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  • 1.
    Al Mamun, Md Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Effects of measurements on correlations of software code metrics2019Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 2764-2818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    Software metrics play a significant role in many areas in the life-cycle of software including forecasting defects and foretelling stories regarding maintenance, cost, etc. through predictive analysis. Many studies have found code metrics correlated to each other at such a high level that such correlated code metrics are considered redundant, which implies it is enough to keep track of a single metric from a list of highly correlated metrics.

    Objective

    Software is developed incrementally over a period. Traditionally, code metrics are measured cumulatively as cumulative sum or running sum. When a code metric is measured based on the values from individual revisions or commits without consolidating values from past revisions, indicating the natural development of software, this study identifies such a type of measure as organic. Density and average are two other ways of measuring metrics. This empirical study focuses on whether measurement types influence correlations of code metrics.

    Method

    To investigate the objective, this empirical study has collected 24 code metrics classified into four categories, according to the measurement types of the metrics, from 11,874 software revisions (i.e., commits) of 21 open source projects from eight well-known organizations. Kendall’s τ -B is used for computing correlations. To determine whether there is a significant difference between cumulative and organic metrics, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and paired-samples sign test are performed.

    Results

    The cumulative metrics are found to be highly correlated to each other with an average coefficient of 0.79. For corresponding organic metrics, it is 0.49. When individual correlation coefficients between these two measure types are compared, correlations between organic metrics are found to be significantly lower (with p <0.01) than cumulative metrics. Our results indicate that the cumulative nature of metrics makes them highly correlated, implying cumulative measurement is a major source of collinearity between cumulative metrics. Another interesting observation is that correlations between metrics from different categories are weak.

    Conclusions

    Results of this study reveal that measurement types may have a significant impact on the correlations of code metrics and that transforming metrics into a different type can give us metrics with low collinearity. These findings provide us a simple understanding how feature transformation to a different measurement type can produce new non-collinear input features for predictive models.

  • 2.
    Antinyan, Vard
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Staron, Miroslaw
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Derehag, Jesper
    Ericsson, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Runsten, Mattias
    AB Volvo, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wikström, Erik
    Ericsson, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Meding, Wilhelm
    Ericsson, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Anders
    AB Volvo, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Identifying Complex Functions: By Investigating Various Aspects of Code Complexity2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 Science and Information Conference (SAI): July 28-30, 2015, London, United Kingdom, IEEE Press, 2015, s. 879-888Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity management of software code has become one of the major problems in software development industry. With growing complexity the maintenance effort of code increases. Moreover, various aspects of complexity create difficulties for complexity assessment. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationships of various aspects of code complexity and propose a method for identifying the most complex functions. We have conducted an action research project in two software development companies and complemented it with a study of three open source products. Four complexity metrics are measured, and their nature and mutual influence are investigated. The results and possible explanations are discussed with software engineers in industry. The results show that there are two distinguishable aspects of complexity of source code functions: Internal and outbound complexities. Those have an inverse relationship. Moreover, the product of them does not seem to be greater than a certain limit, regardless of software size. We present a method that permits identification of most complex functions considering the two aspects of complexities. The evaluation shows that the use of the method is effective in industry: It enables identification of 0.5% most complex functions out of thousands of functions for reengineering.

  • 3.
    Antinyan, Vard
    et al.
    Computer Science and Engineering, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Staron, Miroslaw
    Computer Science and Engineering, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Anna
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    A Complexity Measure for Textual Requirements2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 26th International Workshop on Software Measurement (IWSM) and the 11th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement (Mensura) IWSM-Mensura 2016 / [ed] Jens Heidrich & Frank Vogelezang, IEEE, 2016, s. 148-158Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unequivocally understandable requirements are vital for software design process. However, in practice it is hard to achieve the desired level of understandability, because in large software products a substantial amount of requirements tend to have ambiguous or complex descriptions. Over time such requirements decelerate the development speed and increase the risk of late design modifications, therefore finding and improving them is an urgent task for software designers. Manual reviewing is one way of addressing the problem, but it is effort-intensive and critically slow for large products. Another way is using measurement, in which case one needs to design effective measures. In recent years there have been great endeavors in creating and validating measures for requirements understandability: most of the measures focused on ambiguous patterns. While ambiguity is one property that has major effect on understandability, there is also another important property, complexity, which also has major effect on understandability, but is relatively less investigated. In this paper we define a complexity measure for textual requirements through an action research project in a large software development organization. We also present its evaluation results in three large companies. The evaluation shows that there is a significant correlation between the measurement values and the manual assessment values of practitioners. We recommend this measure to be used with earlier created ambiguity measures as means for automated identification of complex specifications.

