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  • 1.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Cenanovic, Mirza
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Salomonsson, Kent
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Multi-objective optimization of material model parameters of an adhesive layer by using SPEA22015In: Advances in structural and multidisciplinary optimization: Proceedings of the 11th World Congress of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (WCSMO-11), June7-12, 2015, Sydney, Australia / [ed] Qing Li; Grant P. Steven; Zhongpu (Leo) Zhang, The International Society for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (ISSMO) , 2015, p. 249-254Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of multi material structures in industry, especially in the automotive industry are increasing. To overcome the difficulties in joining these structures, adhesives have several benefits over traditional joining methods. Therefore, accurate simulations of the entire process of fracture including the adhesive layer is crucial. In this paper, material parameters of a previously developed meso mechanical finite element (FE) model of a thin adhesive layer are optimized using the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2). Objective functions are defined as the error between experimental data and simulation data. The experimental data is provided by previously performed experiments where an adhesive layer was loaded in monotonically increasing peel and shear. Two objective functions are dependent on 9 model parameters (decision variables) in total and are evaluated by running two FEsimulations, one is loading the adhesive layer in peel and the other in shear. The original study converted the two objective functions into one function that resulted in one optimal solution. In this study, however, a Pareto frontis obtained by employing the SPEA2 algorithm. Thus, more insight into the material model, objective functions, optimal solutions and decision space is acquired using the Pareto front. We compare the results and show good agreement with the experimental data.

  • 2.
    Backenroth, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Olsson, Axel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Musikens funktion för spelupplevelsen: En undersökning kring olika musiktypers påverkan på prestation och immersion i spel2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks spelarens prestation och immersion i datorspel beroende på om spelaren antingen använder spelets integrerade komponerade musik, eller om spelaren använder självvald musik. Studien baserades på tidigare forskning som sammanfattningsvis har konstaterat att de två musiktyperna i fråga påverkar spelare på olika sätt: medföljande ljudspår har en påverkan på spelares upplevelse och känslomässiga tillstånd, medan självvald musik förbättrar prestationen. Utifrån dessa slutsatser formulerades frågeställningen “Hur förändras spelares prestation då de lyssnar på självvald musik jämfört med om de lyssnar på ett spels medföljande ljudspår?” med hypotesen att ett spels medföljande ljudspår skulle fokusera spelares inlevelse på spelets narrativ och värld, varpå självvald musik istället skulle rikta inlevelsen mot spelets mekanik och kontrollmässiga schema. För att besvara hypotesen konstruerades en spelartefakt, vilken två grupper fick spela igenom ackompanjerade av respektive musiktyper. Resultatet motbevisade studiens hypotes, då gruppen som lyssnade på spelets ljudspår presterade bäst. Med detta sagt var skillnaderna minimala, varpå vidare forskning åberopas för att konstatera mer fasta samband.

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  • 3.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Variations of Facial Actions While Playing Games with Inducing Boredom and Stress2016In: 2016 8th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experiment aimed at empirically exploring the variations of facial actions (FA) during gaming sessions with induced boredom and stress. Twenty adults with different ages and gaming experiences played three games while being recorded by a video camera and monitored by a heart rate sensor. The games were carefully designed to have a linear progression from a boring to a stressful state. Self-reported answers indicate participants perceived the games as being boring at the beginning and stressful at the end. The 6 hours of recordings of all subjects were manually analyzed and FA were annotated. We annotated FA that appeared in the recordings at least twice; annotations were categorized by the period when they happened (boring/stressful part of the games) and analysed on a group and on an individual level. Group level analysis revealed that FA patterns were related to no more than 25% of the subjects. The individual level analysis revealed particular patterns for 50% of the subjects. More FA annotations were made during the stressful part of the games. We conclude that, for the context of our experiment, FA provide an unclear foundation for detection of boredom/stressful states when observed from a group level perspective, while the individual level perspective might produce more information.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Johannes
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Andersson, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Affektiva skillnader i mänskligt komponerad- och procedurellt genererad affektiv musik: En studie om den generativa musikens potential2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många spel idag innehåller adaptiv musik, alltså musik som anpassas utefter spelmotoriska variabler. En nackdel med mänskligt skapad adaptiv musik är att den i grunden baseras på linjärt musikaliskt material som sedan anpassas till ett ickelinjärt format. Med algoritmiskt genererad adaptiv musik kan nytt musikaliskt material genereras i realtid utefter algoritmiska parametrar och regelsystem, vars fortsatta spridning kan innebära både funktionella, estetiska och samhälleliga implikationer. Denna studie behandlar affektiva skillnader i mänskligt skapad- och algoritmiskt genererad adaptiv musik. En spelartefakt skapades i Unity och sammanslöts med adaptiva musiksystem genom FMOD, och genom Max via OSC-protokoll,varefter en studie baserad på blandad metod genomfördes där 8 deltagare fick spela igenom spelartefakten i vilken deras upplevda affekt av de ovanstående adaptiva musikformerna jämfördes. Resultaten indikerade en preferens för den mänskligt skapade adaptiva musiken.Framtida arbete bör fokusera på att utveckla den generativa musikens funktionalitet till förmån för områdets utveckling och utökade applikationsmöjligheter

