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  • 1.
    Ajuzie, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Utilization of information and communication technology and educational games in senior secondary schools in Owerri, Imo state Nigeria: Challenges and prospects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Use of information and communication technology in formal education settings is a fundamental issue in management of education across the globe. But in Africa the issues takes a different turn as it regards to how to apply and utilize technology in education. Facility and technology experts have been on debate across board as the literature implies. Thus, understanding the digital native factors behind individuals’ application and utilization is central to the development of ICT in Nigeria and Africa in general. The main goal of this thesis was to explore factors influencing effective utilization of computer and ICT (Computer laboratories) in the secondary school level. However, in the literature the thesis identify issues affecting utilization of computer and ICT facilities in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), Nigeria and secondary schools (SS). The thesis proposed the use of educational games to drive the concept of utilization of computer and ICT facilities in the educational sector. In addition to the main goal of the thesis, use of computer and ICT facilities in secondary schools are explored alongside teachers and students interest in educational games. Qualitative interviews and a questionnaire survey were used in conduct of the study. Thematic and descriptive analysis was used to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data respectively.

    The results indicate that computer and ICT facilities (Computer laboratories) were poorly utilized by teachers and students due to lack of funds, poor infrastructure and technology knowledge. The results also demonstrate that teachers and students have knowledge about educational games and are willing to apply it in teaching and learning. But the issues of application of educational games into the mainstream could be hindered by Government curriculum policy and infrastructural facilities. The study indicates the relevance of applying educational games in secondary schools to reduce the level of digital divide among graduates. This thesis further argues that the inclusion of educational games would encourage teachers and students to effectively utilization of computer and ICT Facilities (Computer laboratory).

  • 2.
    Andersson, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Brustna digitala hjärtan: Om nobbning i spel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Effects of Visualizing Missing Data: An Empirical Evaluation2014In: 18th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV) / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Francis T. Marchese, Muhammad Sarfraz, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, Georges Grinstein, Vladimir Geroimenko, Sarah Kenderdine & Fatma Bouali, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical study that evaluates the effects of visualizing missing data on decision-making tasks. A comparison between three visualization techniques: (1) emptiness, (2) fuzziness, and (3) emptiness plus explanation, revealed that the latter technique induced significantly higher degree of decision-confidence than the visualization technique fuzziness. Moreover, emptiness plus explanation yield the highest number of risky choices of the three. This result suggests that uncertainty visualization techniques affect the decision-maker and the decisionconfidence. Additionally, the results indicate a possible relation between the degree of decision-confidence and the decision-maker's displayed risk behavior.

  • 4.
    Arbman, Isak
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Berättande för Virtual Reality: Om empati och personligt utrymme i VR2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Berättande för Virtual Reality undersöker hur okonventionellt berättande kan påverka en spelares upplevda förhållande till en non-player character i vad som annars är en minimalistisk Virtual Reality-simulation.

    Studien innefattar en kvalitativ undersökning som utfördes på åtta testpersoner som alla fick spela igenom tre sociala scenarier i Virtual Reality och sedan intervjuas för att utvinna data till undersökningen. För att stödja undersökningens upplägg baserades arbetet på en bred bakgrund relaterad till bland annat berättartekniker och Virtual Reality-utveckling.

    Resultaten av undersökningen uppmärksammar potentialen som Virtual Reality har för att stärka den emotionella kopplingen mellan en spelare och en non-player character.

    Det lägger också en grund för vidare experimentering inom berättande i mediet i framtiden.

  • 5.
    Arltoft, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Benkö, Agnes
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Camp and Buried: Queer perceptions of queer tropes and stereotypes in games.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The state of queer representation in games is poor, and queer consumers are growing increasingly vocal in their demands for nuanced portrayals. This thesis investigates how queer players perceive the tropes and stereotypes commonly used to portray them in games. By sorting through existing representation and using the most common tropes found, this study created two example characters which were represented both narratively and visually. These characters were then the subject of a study of 29 participants. The comments and opinions of these 29 participants were then analysed to find a largely negative consensus which is chiefly concerned with making portrayals less tragic. From this, this study proceeds to analyse the desires of queer consumers and contextualize them in relation to a world which still actively oppresses them.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Olle
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Diegetiska och spatiala UI-element i speltutorials: Hur immersion och lärbarhet påverkas av olika typer av UI i ett VR-spels tutorial2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tutorial kallas ofta delen i början av ett spel där spelaren lär sig hur spelet fungerar. Utformningen av detta segment, som ofta innehåller en kombination av träning i spelmekanik och inledning till spelets berättelse, utgör ofta en utmaning för speldesigners. I tutorial-delen av VR-spelet Budget Cuts har utvecklarna använt sig av så kallade spatiala UI-element för att förmedla instruktioner och information till spelaren. Man har från utvecklarnas sida sett vissa brister i lärbarhet och immersion. Det har föreslagits att en förflyttning av UI-element till ett diegetiskt plan, d.v.s. där dessa får en naturlig placering och del i spelets fiktion, kan ha en positiv effekt på immersionsnivån och lärbarheten. En ny version av spelets tutorial har utvecklats för att undersöka detta antagande. Genom användbarhetstestning och jämförelse av den nya och tidigare versionen, har detta visats stämma.

