Nevertheless there is still lack of knowledge of important aspects of the biology of many unionid species. There may also be differences between species. This work compares the spatial distribution of two unionid species, Anodonta anatina and Unio tumidus, at four sites in Sweden. Samples were taken at transects along the shoreline at different water depths on the surface bed and in the sediments. Individual mussel ages were determined. Our results indicated that younger mussel individuals do not show differences in horizontal spatial distribution compared to older mussel individuals. However, they showed a preference to be burrowed in the sediment compared to older individuals that were predominantly found at the sediment surface. We also found a large difference in burrowing frequency between species with a higher frequency of burrowed adult individuals of A. anatina than U. tumidus. This result may be due to the timing of our field survey that coincided with the period of glochidia release for U. tumidus. We can conclude that a monitoring program for freshwater mussel populations needs to be carefully planned in time. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  • 46.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    The Rockefeller University, New York, U.S.A.
    Ebenman, Bo
    Department of Biology, IFM Linköping University, Sweden.
    Are Certain Life Histories Particularly Prone to Local Extinction?2001In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 209, no 4, p. 455-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using stochastic simulations and elasticity analysis, we show that there are inherent di!erencesin the risk of extinction between life histories with di!erent demographies. Which life history isthe most vulnerable depends on which vital rate varies. When juvenile survival variessemelparous organisms with delayed reproduction are the most vulnerable ones, while avarying developmental rate puts a greater threat to semelparous organisms with rapiddevelopment. Iteroparous organisms are the most vulnerable ones when adult survival varies.Generally, we do not expect to observe organisms in nature having variation in vital rates thatproduce a high risk of extinction. Given the results here we therefore predict that iteroparousorganisms should show low variation in adult survival. Moreover, we predict that semelparousorganisms should show low variation in juvenile survival and low variation in developmentalrate. The e!ect of temporal correlation on extinction risk is most pronounced in organismswith semelparous life histories.

  • 47.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Toräng, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Utvärdering av Hornborgasjöns restaurering: måluppfyllelse och effekter på biologisk mångfald med fokus på vegetation och fågelfauna2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hornborgasjön räknas idag som en av Sveriges rikaste fågelsjöar och är internationellt utpekad som en av Sveriges värdefullaste våtmarker. Sjön har stor betydelse som både rast- och häckplats för en mängd fågelarter. Området är också av stort intresse för friluftslivet och som ett levande kulturlandskap. Under de senaste 150 åren har Hornborgasjön genomgått stora förändringar. En serie av sjösänkningar under 1800 och 1900-talen ledde till kraftig igenväxning och följdes av ett storskaligt restaureringsprojekt i senare tid. Syftet med Hornborgasjöns restaurering var att säkerställa Hornborgasjöns framtid som fågelsjö. Restaureringen är ett av Sveriges största naturvårdsprojekt. I denna rapport har vi utvärderat hur Hornborgasjöns restaurering påverkat vegetation och fågelfauna. Syftet var att analysera om och till vilken grad de biologiska målen med restaureringen uppnåtts.För att utvärdera måluppfyllelsen har vi i första hand jämfört olika naturtypers utbredning mellan åren 1905 och 2010 samt förändringar i fågelfaunan under flera tidsperioder. Analyser av vegetationskartor visar att vass- och buskområden kraftigt reducerats och att en stor öppen vattenspegel och omgivande mader återskapats. Våtmarksfåglarnas numerär har generellt sett återhämtat sig från igenväxningsperioden och är för vissa arter till och med större än vid förra sekelskiftet. För vissa naturtyper och fågelarter, som till exempel vassområden och häckande vadare, är dagens situation dock inte i linje med målen. Det står ändå klart att det övergripande målet och många av de mer specifika delmålen har uppfyllts så att Hornborgasjön idag är en levande våtmark med stort antal häckande och rastande fågelarter.I analyser av fågeldata från senare tid finns indikationer på negativa trender som man behöver vara observant på för att för framtiden säkra en biologiskt rik Hornborgasjö. En utmaning för denna utvärdering har dock varit bristen på högkvalitativa och jämförbara data att basera analyserna på. Vi belyser därför vikten av att ha ett fungerande övervakningssystem som kontinuerligt följer upp statusen i ekosystemet.

  • 48.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköping University, Linköpings Universitet.
    Approximations of population growth in a noisy environment: on the dichotomy of non-age and age structure2019In: Theoretical Ecology, ISSN 1874-1738, E-ISSN 1874-1746, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 49.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Conditions for Eltonian Pyramids in Lotka-Volterra Food Chains2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 10912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ecological communities consumers (excluding parasites and parasitoids) are in general larger and less numerous than their resource. This results in a well-known observation known as 'Eltonian pyramids' or the ` pyramid of numbers', and metabolic arguments suggest that this pattern is independent of the number of trophic levels in a system. At the same time, Lotka-Volterra (LV) consumer-resource models are a frequently used tool to study many questions in community ecology, but their capacity to produce Eltonian pyramids has not been formally analysed. Here, I address this knowledge gap by investigating if and when LV food chain models give rise to Eltonian pyramids. I show that Eltonian pyramids are difficult to reproduce without density-dependent mortality in the consumers, unless biologically plausible relationships between mortality rate and interaction strength are taken into account.

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  • 50.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Metabolic theory predicts animal self-thinning2017In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 645-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) predicts observed patterns in ecology based on metabolic rates of individuals. The theory is influential but also criticized for a lack of firm empirical evidence confirming MTE's quantitative predictions of processes, e.g. outcome of competition, at population or community level.
    2. Self-thinning is a well-known population level phenomenon among plants, but a much less studied phenomenon in animal populations and no consensus exists on what a universal thinning slope for animal populations might be, or if it exists.
    3. The goal of this study was to use animal self-thinning as a tool to test population-level predictions from MTE, by analysing (i) if self-thinning can be induced in populations of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) and (ii) if the resulting thinning trajectories can be predicted from metabolic theory, using estimates of the species-specific metabolic rate of A. domesticus.
    4. I performed a laboratory study where the growth of A. domesticus was followed, from hatching until emergence as adults, in 71 cohorts of five different starting densities.
    5. Ninety-six per cent of all cohorts in the three highest starting densities showed evidence of self-thinning, with estimated thinning slopes in general being remarkably close to that expected under metabolic constraints: A cross-sectional analysis of all data showing evidence of self-thinning produced an ordinary least square (OLS) slope of −1·11, exactly that predicted from specific metabolic allometry of A. domesticus. This result is furthermore supported by longitudinal analyses, allowing for independent responses within cohorts, producing a mean OLS slope across cohorts of −1·13 and a fixed effect linear mixed effects models slope of −1·09. Sensitivity analysis showed that these results are robust to how the criterion for on-going self-thinning was defined. Finally, also as predicted by metabolic theory, temperature had a negative effect on the thinning intercept, producing an estimate of the activation energy identical to that suggested by MTE.
    6. This study demonstrates a direct link between the metabolic rate of individuals and a population-level ecological process and as such provides strong support for research that aims to integrate body mass, via its effect on metabolism, consumption and competition, into models of populations and communities.
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