  • 4.
    Areizaga, Ander
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Programming learning games: Identification of game design patterns in programming learning games2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a high demand for program developers, but the dropouts from computer science courses are also high and course enrolments keep decreasing. In order to overcome that situation, several studies have found serious games as good tools for education in programming learning. As an outcome from such research, several game solutions for programming learning have appeared, each of them using a different approach. Some of these games are only used in the research field where others are published in commercial stores. The problem with commercial games is that they do not offer a clear map of the different programming concepts. This dissertation addresses this problem and analyses which fundamental programming concepts that are represented in commercial games for programming learning. The study also identifies game design patterns used to represent these concepts.

    The result of this study shows topics that are represented more commonly in commercial games and what game design patterns are used for that. This thesis identifies a set of game design patterns in the 20 commercial games that were analysed. A description as well as some examples of the games where it is found is included for each of these patterns.

    As a conclusion, this research shows that from the list of the determined fundamental programming topics only a few of them are greatly represented in commercial games where the others have nearly no representation. This shows potential spots for future research in games for programming teaching.

  • 5.
    Bergqvist, Emil
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Auditory displays: A study in effectiveness between binaural and stereo audio to support interface navigation2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses if the change of auditory feedback can improve the effectiveness of performance in the interaction with a non-visual system, or with a system used by individuals with visual impairment. Two prototypes were developed, one with binaural audio and the other with stereo audio. The interaction was evaluated in an experiment where 22 participants, divided into two groups, performed a number of interaction tasks. A post-interview were conducted together with the experiment. The result of the experiment displayed that there were no great difference between binaural audio and stereo regarding the speed and accuracy of the interaction. The post-interviews displayed interesting differences in the way participants visualized the virtual environment that affected the interaction. This opened up interesting questions for future studies.

  • 6.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Servin, Martin
    Institutionen för fysik, Umeå universitet.
    Composer: A prototype multilingual model composition tool2013Ingår i: MODPROD2013: 7th MODPROD Workshop on Model-Based Product Development / [ed] Peter Fritzson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing the task to design, simulate or optimize a complex system itis common to find models and data for the system expressed in differentformats, implemented in different simulation software tools. When a newmodel is developed, a target platform is chosen and existing componentsimplemented with different tools have to be converted. This results inunnecessary work duplication and lead times. The Modelica languageinitiative [2] partially solves this by allowing developers to move modelsbetween different tools following the Modelica standard. Another possi-bility is to exchange models using the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI)standard that allows computer models to be used as components in othersimulations, possibly implemented using other programming languages[1]. With the Modelica and FMI standards entering development, there isneed for an easy-to-use tool that supports design, editing and simulationof such multilingual systems, as well as for retracting system informationfor formulating and solving optimization problems.A prototype solution for a graphical block diagram tool for design, edit-ing, simulation and optimization of multilingual systems has been createdand evaluated for a specific system. The tool is named Composer [3].The block diagram representation should be generic, independent ofmodel implementations, have a standardized format and yet support effi-cient handling of complex data. It is natural to look for solutions amongmodern web technologies, specifically HTML5. The format for represent-ing two dimensional vector graphics in HTML5 is Scalable Vector Graphics(SVG). We combine the SVG format with the FMI standard. In a firststage, we take the XML-based model description of FMI as a form for de-scribing the interface for each component, in a language independent way.Simulation parameters can also be expressed on this form, and integratedas metadata into the SVG image. 

    The prototype, using SVG in conjunction with FMI, is implementedin JavaScript and allow creation and modification of block diagrams directly in the web browser. Generated SVG images are sent to the serverwhere they are translated to program code, allowing the simulation ofthe dynamical system to be executed using selected implementations. Analternative mode is to generate optimization problem from the systemdefinition and model parameters. The simulation/optimization result is 

    returned to the web browser where it is plotted or processed using otherstandard libraries.The fiber production process at SCA Packaging Obbola [4] is used asan example system and modeled using Composer. The system consists oftwo fiber production lines that produce fiber going to a storage tank [5].The paper machine is taking fiber from the tank as needed for production.A lot of power is required during fiber production and the purpose of themodel was to investigate weather electricity costs could be reduced byrescheduling fiber production over the day, in accordance with the electricity spot price. Components are implemented for dynamical simulationusing OpenModelica and for discrete event using Python. The Python implementation supports constraint propagation between components andoptimization over specified variables. Each component is interfaced as aFunctional Mock-up Unit (FMU), allowing components to be connectedand properties specified in language independent way. From the SVGcontaining the high-level system information, both Modelica and Pythoncode is generated and executed on the web server, potentially hosted ina high performance data center. More implementations could be addedwithout modifying the SVG system description.We have shown that it is possible to separate system descriptions onthe block diagram level from implementations and interface between thetwo levels using FMI. In a continuation of this project, we aim to integratethe FMI standard also for co-simulation, such that components implemented in different languages could be used together. One open questionis to what extent FMUs of the same component, but implemented withdifferent tools, will have the same model description. For the SVG-basedsystem description to be useful, the FMI model description must remainthe same, or at least contain a large overlap, for a single component implemented in different languages. This will be further investigated in futurework.