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  • 5.
    Declercq, Julian
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Developing a modular extendable tool for Serious Games content creation: Combining existing techniques with a focus on narrative generation and player adaptivity2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of any game development process consists of content creation, which costs both time and effort. Procedural generation techniques exist to help narrative generation, but they are scattered and require extensive manual labour to set up. On top of that, Serious Games content created with these techniques tend to be uninteresting and lack variety which can ultimately lead to the Serious Games missing their intended purpose. This paper delivers a prototype for a modular tool that aims to solve these problems by combining existing narrative generation techniques with common sense database knowledge and player adaptivity techniques. The prototype tool implements Ceptre as a core module for the generation of stories and ConceptNet as a commonsense knowledge database. Two studies have been conducted with content created by the tool. One study tested if generation rules created by commonsense can be used to flesh out stories, while the other one evaluated if adapted stories yield better scores. The results of the first test state that adding rules retrieved through common sense knowledge did not improve story quality, but they can however be used to extend stories without compromising story quality. It also shows that ideally, an extensive natural language processing module should be used to present the stories rather than a basic implementation. The statistically insignificant result of the second test was potentially caused by the compromises taken when conducting the test. Reconduction of this test using real game data, rather than data from the compromised personality test, might be preferable.

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  • 6.
    Eklund, Linnéa
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    For the love of fashion: A look into how players react to fashion in games, depending on game-genre2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the purpose is to look at how players regard the in-game fashion depending on what genre the game is. As clothes are an important way to communicate and show one’s identity to others, then the way fashion is seen within different genres of digital games affect how fashion is used by the players in different games. To execute this study, the method used in this thesis was to interview players from two games, with the games being from different genres. After interviewing the players, a thematic analysis was made on the data gathered from the interviews. From the thematic analysis, three themes emerged, the Social theme, the Identity theme and the Personal opinion theme. These themes presents both similarities and differences in how the players react to fashion in the different games.

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  • 7.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Fördjupning inom karaktärsanimation: Realistisk animation ”Rytmisk sportgymnastik”2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen är en reflekterande och behandlar ett verk som har skapats inom ramen för examensarbete i medier vid Högskolan i Skövde. Verket består av en datoranimerad sekvens med rytmisk sportgymnastik. Texten inleds med idén bakom verket och de mål som har satts upp för arbetet.

    Efter det ges en kort introduktion till rotoscoping och varför de vanliga metoderna inte fungerar i just detta fall. Därefter följer hur jag anpassat den traditionella rotoscoping-metoden till 3D-verktyget Maya och utvunnet rörelsedata för att vidare förädla rörelsen med hjälp av några av Disneys 12 animationsprinciper.

    Sedan tillkommer en redovisning av de estetiska moment som har ingått i framställandet av min animation och klarlägger den tekniska och kreativa processen bakom verket. Den centrala slutsatsen som presenteras i rapporten är att en utvecklad form av traditionell rotoscoping kombinerad med ett par av Disneys 12 animationsprinciper har använts och fungerat för att avbilda rytmisk sportgymnastik med band med hjälp av tekniskt låg kvalitativ referensmaterial.