  • 7.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik, Germany.
    Stanescu, Ioana
    Carol I National Defence University, Romania.
    Arnab, Sylvester
    Disruptive Media Learning Lab, Coventry University, UK.
    Moreno Ger, Pablo
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Lim, Theodore
    Herriot-Watt University, UK.
    Serrano-Laguna, Angel
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Lameras, Petros
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    School of Science and Technology, University of Northampton, UK.
    Kiili, Kristian
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Ninaus, Manuel
    University of Graz, Austria.
    de Freitas, Sara
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Mazzetti, Alessandro
    Gruppo SIGLA S.r.l, Italy.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Degano, Cristiana
    Gruppo SIGLA S.r.l, Italy.
    Learning Analytics Architecture to Scaffold Learning Experience through Technology-based Methods2015In: International Journal of Serious Games, ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 29-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of delivering personalized learning experiences is often increased by the size of classrooms and online learning communities. Serious Games (SGs) are increasingly recognized for their potential to improve education. However, the issues related to their development and their level of effectiveness can be seriously affected when brought too rapidly into growing online learning communities. Deeper insights into how the students are playing is needed to deliver a comprehensive and intelligent learning framework that facilitates better understanding of learners' knowledge, effective assessment of their progress and continuous evaluation and optimization of the environments in which they learn. This paper discusses current SOTA and aims to explore the potential in the use of games and learning analytics towards scaffolding and supporting teaching and learning experience. The conceptual model (ecosystem and architecture) discussed in this paper aims to highlight the key considerations that may advance the current state of learning analytics, adaptive learning and SGs, by leveraging SGs as an suitable medium for gathering data and performing adaptations.

  • 8.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Visual Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data Science offers a set of powerful approaches for making new discoveries from large and complex data sets. It combines aspects of mathematics, statistics, machine learning, etc. to turn vast amounts of data into new insights and knowledge. However, the sole use of automatic data science techniques for large amounts of complex data limits the human user’s possibilities in the discovery process, since the user is estranged from the process of data exploration. This chapter describes the importance of Information Visualization (InfoVis) and visual analytics (VA) within data science and how interactive visualization can be used to support analysis and decision-making, empowering and complementing data science methods. Moreover, we review perceptual and cognitive aspects, together with design and evaluation methodologies for InfoVis and VA.

  • 9.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Ståhl, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Complex Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 157-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data science applications often need to deal with data that does not fit into the standard entity-attribute-value model. In this chapter we discuss three of these other types of data. We discuss texts, images and graphs. The importance of social media is one of the reason for the interest on graphs as they are a way to represent social networks and, in general, any type of interaction between people. In this chapter we present examples of tools that can be used to extract information and, thus, analyze these three types of data. In particular, we discuss topic modeling using a hierarchical statistical model as a way to extract relevant topics from texts, image analysis using convolutional neural networks, and measures and visual methods to summarize information from graphs.

  • 10.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Trend Mining: A Visualization Technique to Discover Variable Trends in the Objective Space2019In: Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 10th International Conference, EMO 2019, East Lansing, MI, USA, March 10-13, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Kalyanmoy Deb, Erik Goodman, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Kathrin Klamroth, Kaisa Miettinen, Sanaz Mostaghim, Patrick Reed, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, Vol. 11411, p. 605-617Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practical multi-objective optimization problems often involve several decision variables that influence the objective space in different ways. All variables may not be equally important in determining the trade-offs of the problem. Decision makers, who are usually only concerned with the objective space, have a hard time identifying such important variables and understanding how the variables impact their decisions and vice versa. Several graphical methods exist in the MCDM literature that can aid decision makers in visualizing and navigating high-dimensional objective spaces. However, visualization methods that can specifically reveal the relationship between decision and objective space have not been developed so far. We address this issue through a novel visualization technique called trend mining that enables a decision maker to quickly comprehend the effect of variables on the structure of the objective space and easily discover interesting variable trends. The method uses moving averages with different windows to calculate an interestingness score for each variable along predefined reference directions. These scores are presented to the user in the form of an interactive heatmap. We demonstrate the working of the method and its usefulness through a benchmark and two engineering problems.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-03 00:00
  • 11.
    Bellogín, Alejandro
    et al.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Said, Alan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Recommender Systems Evaluation2018In: Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining / [ed] Reda Alhajj, Jon Rokne, Springer, 2018, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    How a Picture Postcard Can Help You Develop a Data-Driven Analytics Culture2019In: TDWI UpsideArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Admyre, Marco
    RuleCore, Sweden.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Fleet Management System Based on Complex Event Processing2014In: DSS 2.0 – Supporting Decision Making with New Technologies / [ed] Gloria Phillips-Wren, Sven Carlsson, Ana Respício, Patrick Brézillon, IOS Press, 2014, p. 241-252Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bilger, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    En jämförelse av skyddsmetoder vid en TCP SYN-Flood-attack2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur processor-, minnesanvändning och responstid påverkas vid en Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack av typen TCP SYN-Flood. För att testa detta används metoderna Baseline (utan SYN-Cookies), Mod_Evasive, Suricata samt SYN-Cookies. Delar av resultatet går att jämföra med tidigare forskning vad beträffar metoden SYN-Cookies med processoranvändning och responstid, för övriga metoder har det ej gått att hitta någon forskning som påvisar resursanvändning och responstid över tid.