  • 7.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lundell, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Linköping.
    Sjöberg, Johan
    Findwise AB, Göteborg.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB.
    Gustavsson, Thomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Stockholm.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania IT AB, Södertälje.
    On Company Contributions to Community Open Source Software Projects2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of contributions to community open source software (OSS) projects are made by practitioners acting on behalf of companies and other organisations. Previous research has addressed the motivations of both individuals and companies to engage with OSS projects. However, limited research has been undertaken that examines and explains the practical mechanisms or work practices used by companies and their developers to pursue their commercial and technical objectives when engaging with OSS projects. This research investigates the variety of work practices used in public communication channels by company contributors to engage with and contribute to eight community OSS projects. Through interviews with contributors to the eight projects we draw on their experiences and insights to explore the motivations to use particular methods of contribution. We find that companies utilise work practices for contributing to community projects which are congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities that support their short- and long-term needs. We also find that companies contribute to community OSS projects in ways that may not always be apparent from public sources, such as employing core project developers, making donations, and joining project steering committees in order to advance strategic interests. The factors influencing contributor work practices can be complex and are often dynamic arising from considerations such as company and project structure, as well as technical concerns and commercial strategies. The business context in which software created by the OSS project is deployed is also found to influence contributor work practices. CCBY

  • 8.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lundell, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Jonsson, Per
    Combitech AB.
    Sjöberg, Johan
    Findwise AB.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB.
    Rickö, Niklas
    JAK.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB.
    Landemoo, Stefan
    Saab AB.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania IT AB.
    An Investigation of Work Practices Used by Companies Making Contributions to Established OSS Projects2018Ingår i: ICSE-SEIP '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, s. 201-210Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Professionals contribute to open source software (OSS) projects aspart of their employment. Previous research has addressed motivationsof individuals and the ways they engage with OSS projects.However, there is a lack of research which examines and explainswork practices used by companies in their engagement with projects.Work practices used by companies to contribute to five establishedOSS projects are investigated through examination of the actions ofemployees in public communication channels and draw on our experienceswhen analysing engagement with the same projects. Wefind that companies utilise work practices for contributing whichare congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities thatsupport their short and long term needs. We find that companiescontribute to OSS projects in different ways, such as employing coreproject developers, making donations, and joining project steeringcommittees in order to advance strategic interests.

  • 9.
    Englund, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Lärande och flow: Den optimala lärandeupplevelsen2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har utförts för att undersöka frågeställningen ”Hur bör ett dataspels tutorial designas för att spelaren ska lära sig samtidigt som den främjar uppkomsten av flow?”. För att besvara detta har teorier inom pedagogik, lärande av spel, användbarhet och flow samt mer generella teorier kring spel studerats för att skapa en teoribildning inom området. För att testa detta har ett spel med två olika tutorials skapats. Detta spel har sedan använts för att, med hjälp av två testgrupper, samla data om hur spelare lär sig samt deras flowupplevelse. Resultaten visar på att den typ av inlärning som bör appliceras är beroende av vad som ska läras ut till spelaren. Huruvida någon av de olika typerna av tutorials är fördelaktiga för uppkomsten av flow har ej kunnat besvara då de båda testgruppernas data visat på snarlika flowupplevelser. 

  • 10.
    Fredriksson, Pär
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    En utvärdering av verktygsstödet för den semantiska webben2004Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Då den webb som vi idag använder har växt snabbt har ett antal problem uppstått. Antalet tjänster är många och mängden information är stor. Den enorma informationsmängden gör att det är svårt att hitta relevant sådan vid sökningar. Om maskiner kunde hjälpa till med sökningen skulle problemet minska.

    Den semantiska webben beskrivs som en förlängning av den nuvarande webben skapad för att låta maskiner kunna utnyttja den information som finns representerad på webben. För att kunna göra webben maskinläsbar krävs det att webben kodas med semantisk information. Detta kan göras av personer som författar webbsidor. För att detta ska kunna göras krävs det att det finns verktyg som tillåter att det görs, verktygen ska gärna kunna användas samtidigt som webbsida skapas. Denna studie har utvärderat hur de webbsidesredigeringsverktyg som används idag kan användas för att skapa semantisk uppmärkning. Studien går igenom ett antal verktyg ur olika kategorier och utvärderar det semantiska stödet dessa ger användaren. Utvärderingen görs med hjälp av kriterier som tagits fram genom att studera ett antal prototypverktyg för semantisk uppmärkning.