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  • 8.
    Forsberg, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Miljöberättande och immersion: En komparativ studie2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker spelares immersion i spel med miljöberättande. Miljöberättande är en teknik där man berättar genom miljön och det är upp till spelaren att försöka tolka informationen given och därefter forma ett narrativ. Immersion är känslan av att bli ”uppslukad” av en aktivitet. Studien gör en litteraturöversikt över båda termerna för att få kunskap om dem och därefter applicera tekniker från dem på två prototyper. Dessa utvecklades med samma innehåll, där endast den ena har beskrivande text. Därefter utfördes en undersökning utformad efter en metod för att mäta immersion som använder avbrott i spelandet. Deltagarna i studien fick spela den ena eller andra prototypen och fick även svara på en enkät innan, under och efter spelandet. Resultatet visade att det fanns en skillnad i graden av immersion mellan prototyperna. Motivationerna och känslorna hos deltagarna liknande varandra, men det fanns skillnader. I ett framtida arbete kan det bland annat vara av intresse att undersöka om metoden fungerar. 

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  • 9.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Helton, Steve
    The Boeing Company, USA.
    Feiler, Peter H.
    Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    ROI Analysis of the System Architecture Virtual Integration Initiative2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The System Architecture Virtual Integration (SAVI) initiative is a multiyear, multimillion dollar program that is developing the capability to virtually integrate systems before designs are implemented and tested on hardware. The purpose of SAVI is to develop a means of countering the costs of exponentially increasing complexity in modern aerospace software systems. The program is sponsored by the Aerospace Vehicle Systems Institute, a research center of the Texas Engineering Experiment Station, which is a member of the Texas A&M University System. This report presents an analysis of the economic effects of the SAVI approach on the development of software-reliant systems for aircraft compared to existing development paradigms. The report describes the detailed inputs and results of a return-on-investment (ROI) analysis to determine the net present value of the investment in the SAVI approach. The ROI is based on rework cost-avoidance attributed to earlier discovery of requirements errors through analysis of virtually integrated models of the embedded software system expressed in the SAE International Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) standard architecture modeling language. The ROI analysis uses conservative estimates of costs and benefits, especially for those parameters that have a proven, strong correlation to overall system-development cost. The results of the analysis, in part, show that the nominal cost reduction for a system that contains 27 million source lines of code would be $2.391 billion (out of an estimated $9.176 billion), a 26.1% cost savings. The original study, reported here, had a follow-on study to validate and further refine the estimated cost savings.

  • 10.
    Hägglund, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rexhepi, HanifeUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.Kane, BridgetInformation Systems, Karlstad University Business School, Sweden.Cajander, ÅsaDepartment of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Personalized Digital Health and Patient-Centric Services2022Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jakobson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Open source routing software: A comparative study of open source software routers2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the performance of PCs is increasing it is of great interest to use these cheap devices as routers,which traditionally consisted of more expensive and customized hardware for that purpose. Thesoftware was also traditionally proprietary and thereby costly, but as the open source communityhas grown there have been development of open source solutions that can perform the task ofacting as a router. However as there are so many solutions out there, it can be hard for the potentialusers to choose which particular solution to use, without having to put in too much work intogetting a fully functional router solution. This study achieved this purpose by benchmarking themost popular open source software routers, in terms of performance and scalability as well asproviding a brief analysis of their basic security features. The routers that were studied wasClearOS, Untangle NG Firewall and IPFire, and after the study was complete IPFire was consideredthe superior with ClearOS as the second and Untangle as third and last.

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  • 12.
    Jensen, Aksel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    AI Training Grounds: A study of adaptive AI in RPGs with low stochastic dependence2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence is used in video games for controlling AI agents but often follow a static pre-defined behaviour. An AI capable of online learning would be able to adapt their behaviour to whatever they may encounter. ‘Dynamic scripting’ is one such technique designed to be used in games with random outcomes. This study seeks to examine if there is a measurable difference in the learning efficiency of dynamic scripting between games with stochastic outcomes and those with deterministic outcomes. A CRPG was made with dynamic scripting implemented in charge of a team of AI agents and a toggle to force deterministic or stochastic game rules. A series of encounters against a static AI was then performed until the dynamic team was deemed effective enough and the learning efficiency measured by how long this took. The results suggest a difference favouring dynamic scripting in deterministic environments.