    Studien kan hjälpa organisationer och myndigheter att göra ett informerat val av skydd mot en TCP SYN-Flood-attack beträffande processor-, minnesanvändning och responstid.

    Resultaten av studien visar att Mod_Evasive använder lägst processor-, minnesanvändning och har lägst responstid av skyddsmetoderna.

  • 15.
    Bronelius, Eric
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    ”Aesthetic experience” och spelgrafik: Hur kunskap inom spelgrafik kan påverka ”the aesthetic experience”2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studie var att undersöka hur kunskap inom spelgrafik kan påverka en spelares “aesthetic experience”. ”Aesthetic experience” är en term som används för att beskriva den tankeprocess en människa genomgår när hen betraktar ett verk. Detta resulterar i en ”aesthetic judgement” och en ”aesthetic emotion”. Enligt den studie Leder m.fl. har gjort kan kunskap inom modern konst resultera i en positiv ”aesthetic emotion” när observatören betraktar modern konst.

    Studien undersökte om kunskap om spelgrafik kunde ge ett liknande resultat vid betraktandet av en spelmiljö. Till undersökningen skapades en artefakt i form av en 3D. Informanterna fick säga hur de mådde och vad de tyckte om scenen i början och slutet av undersökningen.

    Resultatet pekar på att informanterna hade en mer positiv ”aesthetic judgement” efter att ha analyserat scenen, medan deras ”aesthetic emotion” sällan ändrades. I ett framtida arbete skulle modellen kunna anpassas ytterligare till spelgrafik.

  • 16.
    Bååth, Rasmus
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund University, LUX, Lund, Sweden.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund University, LUX, Lund, Sweden.
    Gärdenfors, Peter
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund University, LUX, Lund, Sweden.
    A prototype-based resonance model of rhythm categorization2014In: i-Perception, ISSN 2041-6695, E-ISSN 2041-6695, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 548-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Categorization of rhythmic patterns is prevalent in musical practice, an example of this being the transcription of (possibly not strictly metrical) music into musical notation. In this article we implement a dynamical systems' model of rhythm categorization based on the resonance theory of rhythm perception developed by Large (2010). This model is used to simulate the categorical choices of participants in two experiments of Desain and Honing (2003). The model accurately replicates the experimental data. Our results support resonance theory as a viable model of rhythm perception and show that by viewing rhythm perception as a dynamical system it is possible to model central properties of rhythm categorization.

  • 17.
    Bååth, Rasmus
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Gärdenfors, Peter
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    An Oscillator Model of Categorical Rhythm Perception2013In: Cooperative Minds: Social Interaction and Group Dynamics: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Berlin, Germany, July 31-August 3, 2013 / [ed] Markus Knauff, Natalie Sebanz, Michael Pauen, Ipke Wachsmuth, Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2013, p. 1803-1808Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Categorical perception is a well studied phenomenon in, for example, colour perception, phonetics and music. In this article we implement a dynamical systems model of categorical rhythm perception based on the resonance theory of rhythm perception developed by Large (2010). This model is used to simulate the categorical choices of participants in two experiments of Desain and Honing (2003). The model is able to accurately replicate the experimental data. Our results supports that resonance theory is a viable model of rhythm perception and they show that by viewing rhythm perception as a dynamical system it is possible to model properties of categorical perception.

  • 18.
    Dahle, Theo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Culture and 3D animation: A study of how culture and body language affects the perception of animated 3D characters2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the differences and similarities in how animated 3D characters were perceived by individuals from Sweden and China. The study also attempted to examine how cultural aspects influenced the participants’ perceptions. Parts of the study were conducted through collaboration with the Chinese game company, Focus Games.

    A literature study focusing on body language and culture was conducted, as well as a game animation analysis featuring games from both western and East Asian developers. Based on the game analysis, 6 animations were created with movement qualities inspired by each of the cultures.

    The study was conducted through an online questionnaire, as well as shorter semi-structured interviews. The results show that there were certain similarities and differences in how participants perceived the animations, however the reason as to how cultural aspects influenced the responses was partially unanswered due to lack of data.

  • 19.
    Dahlén, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    SLIM – Design och validering av en kostnadseffektiv inspektionsmetod för lärbarhet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att nybörjaranvändare enklare ska kunna påbörja felfri interaktion med ett system är systemets grad av lärbarhet en viktig aspekt att ta hänsyn till. Trots detta finns inga självklara alternativ till hur lärbarhet ska mätas och utvärderas, framför allt inte på ett snabbt och kostnadseffektivt sätt. Det här examensarbetet har därför bidragit med att lägga en grund för en ny utvärderingsmetod för lärbarhet, SLIM - Simplified Learnability Inspection Method, baserad på relevanta faktorer från befintliga metoder och Linja-ahos (2005) riktlinjer för lärbarhet. Två grupper, experter och icke-experter inom användbarhetsdesign, testade metodens huvudfas individuellt på en prototyp av ett system som ska användas för att skicka SMS via webben. Resultaten från en första validering har visat att metoden i allra högsta grad är tidseffektiv, samt har indikerat att personer så väl med som utan expertkunskaper om användbarhet och lärbarhet kan tillämpa metoden för att i likvärdig utsträckning upptäcka lärbarhetsproblem. SLIM kan därför vara en inkörsport till ett ökat användarfokus hos företag med begränsade medel och att dessa ser nyttan med att designa för användbarhet och lärbarhet.