    Resultatet av studien ger en indikation på att de verktyg som idag används inte är redo för att låta användaren skapa webbsidor märkta med semantisk information.

  • 11.
    Grgic, Srdan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Karaktärsmodellering: Överföring av semantiska värden från koncept till modell2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om hur de semantiska värdena kan överföras från ett koncept till en 3Dmodell. Detta innebär att vi tar de fysikaliska attribut av en karaktär i ett koncept bygger dessa i en 3-dimensionnell miljö. Med hjälp av genreteori kring semantik och syntax, gör vi oss medvetna om vad dessa begrepp kan innebära i den process som ingår i modellering av karaktärer. Vi bryter upp karaktärskonceptet i mindre beståndsdelar så som mjuka/hårda ytor och gör en granskning av karaktärernas semantiska drag. Därefter beskrivs den arbetsmetod som användes för att skapa 3D karaktären, där vi berör några av de viktiga punkterna i arbetsprocessen. Min frågeställning som var, Hur kan vi överföra de semantiska värdena av en karaktär till en tredimensionell modell som är anpassad för dator/TV-spel? Besvaras med de metoder som användes i skapandet av karaktären. Slutligen presenteras 3Dmodellen med en videosekvens

  • 12.
    Grindal, Mats
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Handling Combinatorial Explosion in Software Testing2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the overall conclusion is that combination strategies, (i.e., test case selection methods that manage the combinatorial explosion of possible things to test), can improve the software testing in most organizations. The research underlying this thesis emphasizes relevance by working in close relationship with industry.

    Input parameter models of test objects play a crucial role for combination strategies. These models consist of parameters with corresponding parameter values and represent the input space and possibly other properties, such as state, of the test object. Test case selection is then defined as the selection of combinations of parameter values from these models.

    This research describes a complete test process, adapted to combination strategies. Guidelines and step-by-step descriptions of the activities in process are included in the presentation. In particular, selection of suitable combination strategies, input parameter modeling and handling of conflicts in the input parameter models are addressed. It is also shown that several of the steps in the test process can be automated.

    The test process is validated through a set of experiments and case studies involving industrial testers as well as actual test problems as they occur in industry. In conjunction with the validation of the test process, aspects of applicability of the combination strategy test process (e.g., usability, scalability and performance) are studied. Identification and discussion of barriers for the introduction of the combination strategy test process in industrial projects are also included.

    This research also presents a comprehensive survey of existing combination strategies, complete with classifications and descriptions of their different properties. Further, this thesis contains a survey of the testing maturity of twelve software-producing organizations. The data indicate low test maturity in most of the investigated organizations. Test managers are often aware of this but have trouble improving. Combination strategies are suitable improvement enablers, due to their low introduction costs.

  • 13.
    Hansen, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Informatics, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Rose, Jeremy
    Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Tjørnehøj, Gitte
    Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Prescription, Description, Reflection: The Shape of the Software Process Improvement Field2004Ingår i: International Journal of Information Management, ISSN 0268-4012, E-ISSN 1873-4707, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 457-472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Heeager, Lise Tordrup
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rose, Jeremy
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Optimising agile development practices for the maintenance operation: nine heuristics2015Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 1762-1784Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Håkansson, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    An evaluation of reputation spreading in mobile ad-hoc networks2004Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) is growing. The issue of security in MANETs is not trivial, since such networks have no fixed infrastructure and therefor centralised security is not applicable. MANETs are also more sensitive to attacks due to their wireless communication channels and their spontaneous nature.

    All kind of cooperation requires a sense of trust. The opinion about trust in other entities can be used as a mean to dynamically allow for secure cooperation in MANETs, as soft security. And also to counter some of the inherited security problems of MANETs.

    To use opinions as a security paradigm in MANETs the opinions about other nodes has to be spread as reputation about a node. This reputation spreading can be done through spreading of opinions or the spreading of evidences about a nodes behaviour.

    In this work evidence and reputation spreading are compared to each other. This comparison shows that they are quite similar from a security point of view but that they differ in scalability.

  • 16.
    Jakobson, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Open source routing software: A comparative study of open source software routers2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As the performance of PCs is increasing it is of great interest to use these cheap devices as routers,which traditionally consisted of more expensive and customized hardware for that purpose. Thesoftware was also traditionally proprietary and thereby costly, but as the open source communityhas grown there have been development of open source solutions that can perform the task ofacting as a router. However as there are so many solutions out there, it can be hard for the potentialusers to choose which particular solution to use, without having to put in too much work intogetting a fully functional router solution. This study achieved this purpose by benchmarking themost popular open source software routers, in terms of performance and scalability as well asproviding a brief analysis of their basic security features. The routers that were studied wasClearOS, Untangle NG Firewall and IPFire, and after the study was complete IPFire was consideredthe superior with ClearOS as the second and Untangle as third and last.