  • 13.
    Jiang, Yuning
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Atif, Yacine
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Towards automatic discovery and assessment of vulnerability severity in cyber-physical systems2022In: Array, ISSN 2590-0056, Vol. 15, article id 100209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their wide proliferation, complex cyber–physical systems (CPSs) are subject to cybersecurity vulnerabilities and potential attacks. Vulnerability assessment for such complex systems are challenging, partly due to the discrepancy among mechanisms used to evaluate their cyber-security weakness levels. Several sources do report these weaknesses like the National Vulnerability Database (NVD), as well as manufacturer websites besides other security scanning advisories such as Cyber Emergency Response Team (CERT) and Shodan databases. However, these multiple sources are found to face inconsistency issues, especially in terms of vulnerability severity scores. We advocate an artificial intelligence based approach to streamline the computation of vulnerability severity magnitudes. This approach decreases the error rate induced by manual calculation processes, that are traditionally used in cybersecurity analysis. Popular repositories such as NVD and SecurityFocus are employed to validate the proposed approach, assisted with a query method to retrieve vulnerability instances. In doing so, we report discovered correlations among reported vulnerability scores to infer consistent magnitude values of vulnerability instances. The method is applied to a case study featuring a CPS application to illustrate the automation of the proposed vulnerability scoring mechanism, used to mitigate cybersecurity weaknesses.

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  • 14.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Hur kroppsspråk reflekteras på ett livlöst objekt: En undersökning om kroppsspråk hos en mjölpåse2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker om hur olika animationsprinciper och rörelsemönster kanappliceras på ett livlöst objekt för att förmedla olika känslouttryck. En mjölpåse valdesför att uttrycka de olika känslorna. Fyra olika animationer skapades baserade påtidigare forskning i området vilka förmedlade känslorna glädje, ilska, vemod samt ettneutralt känslouttryck. För att svara på frågeställningen skickades enenkätundersökning ut på olika internetgrupper med målet att nå en utspridd målgrupp.Totalt deltog 51 personer. Enkäten visade på hur ett antal olika målgrupper uppfattadekänslouttrycken. Dessa bestod av olika kön, olika ålder, olika tid med visuella medieroch tidigare erfarenhet inom studier i datorspelsutveckling med inriktning på grafik.Resultatet visade på att en majoriteten av deltagarna uppfattade glädje, vemod ochdet neutrala känslouttrycket. Det arga känslouttrycket uppfattades med lägreträffsäkerhet. För att expandera forskningen skulle andra sorters animationer kunnautföras, forskning om hur andra livlösa objekt kan påverka uppfattningarna samt attinkludera ett antal andra känslouttryck. 

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  • 15.
    Johansson, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hur påverkas säkerhetskopiering av prokrastinering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle ökar mängden information som användarna lagrar på sina datorer och samtidigt ökar hoten mot informationen. Genom säkerhetskopiering kan informationen skyddas mot olika hot så som hårddiskkrascher och liknande men ändå försvinner information hela tiden. För att undersöka hur vanligt det är att användare utför säkerhetskopiering genomförs en enkätundersökning. Enkätundersökningen undersöker dels om användare utför säkerhetskopiering men även varför eller varför inte. Undersökningen utgår ifrån TMT, Temporal Motivation Theory, för att beskriva sambandet mellan olika faktorer som kan påverka användningen av säkerhetskopiering. Bland annat undersöks svårighetsgraden och tidsåtgången för att använda säkerhetskopiering. Enkätundersökningen visar att mer än hälften av användarna använder sig av säkerhetskopiering och att flera andra gör ett aktivt val att inte använda säkerhetskopiering. Genom att automatisera lösningar för säkerhetskopiering och förenkla dessa utan att ha ett högt pris hade fler användare valt att använda dessa och på så sätt hade fler filer kunnat räddas.

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    prokrastinering_sakerhetskopiering
  • 16.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Atif, Yacine
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Högskolan i Skövde.
    Sustainable smart-parking management for connected and autonomous vehicles2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic induced by parking-spot seekers is a growing challenge and constitutes a considerable portion of the traffic in city centers. New opportunities to solve this problem are emerging by connected vehicles and infrastructure. For instance, ultrasonic and magnetic sensors are already mounted on the ceiling of many parking lots to detect the availability of a parking spot. These sensors can provide parking spot availability information in real-time. Further, traffic-aware smart sensors which can detect the movement of individual vehicles are also available in many city and highway areas. This report suggests an algorithm for a cloud-based parking service that exploits these streams of data to choose the best parking lot in a given parking area.