  • 20.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    et al.
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Seada, Haitham
    Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, USA.
    Generating Uniformly Distributed Points on a Unit Simplex for Evolutionary Many-Objective Optimization2019In: Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 10th International Conference, EMO 2019, East Lansing, MI, USA, March 10-13, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Kalyanmoy Deb, Erik Goodman, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Kathrin Klamroth, Kaisa Miettinen, Sanaz Mostaghim, Patrick Reed, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, Vol. 11411, p. 179-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the recently proposed evolutionary many-objective optimization (EMO) algorithms start with a number of predefined reference points on a unit simplex. These algorithms use reference points to create reference directions in the original objective space and attempt to find a single representative near Pareto-optimal point around each direction. So far, most studies have used Das and Dennis’s structured approach for generating a uniformly distributed set of reference points on the unit simplex. Due to the highly structured nature of the procedure, this method does not scale well with an increasing number of objectives. In higher dimensions, most created points lie on the boundary of the unit simplex except for a few interior exceptions. Although a level-wise implementation of Das and Dennis’s approach has been suggested, EMO researchers always felt the need for a more generic approach in which any arbitrary number of uniformly distributed reference points can be created easily at the start of an EMO run. In this paper, we discuss a number of methods for generating such points and demonstrate their ability to distribute points uniformly in 3 to 15-dimensional objective spaces.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-03 00:00
  • 21.
    Dorell, Johan
    et al.
    EA DICE, Stockholm.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Starting from scratch: pragmatic and scalable guidelines to impactful games user research2018In: Games user research / [ed] Anders Drachen, Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Lennart E. Nacke, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 1, p. 431-452Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Duarte, Denio
    et al.
    Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul Chapecó Brazil.
    Ståhl, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Machine Learning: A Concise Overview2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 27-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning is a sub-field of computer science that aims to make computers learn. It is a simple view of this field, but since the first computer was built, we have wondered whether or not they can learn as we do.

  • 23.
    Ekholm, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Learning Through Level Design: Using a learning taxonomy to map level design to pedagogy2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Entertainment games are known for their motivational and engaging benefits when it comes to teaching the player how to play games. Still, there is little research about the connection between pedagogy and entertainment games. This knowledge could be used to develop educational games that utilize those sought after benefits of engagement and motivation. The purpose of this research is therefore to conduct a case study that identifies the underlying pedagogical elements in the level design components game progression and pacing in the entertainment game Space Team: Pocket Planets. The results show that by breaking down gameplay into level design components, used to teach the player how to play the game, and mapping them to a learning taxonomy, the pedagogical elements that corresponds to those components can be identified. This information can be used as a method when it comes to evaluating the pedagogy present in other games and to bridge the knowledge gap between game designers of educational and entertainment games.

  • 24.
    Eklund, Linnéa
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. eklundlinnea4@gmail.com.
    Vem pratar jag med nu?: Hur könet på en NPC karaktär kan påverka dialoger i spel.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna undersökning så var avsikten att se ifall spelare tilltalar NPC-kompanjoner i dialoger på olika sätt beroende på vilket kön de har, samt huruvida detta kan påverka dialogerna i digitala spel. För detta så skapades en artefakt innehållande två spelsekvenser. Dessa spelsekvenser bestod av en dialog som i scenario, dialogval och text var identiska med varandra. Den skillnaden som fanns vara att den ena spelsekvensen hade en kvinnlig NPC-kompanjon som spelaren höll sin dialog med och den andra spelsekvensen hade en manlig NPC-kompanjon att a dialogen med. Av de val som man som spelare hade att välja mellan var ett kvinnligt kodat, ett manligt kodat och ett neutralt kodat, detta för att kunna observera vilka val spelaren gör och sedan kunna se ifall valen de gjorde överensstämde med de val som var kodade för den karaktären. När undersökningen var klar så visade det sig att spelare snarare utgick från situationer och hur de uppfattar karaktärers personlighet snarare än vilket kön de hade.

  • 25.
    Elmlund, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Musik, videospel och prestationsförmåga: Hur musik påverkar spelarprestation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete fokuserade på att undersöka hur spelmusik påverkar spelarprestationer. I bakgrunden presenteras en kort historisk bakgrund av spelmusik samt studier som har gjorts inom ämnet. För att undersöka detta analyserades klassiska plattformsspelsbanor och utifrån den data som införskaffades via detta så skapades grunden för längden av spelet som skulle komma att utgöra artefakten. Efter detta så skapades ett ramverk för att kunna systematiskt bygga upp en nivå utifrån ett givet musikstycke. Resultaten av denna studie stärker idén om att musik påverkar spelarprestationer positivt. Den sammanställda datan indikerade dessutom att dynamisk musik verkar vara den typ som har störst påverkan på spelare överlag.