  • 17.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    DeepTelos Demonstration2019Ingår i: Proc. 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion(MODELS-C 2019), Workshop MULTI 2019, IEEE Computer Society, 2019, s. 98-102Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DeepTelos is defined as a set of rules and constraints that enable multi-level modeling for the Telos metamodeling language. In its ConceptBase implementation, rules and constraints are realized by Datalog clauses. We start with demonstrating first the core functions of Telos, use of simple rules and constraints,then the meta-level rules and constraints defining DeepTelos. A couple of examples show how the DeepTelos rules and constraints are compiled to simple rules and constraints and then realize the desired multi-level modeling environment. The main example is taken from the Galileo satellite domain.

  • 18.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    DeepTelos for ConceptBase: A contribution to the MULTI process challenge2019Ingår i: Proc. 2019 ACM/IEEE 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion (MODELS-C 2019), Workshop MULTI 2019, IEEE Computer Society, 2019, s. 66-77Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DeepTelos is a straightforward extension of the Telosmodeling language to allow some form of multi-level modeling. A variant of Telos has been implemented in the ConceptBase system on top of a Datalog engine. Telos defines the concepts of instantiation, specialization and attribution/relations by means of axioms. In addition, the user can define new constructs by deductive rules, integrity constraints, and so-called query classes. In this paper, we tackle the process challenge formulated for the MULTI 2019 workshop to see to which extent DeepTelos is ableto represent the requirements of this challenge.

  • 19.
    Jildenhed, Mattias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    XML-baserade dataöverföringar i flera steg2004Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Behovet av datautbyte mellan olika system, ökar ständigt. Därför byggs fler och fler system med möjligheten att utbyta och överföra data via XML. Då olika system lagrar data på olika sätt, måste de strukturella och innehållsmässiga skillnaderna hanteras innan data kan överföras.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur dataöverföringar mellan XML-dokument i flera steg påverkas av strukturella eller innehållsmässiga skillnader. Arbetet visar i vilka fall data inte kan överföras korrekt. Studien utförs genom en experimentell metod. Experimenten genomförs med en applikation som utvecklats för ändamålet.

    Resultatet från studien visar att problem kan uppstår då käll- och målstrukturen lagrar ett element eller attribut med olika datatyper, de övriga strukturmässiga skillnaderna genererar få problem. De innehållsmässiga skillnaderna medför att data inte kan identifieras då attributet saknas i käll- eller målstrukturen.

  • 20.
    Jonsson, John
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Ontologibaserat dokumenthanteringssystem implementerad som datakatalog i legacymiljö2004Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett ökande behov av metadata har identifierats och i många verksamheter finns ett behov att skapa och lagra metadata som beskriver någon typ av data. Detta har drivit på studier av datakataloger som betraktas som lösningen på metadatabehovet. Detta arbete har behandlat att specificera ett dokumenthanteringssystem byggd på en datakatalog för en verksamhet i en utförd fallstudie. Den behandlade dokumentdatakatalogen inkluderar en ontologi för att skapa ändamålsenlig sökning i en legacymiljö.

    I den framtagna specifikationen på arkitekturavgränsningar för en dokumentdatakatalog är det kännetecken såsom integrerad, skalbar, robust, anpassbar och öppen som införlivar en sund arkitektur. I specifikationen ingår även ett antal krav som utöver kännetecknen bör följas för en god arkitektur. Komponenterna checkin/checkout och versionshantering presenteras som nödvändiga i en datakatalog för dokumenthantering. Övriga komponenter i en datakatalog anses ej vara nödvändiga i en begränsad dokumentdatakatalog men däremot användbara, dessa komponenter är följande: konfigurationskontroll, notifikation och kontexthantering.

    Ontologi är ämnet om kunskapsrepresentation och för att erhålla ändamålsenlig sökning för verksamheten i datakatalogen behövs en ontologi som passar verksamhetens behov. Flera existerande ontologier utvärderades, dock fanns ingen ontologi som var tillräckligt specialiserad för området. Därför utvecklades en skräddarsydd ontologi vilken integreras med datakatalogens informationsmodell som anger strukturen på datakatalogens metadata.

    Som sista steg i genomförandet skapades en fysisk realisationsspecifikation på en dokumentdatakatalog för verksamheten i fallstudien. Resultaten från de tidigare stegen i genomförandet användes som grund för arkitekturen. Dessutom utnyttjades egenskaper från legacymiljön vilken begränsar mängden av tillgängliga lösningar.