    The parking seeking problem is subject to a range of criteria that may include user, municipality and parking operator preferences. Users may have some preferences with respect to walking distance to destination. Municipalities prefer to spread the traffic to reduce congestion in the urban core. Parking operators seek to maximize parking lot utilization in order to increase the revenue on real-estate investments. To solve this problem, an optimization algorithm based on multicriteria decision making process is used.

    The proposed SmartPark algorithm employs a discrete Markov-chain model to demystify the future state of a parking lot. The algorithm features three modular sections:

    • First, a search process is triggered to identify the expected arrival time periods to all parking lots in the targeted parking area. This process utilizes smart pole data streams reporting congestion rates across the targeted parking area.

    • Then, a predictive analytics phase uses consolidated historical data about past parking dynamics to infer a state transition matrix, showing the transformation of available spots in a parking lot over short periods of time.

    • Finally, this matrix is projected against similar future seasonal periods to predict the actual vacancy of a parking lot at the arrival time.

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  • 17.
    Knutsson, Viktor
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Nätverksövervakning av industriella miljöer: En lösning med öppen källkod2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker möjligheten att använda ett nätverksövervakningssystem för att även övervaka maskindrivna processer. Kan man baka ihop övervakningen av den maskinella processen och datorn som styr maskinen i ett och samma system? Detta genomförs genom att identifiera och implementera ett lämpligt övervakningssystem i en befintlig maskinell laborationsmiljö. Arbetet utvärderas därefter enligt ett antal felscenarion och även utifrån ett systemadministratörsperspektiv. Intervjuer med praktiker inom industribranchen utförs också för att dra ytterligare slutsatser.

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    Nätverksövervakning av industriella miljöer_Viktor Knutsson
  • 18.
    Lima, Anderson Silva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Blixt, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Investigating the possibility of bias against AI-computercomposed music2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how respondents perceive human-composed music and AI-computer-composed music. The aim was to find out if there is a negative bias against AI-computer-composed music. The research questions are 1. How is AI-computer-composed music perceived compared to human-composed music? 2. Are there prejudices towards AI-computer-composed music? If yes, what are the prejudices? Four participants took part in a qualitative experiment and a semi-structured interview. Two music pieces were used as artifacts, one was human-composed, and the AI-computer AIVA composed the other. The results showed that although the researchers have not revealed to the participants if they had chosen the AI-computer-composed song or the human-composed song as their favorite, all the participants strongly believed that their favorite song was human-composed. Thus, indicating a bias towards human-composed music The results also showed that the two music pieces were not perceived to have the same characteristics or evoke the same emotions; furthermore, there was some skepticism, whether an AI-computer-composed song could recall the same emotions as a human-composed song. However, none of the respondents explicitly expressed negativity towards AI-computer-composed music.

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  • 19.
    Redyuk, Sergey
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Challenges in face expression recognition from video2017In: SweDS 2017: The 5th Swedish Workshop on Data Science / [ed] Alexander Schliep, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identication of emotion from face expressions is a relatively well understood problem where state-of-the-art solutions perform almost as well as humans. However, in many practical applications, disruptingfactors still make identication of face expression a very challenging problem. Within the project DREAM1- Development of Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), we areidentifying face expressions from children with ASD, during therapy. Identied face expressions are usedboth in the online system, to guide the behavior of the robot, and o-line, to automatically annotate videofor measurements of clinical outcomes.

    This setup puts several new challenges on the face expression technology. First of all, in contrast tomost open databases of face expressions comprising adult faces, we are recognizing emotions from childrenbetween the age of 4 to 7 years. Secondly, children with ASD may show emotions dierently, compared totypically developed children. Thirdly, the children move freely during the intervention and, despite the useof several cameras tracking the face of the child from dierent angles, we rarely have a full frontal view ofthe face. Fourthly, and nally, the amount of native data is very limited.