  • 26.
    Envall, Viktor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Indisk spelmusik: Påverkan av Indiska skalor i spel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om hur indiska musikskalor påverkar en spelares prestation i ett spel i förhållande till hur spelare presterar till skalor från västvärlden. Rapporten innehåller den ve-tenskapliga bakgrunden till arbetet, förberedelserna och resultat ifrån en undersökning där tre musikskalor (dur, frygisk och den indiska skalan ”thaat marwa”) spelades upp under ett spel-test. Tiden det tog för deltagare i testet att slutföra en spelnivå mättes för alla tre skalor. Resultatet visade att ingen skillnad hittades i deltagarnas prestation mellan de olika musikaliska skalorna. Denna forskning har gett underlag till att i framtiden undersöka om instrumenten och rytmerna i indisk musik skulle påverka spelares prestationer annorlunda, jämfört med hur enbart skalorna i detta arbete påverkade prestationerna.

  • 27.
    Erliksson, Magdalena
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Bekanta Varelser: En ndersökning om att bibehålla rädsla i dataspel2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Datorspelens  repetitiva  natur  medför  problem  för  skräckgenren.  Fiender  som  är skrämmande  mister  sin  slagkraft  när  spelarna  träffar  på  dem många gånger och vänjer     sig     vid     dem.     Detta     fenomen     har     mycket     gemensamt     med beteendevetenskapens  teorier  om  fobier.  Människor  lär  sig  att  vara  rädda  för någonting och utvecklar en fobi. Vid upprepade möten med fobiobjektet vänjer sig människor. Det finns dock forskning som visar att en förändring i kontexten under invänjningen kan leda till att denna hindras. Undersökningen syftade till att använda detta  som  en  lösning  på  problemet  med  upprepning.  Två  versioner  av  samma spelnivå  gjordes  och  spelades  av  två  grupper  testpersoner.  Den  ena  versionen ändrade  under  spelets  gång fiendernas beteende. Resultatet tydde på att versionen med  beteendeförändringar  hos  fienderna  upplevdes  som  mer  skrämmande.  Dock fanns  ett  antal  problem  med  undersökningen,  och  resultatet  kan  inte  ses  som tillförlitligt.  En framtida undersökning skulle behöva utökas på många sätt för att öka tillförlitligheten.

  • 28.
    Farhanieh, Iman
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    A Study in History Teaching Using Serious Games2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to observe if having more interactivity and media richness in teaching will lead to more meaningful learning and remembering information longer, compared to more traditional teaching such as books and slideshow presentations. It has been revealed that using multimedia tools such as video games, which use different cognitive load-reducing methods, can help the learner use less irrelevant cognitive process. This will lead to more cognitive load being assigned to more relevant materials. Two groups of participants were compared to each other, where one group was asked to play a video game containing historical information about the city of Skövde, while the second group was presented with a slideshow containing the historical information but only as simple text. The results from the experiment suggested that there is a significant difference between the two groups, meaning the participants who were asked to play the video game has less difficulty in recalling information after 7 days compared to the group who only read the slideshow presentation.

  • 29.
    Germundsson, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Hur påverkas användbarhet vid användningen av olika typer av VR?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har som mål att undersöka hur två olika typer av virtuell verklighet (VR) påverkar användbarheten av flygsimulatorer. De två olika typer av VR som jämfördes var icke-immersiv VR och immersiv VR.

    För att undersöka detta formulerades en forskningsfråga kring ämnet och en undersökning genomfördes i vilken totalt 15 individer deltog. Deltagarna fick använda sig av en artefakt som hade möjligheten att användas i både ett icke-immersivt läge och ett immersivt läge. Samtliga deltagare fick använda båda lägena av artefakten. Ordningen som de använde lägena i fördelades helt slumpmässigt. Efter att deltagarna använt båda lägena av artefakten blev de intervjuade enligt en på förhand bestämd uppsättning frågor.

    Resultaten från undersökningen sammanställdes därefter, och analyserades enligt tre av de fem aspekterna av användbarhet som undersöktes. Resultaten från undersökningen visade att det immersiva läget hade en högre grad av användbarhet än det icke-immersiva läget.

  • 30.
    Hamim, Hamza
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    MAPPING BETWEEN REHABILITATION REQUIREMENTS AND GAME DESIGN PATTERNS IN A GAME FOR PHYSICAL REHABILITATION2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of serious games, requires the participation and collaboration of several disciplines; as in the following thesis, showing the collaboration between physiotherapists and developers. Obviously good collaboration and understanding requires a tool that allows passage of information from one discipline to another. One example of such a tool is the concept of patterns. The concept has been adopted in many communities, one of which is game design where they have been called game design patterns, to offer the same advantages with additional benefits. In the following thesis we use game design patterns in order to translate the requirements of physiotherapists into a serious game. Or more precisely, the aim is to satisfy the requirements of physiotherapists as movements, motivation, and other features and map them into patterns and translate them in a serious game. The validation of the mapping was carried out in three different ways: with the physiotherapists, patients, and finally with game designers. The work carried out, shows an example of how game design patterns can be used to satisfy the requirements of physiotherapists in a game for rehabilitation.