    Trots att den resulterande dokumentkatalogen är skräddarsydd för verksamheten är stora delar av arbetet tillämpbart på andra verksamheter. De olika delresultaten är även bidrag, den flexibla och utbyggbara ontologin är tillämpbar på andra relaterade verksamheter. Arkitekturspecifikationen och realisationsspecifikationen är generella nog för att fungera på datakataloger oavsett informationsinnehåll. Dessa kan därför användas vid byggande av dokumentkataloger för andra verksamheter

  • 21.
    Liebel, Grischa
    et al.
    Software Engineering Division, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marko, Nadja
    Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Graz, Austria.
    Tichy, Matthias
    Institute of Software Engineering, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Leitner, Andrea
    Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Graz, Austria.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Model-based engineering in the embedded systems domain: an industrial survey on the state-of-practice2018Ingår i: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 91-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based engineering (MBE) aims at increasing the effectiveness of engineering by using models as important artifacts in the development process. While empirical studies on the use and the effects of MBE in industry exist, only few of them target the embedded systems domain. We contribute to the body of knowledge with an empirical study on the use and the assessment of MBE in that particular domain. The goal of this study is to assess the current state-of-practice and the challenges the embedded systems domain is facing due to shortcomings with MBE. We collected quantitative data from 113 subjects, mostly professionals working with MBE, using an online survey. The collected data spans different aspects of MBE, such as the used modeling languages, tools, notations, effects of MBE introduction, or shortcomings of MBE. Our main findings are that MBE is used by a majority of all participants in the embedded systems domain, mainly for simulation, code generation, and documentation. Reported positive effects of MBE are higher quality and improved reusability. Main shortcomings are interoperability difficulties between MBE tools, high training effort for developers and usability issues. Our study offers valuable insights into the current industrial practice and can guide future research in the fields of systems modeling and embedded systems.

  • 22.
    Lundell, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Long-term sustainability through Open Source software implementations of open file formats2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    D8.8: Monitoring of the Open Source Project implementation2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliverable D8.8 reports on monitoring of the Open Source Project implementations. Based on development efforts for each supplier, this updated deliverable (version 2.1) provides feedback on their use of: an open work practice for development; frequent open releases; and promotion activities aiming towards a sustainable community. In particular, it focuses on establishing sustainable communities, together with an assessment of how this is succeeded. The deliverable presents an evaluation of how each open source project implementation adheres to requirements expressed in deliverable D4.3 and how projects and suppliers have acted upon feedback and recommendations from PREFORMA. In so doing, the deliverable provides an evaluation of the extent to which best practices from community driven open source projects have been adopted with adherence to full transparency for all digital assets. Specifically, the evaluation considers software and associated digital assets provided via links to developed and provided resources (including source code, executables, and test files) and tools (including software configuration management system, mailing lists, and build environment) used in each open source project. An important outcome from this evaluation is a report on adherence to requirements (as specified in D4.3 and clarified in feedback from PREFORMA) and an assessment of how contracted organisations have managed to provide open source software and establish thriving and long-term sustainable open source communities of relevance for memory institutions and other stakeholder groups. Based on these outcomes, recommendations are given for further actions by the suppliers, the PREFORMA Consortium, and any potential adopter of software from the Open Source Portal provided by the PREFORMA Consortium.

  • 24.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    et al.
    University of California, Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Sciences, Irvine, California, USA.
    Persson, AnneHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.Herrman, AndreaHerrmann & Ehrlich, Stuttgart, Germany.Daneva, MayaUniversity of Twente, Netherlands.Doerr, JoergFraunhofer IESE, Germany.Hoffmann, AnneSiemens AG, Erlangen, Germany.Schneider, KurtLeibniz University Hannover, Germany.Kalenborn, AxelUniversität Trier, Wirtschaftsinformatik, Trier.Trapp, MarcusFraunhofer IESE, Germany.Wieringa, RoelUniversity of Twente, Netherlands.Berry, Daniel M.University of Waterloo, Canada.Franch, XavierUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.Ralyté, JolitaUniversity of Geneva, Carouge, Switzerland.Wnuk, KrzysztofDepartment of Computer Science, Lund University, Sweden.Gervasi, VincenzoUniversity of Pisa, Italy.
    Joint Proceedings of REFSQ-2014 Workshops, Doctoral Symposium, Empirical Track, and Posters2014Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Pilco, Hennry
    et al.
    Department of Informatics and Computer Science, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, 170525, Ecuador.
    Sanchez-Gordon, Sandra
    Department of Informatics and Computer Science, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, 170525, Ecuador.
    Calle-Jimenez, Tania
    Department of Informatics and Computer Science, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, 170525, Ecuador.
    Pérez-Medina, Jorge Luis
    Intelligent and Interactive Systems Lab (SI2 Lab), Universidad de Las Américas, Quito, 170125, Ecuador.
    Rybarczyk, Yves
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Intelligent and Interactive Systems Lab (SI2 Lab), Universidad de Las Américas, Quito, 170125, Ecuador / Department of Electrical Engineering, CTS/UNINOVA, Nova University of Lisbon, Monte de Caparica, 2829-516, Portugal.
    Jadán-Guerrero, Janio
    Institute of Research, Development and Innovation, Mechatronics and Interactive Systems Center MIST, Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Quito, 170301, Ecuador.
    Maldonado, César G.
    Institute of Research, Development and Innovation, Mechatronics and Interactive Systems Center MIST, Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Quito, 170301, Ecuador.
    Nunes, Isabel L.
    Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica, Portugal / UNIDEMI, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica, Portugal.
    An agile approach to improve the usability of a physical telerehabilitation platform2019Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 3, artikel-id 480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of a telerehabilitation platform is to safely and securely facilitate the rehabilitation of patients through the use of telecommunication technologies complemented with the use of biomedical smart sensors. The purpose of this study was to perform a usability evaluation of a telerehabilitation platform. To improve the level of usability, the researchers developed and proposed an iterative process. The platform uses a digital representation of the patient which duplicates the therapeutic exercise being executed by the patient; this is detected by a Kinect camera and sensors in real time. This study used inspection methods to perform a usability evaluation of an exploratory prototype of a telerehabilitation platform. In addition, a cognitive workload assessment was performed to complement the usability evaluation. Users were involved through all the stages of the iterative refinement process. Usability issues were progressively reduced from the first iteration to the fourth iteration according to improvements which were developed and applied by the experts. Usability issues originally cataloged as catastrophic were reduced to zero, major usability problems were reduced to ten (2.75%) and minor usability problems were decreased to 141 (38.74%). This study also intends to serve as a guide to improve the usability of e-Health systems in alignment with the software development cycle. 