    Although we have access to extensive video recorded material from therapy sessions with ASD children,potentially constituting a very valuable dataset for both training and testing of face expression implemen-tations, this data proved to be dicult to use. A session of 10 minutes of video may comprise only a fewinstances of expressions e.g. smiling. As such, although we have many hours of video in total, the data isvery sparse and the number of clear face expressions is still rather small for it to be used as training data inmost machine learning (ML) techniques.

    We therefore focused on the use of synthetic datasets for transfer learning, trying to overcome thechallenges mentioned above. Three techniques were evaluated: (1) convolutional neural networks for imageclassication by analyzing separate video frames, (2) recurrent neural networks for sequence classication tocapture facial dynamics, and (3) ML algorithms classifying pre-extracted facial landmarks.

    The performance of all three models are unsatisfactory. Although the proposed models were of highaccuracy, approximately 98%, while classifying a test set, they performed poorly on the real-world data.This was due to the usage of a synthetic dataset which had mostly a frontal view of faces. The models whichhave not seen similar examples before failed to classify them correctly. The accuracy decreased drasticallywhen the child rotated her head or covered a part of her face. Even if the frame clearly captured a facialexpression, ML algorithms were not able to provide a stable positive classication rate. Thus, elaborationon training datasets and designing robust ML models are required. Another option is to incorporate voiceand gestures of the child into the model to classify emotional state as a complex concept.

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  • 20.
    Svärd, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    ANN som en metod för att göra urval i spel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete som fokuserar på hur neurala nätverk kan appliceras på och hur väl de presterar i en spelmiljö undersöks två nätverksarkitekturer applicerat på en simulation av ett så kallat urvalsbaserat spel. I arbetet så är ett urvalsbaserat spel ett spel som går ut på att en spelare skall göra en mängd val innan spelet börjar, och de två nätverksarkitekturerna som utvärderas är Feed Forward och NEAT. Experimenten låter nätverken skapa lag för en förenklad version av spelet Pokemon och kommer sedan att låta dessa lag tävla emot varandra i en deterministisk testmiljö för att bedöma hur bra nätverken presterar.

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  • 21.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Engineering Science.
    Eriksson, Patric
    Research Division, Prosolvia Systems AB, Vänersborg, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    Mechatronics Research Group, Faculty of Computing Sciences and Engineering, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Pu, Junsheng
    Mechatronics Research Group, Faculty of Computing Sciences and Engineering, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Simulation and emulation of sensor systems for intelligent vehicles1998In: Mechatronics '98: Proceedings of the 6th UK Mechatronics Forum International Conference, Skövde, Sweden, 9-11 September 1998 / [ed] Josef Adolfsson; Jeanette Karlsén , Pergamon Press, 1998, no 6th UK Mechatronics Forum International Conference, p. 385-390Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation of sensor systems for mobile robots are described in this paper. By simulation of smart sensor systems, the performance of semi-autonomous vehicles / mobile robots can be enhanced. Smart sensor systems used in the field of mobile robotics can utilise adaptive algorithms. e. g. artificial neural nets, fuzzy logic or hybrid variants of these systems. The development, training and evaluation of adaptive algorithms for sensor systems can be done within a virtual environment in which graphical models are built to simulate an intelligent vehicle, its sensors, and its environment. The virtual sensors are validated by comparing the characteristics of the virtual sensors with those of the real devices.

  • 22.
    Ögren, Ellinor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Orcher förtjänar bättre: Orcher, Alver och deras stereotypiska design inom fantasy genren2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna undersökning så görs ett fördjupande perspektiv på fantasygenrens olika stereotyper, med ett specifikt fokus på orcher och alver samt även vad som har skapat dessa stereotyper och vad som har förändrats under de åren som de har existerat genom att ställa frågor till deltagarna. Det visar att beroende på individ som observerar dessa raser så ändras perspektivet på stereotyperna samt även huruvida uppskattat potentiella normkritiska förändringar anses vara. Detta har upptäckts genom användningen av artefakter, ett frågeformulär samt även en förstudie med en fördjupning på J.R.R. Tolkien och de stereotyper som har skapats tack vare hans verk. Efter reflektion så finns det möjligheter för en fortsatt studie inom detta eftersom det bara finns ett fokus på orcher och alver, även fast det existerar flera olika typer av fantasyraser som kan ge ytterligare intressant data som kan hjälpa framtida spelföretag. 

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