  • 31.
    Holst, Anders
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Bae, Juhee
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Bouguelia, Mohamed-Rafik
    Department of Intelligent Systems and Digital Design, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Interactive clustering for exploring multiple data streams at different time scales and granularity2019In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Interactive Data Mining, WIDM 2019, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We approach the problem of identifying and interpreting clusters over different time scales and granularity in multivariate time series data. We extract statistical features over a sliding window of each time series, and then use a Gaussian mixture model to identify clusters which are then projected back on the data streams. The human analyst can then further analyze this projection and adjust the size of the sliding window and the number of clusters in order to capture the different types of clusters over different time scales. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in two different application scenarios: (1) fleet management and (2) district heating, wherein each scenario, several different types of meaningful clusters can be identified when varying over these dimensions. 

  • 32.
    Håkansson, Isabel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Adding Personality to Fantasy Creatures: Using animal motion references2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fantasy creatures are an essential part of many games, but while there are several studies focusing on body language and how expressive gaming companions may enhance the player’s experience, creatures and animals are rarely the focal points. Personality is closely related to believability, which is what most game developers work towards hence believability may improve the gaming experience. The purpose of this paper was to explore how the personality of a fantasy creature would be perceived by the observer when using different animal motion references. A 3D-model was created and animated in three different styles using motion references from a cat and lizard. A survey with Likert-scales was then formed with the intention to evaluate the animations. The participants in the survey were assigned one of the three animations to rate statements regarding personality and believability. Rather than a certain type of animal being associated with a certain type of personality, the result suggests that it was mainly certain motion cues and postures that affected the participants’ ratings. The study was deemed to be insufficient for a reliable result. In the discussion part, there are ideas on how the study could be improved with the aim of continuing the research to gain a clearer insight into the subject of personality and creatures.

  • 33.
    Johansson, David
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Procedurellt genererade Dungeons med BSP och Shortest Path: En teknisk utvärdering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna minska arbetsbelastningen på grafiker och speldesigners används Procedural Content Generation (PCG) för att kunna skapa varierat spelinnehåll med lite ansträngning. Denna studie undersöker algoritmerna Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) och Shortest Path (SP) för generering av grottsystem. Syftet med undersökningen är att ta reda på hur tidseffektivt algoritmerna kan generera ett grottsystem samt hur komplext ett grottsystem genererat av respektive algoritm är.

    Efter undersökning kan slutsatsen dras att BSP är den mest effektiva algoritmen på att generera grottsystem medan SP bidrar med mest skillnad i komplexitet mellan genereringar.

  • 34.
    Johansson, Gustav
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Dubbeldesign och dess påverkan på spelupplevelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning utforskar en designteknik som kan kallas dubbeldesign. Tekniken går ut på att en mekanik i ett spel har flera syften. Målet är att mäta vilken skillnad på spelupplevelsen användning av tekniken har. De delar av spelupplevelsen som undersöks är flow och positive affect. Värden för flow och positive affect tas ut genom att testare spelar en prototyp i två versioner och svarar på frågor. Ena versionen av spelet använder dubbeldesign till stor grad medan den andra inte använder tekniken alls. Resultat visar att både flow och positive affect var högre för versionen som inte använder dubbeldesign. En stark koppling hittades mellan användning av spelets mekaniker och resultatet. De som använde många av en versions mekaniker hade generellt en bättre spelupplevelse i den versionen. Att personer väljer att inte använda ett spels mekaniker som är påverkade av dubbeldesign kan bero på förståelsebrist eller en vilja att spara på resurser.

  • 35.
    Johansson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Perspektiv och stress: Kameraperspektivets inverkan på puls och upplevd stress i ett endless runner-spel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Endless runners är en genre inom plattformsspel - populär framförallt på mobila enheter. Spelen kännetecknas ofta av konstant stegrande hastighet på oändliga spelbanor. För att besvara studiens frågeställning skapades en spelprototyp i endless runner-stil med två olika versioner, spelbara ur var sitt kameraperspektiv. De två mest förekommande kameraperspektiven inom genren valdes ut: tredjepersonsperspektivet och ”sidscrollande” perspektivet. En undersökning på två grupper utfördes där de speltestade spelversionerna i ombytta ordningar. Innan och efter speltestet besvarades enkäter innehållande datainsamlande frågor och rankning av upplevd stress. Innan testet togs en vilopuls och under testet togs kontinuerligt forskningsdeltagarnas puls. En slutsats var svår att dra av de resultat som framkom. Forskningsdeltagarnas upplevda stress var spridd, cirka sjuttio procent av deltagarna uppgav att det ”sidscrollande” perspektivet var mer stressigt, men pulsmätningarna visade på en högre puls för tredjepersonsperspektivet. Detta ansågs bero på att deltagarna ”överlevde” längre och således ökade deras puls ju längre de kom.