  • 26.
    Rana, Rakesh
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Chalmers, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Staron, Miroslaw
    Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Chalmers, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Chalmers, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Volvo Car Group, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Meding, Wilhelm
    Ericsson SW Research, Ericsson AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Analyzing defect inflow distribution and applying Bayesian inference method for software defect prediction in large software projects2016Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 117, s. 229-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tracking and predicting quality and reliability is a major challenge in large and distributed software development projects. A number of standard distributions have been successfully used in reliability engineering theory and practice, common among these for modeling software defect inflow being exponential, Weibull, beta and Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP). Although standard distribution models have been recognized in reliability engineering practice, their ability to fit defect data from proprietary and OSS software projects is not well understood. Lack of knowledge about underlying defect inflow distribution also leads to difficulty in applying Bayesian based inference methods for software defect prediction. In this paper we explore the defect inflow distribution of total of fourteen large software projects/release from two industrial domain and open source community. We evaluate six standard distributions for their ability to fit the defect inflow data and also assess which information criterion is practical for selecting the distribution with best fit. Our results show that beta distribution provides the best fit to the defect inflow data for all industrial projects as well as majority of OSS projects studied. In the paper we also evaluate how information about defect inflow distribution from historical projects is applied for modeling the prior beliefs/experience in Bayesian analysis which is useful for making software defect predictions early during the software project lifecycle.

  • 27.
    Rana, Rakesh
    et al.
    Computer Science & Engineering, Chalmers/University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Staron, Miroslaw
    Computer Science & Engineering, Chalmers/University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Computer Science & Engineering, Chalmers/University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Computer Science & Engineering, Chalmers/University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Törner, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Meding, Wilhelm
    Ericsson, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Höglund, Christoffer
    SAAB AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Selecting software reliability growth models and improving their predictive accuracy using historical projects data2014Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 98, s. 59-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During software development two important decisions organizations have to make are: how to allocate testing resources optimally and when the software is ready for release. SRGMs (software reliability growth models) provide empirical basis for evaluating and predicting reliability of software systems. When using SRGMs for the purpose of optimizing testing resource allocation, the model's ability to accurately predict the expected defect inflow profile is useful. For assessing release readiness, the asymptote accuracy is the most important attribute. Although more than hundred models for software reliability have been proposed and evaluated over time, there exists no clear guide on which models should be used for a given software development process or for a given industrial domain. Using defect inflow profiles from large software projects from Ericsson, Volvo Car Corporation and Saab, we evaluate commonly used SRGMs for their ability to provide empirical basis for making these decisions. We also demonstrate that using defect intensity growth rate from earlier projects increases the accuracy of the predictions. Our results show that Logistic and Gompertz models are the most accurate models; we further observe that classifying a given project based on its expected shape of defect inflow help to select the most appropriate model. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Rose, Jeremy
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark / Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, England, UK.
    Improving software management: the industry model, the knowledge model, the network model2015Ingår i: Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering, ISSN 1614-5046, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 9-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Rose, Jeremy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Furneaux, Brent
    School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Innovation Drivers and Outputs for Software Firms: Literature Review and Concept Development2016Ingår i: Advances in Software Engineering, ISSN 1687-8655, E-ISSN 1687-8663, Vol. 2016, artikel-id 5126069Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software innovation - the ability to produce novel and useful software systems - is an important capability for software development organizations and information system developers alike. However, the software development literature has traditionally focused on automation and efficiency while the innovation literature has given relatively little consideration to the software development context. As a result, there is a gap in our understanding of how software product and process innovation can be managed. Specifically, little attention has been directed toward synthesising prior learning or providing an integrative perspective on the key concepts and focus of software innovation research. We therefore identify 93 journal articles and conference papers within the domain of software innovation and analyse repeating patterns in this literature using content analysis and causal mapping. We identify drivers and outputs for software innovation and develop an integrated theory-oriented concept map. We then discuss the implications of this map for future research.