  • 36.
    Jonsson, Mårten
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Digital tools for the blind: How to increase navigational capabilities for visually impaired persons2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of human-computer interaction (HCI) systems, usable by people withvisual impairments is a progressing field of research. Similarly, the creation of audio-onlygames and digital tools has been investigated somewhat thoroughly, with many interestingresults. This thesis aims to combine the two fields in the creation of an audio-only digital tool,aimed at aiding visually impaired persons to navigate unknown areas. This is done by lookingat the field of HCI systems, and games for blind, and by looking at the concept of mentalmaps and spatial orientation within cognitive science. An application is created, evaluatedand tested based on a set number of criteria. An experiment is performed and the results areevaluated and compared to another digital tool in order to learn more about how to increasethe usability and functionality of digital tools for the visually impaired. The results give astrong indication towards how to best proceed with future research.

  • 37.
    Karlsen, Anniken
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Ålesund, Norway.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The SmallBuild+ Business Development Method: Findings from a Longitudinal Study in the Construction Sector2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    A citizen perspective of phishing in Hong Kong2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the world of today, Internet is a part of everything we do. Almost all appliances, from the cell phone to in some cases even freezers, are getting options to connect up to the Internet. But in this great, new world lurks dangers, as new threats are developed and sent out on the Internet at the same rate with which they are resolved.

    The people in charge of managing their networks, be it a parent in a household or an employee at a corporation, needs knowledge of how to tackle these threats in a productive manner. Where do these people gain their knowledge and what does the public –who are joining the connected world at a rapid rate – think about having to gain this knowledge by themselves? Perhaps only a few need the knowledge of cybersecurity, or perhaps it should be covered as part of the school curriculum? This work strives to find the general opinion on this problem in one of the world’s most technologically advanced cities: Hong Kong.

    Data of the citizens’ opinion on the subject was collected using a questionnaire handed out to citizens in multiple public places in Hong Kong. This research could greatly benefit governments or corporations who are in the pipeline of starting up courses for cybersecurity education or businesses in need of people with that knowledge.

    The result was then compiled and analysed at which point the results then showed that the citizens of Hong Kong feel exposed to the threats that phishing poses. However, the majority also believed themselves capable of defending against phishing attempts. The result also showed the citizens claimed to have an understanding of phishing and a general awareness about most of the threats. The majority of the participants also thought that the responsibility to educate the populace about phishing should lie with the school system.

    Future work based on this study could, for example, broaden the perspective of the survey and include different types of cybersecurity threats or use the same concept, only changing the focused threat to another.

  • 39.
    Karlsson, Linus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Kommunala surfzoner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 40.
    Karlsson, Pontus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Spelares engagemang för narrativet i plattformsspel: Beroende på hur det presenteras2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbetes frågeställning undersöker hur spelares engagemang för narrativ i plattformsspel skiljer sig beroende på hur det presenteras. Tidigare forskning kring dataspel, människa-datainteraktion och spelinteraktion har analyserats för att försöka studera hur och varför vi engagerar oss med dataspel. Detta genom att analysera begrepp såsom immersion och flow.

    För att undersöka detta skapades en artefakt i form av ett dataspel. Dataspelet bestod av ett kort plattformspel med ett ledande narrativ. Två versioner av dataspelet utvecklades. I ena versionen presenteras narrativet via endast text, i den andra via endast berättarröst.

    En kvalitativ undersökning, som bestod av observationer och semistrukturerade intervjuer, utfördes för att jämföra de två versionerna av artefakten. Resultatet visade på en viss skillnad i uppfattning av narrativet men att en framtida studie, med en mer konkret frågeställning, hade kunna resulterat i en mer trovärdig slutsats.

  • 41.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Managing Interruptions in Manufacturing: Towards a Theoretical Framework for Interruptions in Manufacturing Assembly2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of interruptions from ICT systems on assembly workers in manufacturing is examined in this thesis, as is how the risks of errors, increases in assembly time, increased cognitive load and resultant stress can be mitigated, as well as ensuring that important new information is acted upon. To these ends, a literature study was conducted, followed by two studies using an experimental approach in an environment that simulated a manufacturing assembly situation, and used tasks designed to be representative of manufacturing assembly tasks. The results of the literature study and the two studies are presented in four appended papers. The body of the thesis itself introduces similar material, and takes a step towards the creation of a theoretical framework that supports analysing the tasks and environments in question from a embodied and situated (DEEDS or 4E) viewpoint on cognition. This theoretical framework uses graphical representations similar to storyboards to support the analyst in maintaining an embodied and situated viewpoint during analyses of active tasks that require an examination of the interplay between brain, body, and environment. Supporting an embodied viewpoint during analysis has the purpose of facilitating the design of interruption coordination systems that take into account the embodied and situated nature of the tasks faced in manual tasks such as assembly in manufacturing.

  • 42.
    Kävrestad, Joakim
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nohlberg, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johani, Karonen
    University of Skövde.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Spiraling out in control: A Video Cartesian Dialectic on a Socio-technical Approach to Teaching Privacy, Information- and Cyber Security (PICS)2019In: Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development 2019: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development (STPIS 2019) co-located with 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2019) / [ed] Stewart Kowalski, Peter Bednar, Alexander Nolte, Ilia Bider, CEUR-WS , 2019, Vol. 2398, p. 153-155Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A drive through the world of functional tones, simulations and cars2017In: Proceedings of the 13th SweCog Conference / [ed] Anders Arweström Jansson, Anton Axelsson, Rebecca Andreasson, Erik Billing, 2017, p. 12-14Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Liedberg, Felix
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Beteendemönster och ett narrativs betydelse i brädspel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The theme for this paper is table-top games, therefore the study will begin with a history review of table-top games. Following will be a general rundown of multiple narrative techniques. This is for giving a context for the rest of the work.

    The research question asked for this paper is: How is a person’s behavior affected by their emotional connections to a narrative?  This question was answered with the help of a table-top game. The game had two variants, one with a narrative and one without. This was for finding differences between the two.

    Twenty persons tested the two artefacts. After the testing, qualitative interviews took place. These were used to answer the question. There was no doubt that the behavior of the testers differentiated between the two variants. The narrative testers felt a stronger emotional connection to the characters in the game. If the study would have continued, a larger test group with a greater diversity would have been preferred. 

  • 45.
    Ling, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Common Ground by Artefacts: Everyday Collaborative Manipulations2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how cognitive artefacts contribute to the process of reaching common ground within collaborative groups through a study of both Clark's theory of Common Ground and of how artefacts are understood to be used, both by individuals and as seen in distributed cognition. This was accompanied by an ethno-methodologically inspired study in the natural setting of a kitchen to observe how artefacts are used when negotiationg common ground. After the study's completion, participants were interviewed in order to establish whether common ground was successfully established ant to look for consistency between obeservations from the study and how the participants motivate their actions. The study was analysed in order to find patterns, of which four distinct kinds were indentified; these categories were then related to facts established in the study of Common Ground and artefacts.

  • 46.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Embodiment in Emotional Learning, Decision Making and Behaviour: The ‘What’ and the ‘How’ of Action2014In: Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Aging and Assistive Environments: 8th International Conference, UAHCI 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Constantine Stephanidis & Margherita Antona, Springer, 2014, p. 672-679Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almér, Alexander
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sandamirskaya, Yulia
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, Neuroscience Center Zurich, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Balkenius, Christian
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Affective–associative two-process theory: a neurocomputational account of partial reinforcement extinction effects2017In: Biological Cybernetics, ISSN 0340-1200, E-ISSN 1432-0770, Vol. 111, no 5-6, p. 365-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) is an experimentally established phenomenon: behavioural response to a given stimulus is more persistent when previously inconsistently rewarded than when consistently rewarded. This phenomenon is, however, controversial in animal/human learning theory. Contradictory findings exist regarding when the PREE occurs. One body of research has found a within-subjects PREE, while another has found a within-subjects reversed PREE (RPREE). These opposing findings constitute what is considered the most important problem of PREE for theoreticians to explain. Here, we provide a neurocomputational account of the PREE, which helps to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings of within-subjects experimental conditions. The performance of our model demonstrates how omission expectancy, learned according to low probability reward, comes to control response choice following discontinuation of reward presentation (extinction). We find that a PREE will occur when multiple responses become controlled by omission expectation in extinction, but not when only one omission-mediated response is available. Our model exploits the affective states of reward acquisition and reward omission expectancy in order to differentially classify stimuli and differentially mediate response choice. We demonstrate that stimulus–response (retrospective) and stimulus–expectation–response (prospective) routes are required to provide a necessary and sufficient explanation of the PREE versus RPREE data and that Omission representation is key for explaining the nonlinear nature of extinction data.

  • 48.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sandarmirskaya, Yulia
    Theory of Cognitive Systems, Institut für Neuroinformatik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Neural Dynamic Model of Associative Two-Process Theory: The Differential Outcomes Effect and Infant Development2014In: IEEE ICDL-EPIROB 2014: The Fourth Joint IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning and on Epigenetic Robotics, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 440-447Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The role of reinforcement in affective computation2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Creativity and Affective Computing, CICAC 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 17-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Löfstedt, Louvisa
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. lollo.lofstedt@gmail.com.
    Könsidentitet utan gränser hos den formbara karaktären: Karaktärskapande i MMORPG/RPG2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Karaktärskapande är en viktig del i RPG/MMORPG-spel då det går ut på att skapa en egen avatar att rollspela som i spelets öppna värld. Det finns dock begränsningar i karaktärskapandet, då alla alternativ är hårt knutna till könsroller och tillåter inte spelaren att göra könsöverskridande val. I arbetet dekonstrueras könskonstruktionen i karaktärskapandet och ställer frågan om hur spelaren kommer att interagera med ett karaktärskapande som inte är låst vid kön och vad för kombinationer som kommer att skapas. En artefakt i form av klippdocklek skapades, där det var möjligt att kombinera olika kroppsdelar, kläder samt tilldela könsidentitet hur spelaren ville. Artefakten speltestades på sex informanter i en fältobservation och triangulerades med en semistrukturerad intervju. Slutresultatet var att både icke-heteronormativa och heteronormativa avatarer skapades beroende på informanternas motivation och relation mellan sin egen könsidentitet och avatarens.

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