  • 30.
    Rose, Jeremy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Jones, Matthew
    Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Furneaux, Brent
    Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    An integrated model of innovation drivers for smaller software firms2016Ingår i: Information & Management, ISSN 0378-7206, E-ISSN 1872-7530, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 307-323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High technology innovation is essential for economic development in industrialised societies.  Innovation practice in smaller software companies, however, has received little attention.  We derive software innovation drivers and outputs from a fragmented literature and analyse their empirical relevance using qualitative data from twenty-five in-depth interviews with software executives in the Silicon Fen.  Repeating patterns in the dataset revealed through content analysis show that the most important innovation drivers for smaller software firms are external knowledge, leadership and team process. Specialised innovation tools and techniques are hardly used.  We develop a model of software innovation drivers, together with explorative theoretical propositions.

  • 31.
    Rose, Jeremy
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Keld
    Department of Computing Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Hosbond, Jens Henrik
    Department of Computing Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Kræmmergaard, Pernille
    Department of Business Studies, Aarhus Schools of Business, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Management Competences, not Tools and Techniques: a grounded examination of software project management at WM-data2007Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 49, nr 6, s. 605-624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Sjöstrand, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Rättvisa val: Statisk spelbalans i datorspel2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Uppsatsen är av teoretisk karaktär och utforskar tekniker och teorier kring ämnet statisk spelbalans. Som praktiskt exempel används spelet Testament. Texten och balanseringsarbetet med Testament är en produkt av Erik Sjöstrands examensarbete under vårterminen 2009 vid Högskolan i Skövde.

    Texten presenterar vad statisk spelbalans är och dess syfte. Återkommande termer är att alla val som finns i ett spel ska vara betydelsefulla och att man ska sträva efter att alla som spelar spelet har samma förutsättningar.

    Tekniker som presenterar och anpassas till spelet Testament är: kunskap om balans och obalans, spelbalans beroende av spelarnas skicklighet, symmetri och asymmetri, transitiva och intransitiva system, modulär design, fail-safes, global balans, samt prototyper och speltestning.

    Slutsatsen är att det inte går att säga huruvida Testament är balanserat eller inte, att det går att anpassa tekniker för att balansera flerspelarspel till att balansera enspelarspel, att statisk spelbalans bör genomföras under alla faser av spelutvecklingsprocessen, och att de som balanserar spel måste ha god förståelse för de spelsystem de balanserar.

  • 33.
    Sundin, Andreas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Utvärdering av en tidsoptimeringsteknik: Optimering av utvalda if-satser i språket C2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet beskriver en specifik optimeringsteknik och undersöker dess förmåga att öka exekveringshastigheten. Optimeringstekniken ersätter villkorliga hopp i form av if-satser med ovillkorligt hopp. Ett program har utvecklats som mäter exekveringstiden för flera små programkoder, som både använder respektive inte använder optimeringstekniken, så att de kan jämföras med varandra. Med hjälp av mätresultaten från programmet har optimeringstekniken utvärderats. Resultaten visar att optimeringstekniken inte kan öka exekveringshastigheten i de flesta av testerna, men i några specifika fall kan optimeringstekniken öka exekveringshastigheten.

  • 34.
    Tiberg, Jesper
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    An evaluation of algorithms for real-time strategic placement of sensors2004Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    In this work an investigation is performed in whether the algorithms Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation (SPSA) and Virtual Force Algorithm (VFA) are suitable for real-time strategic placement of sensors in a dynamic environment. An evaluation of these algorithms is conducted and compared to Simulated Annealing (SA), which has been used before in similar applications.

    For the tests, a computer based model of the sensors and the environment in which they are used, is implemented. The model handles sensors, moving objects, specifications for the area the sensors are supposed to monitor, and all interaction between components within the model.

    It was the belief of the authors that SPSA and VFA are suited for this kind of problem, and that they have advantages over SA in complex scenarios. The results shows this to be true although SA seems to perform better when it comes to smaller number of sensors to be placed

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