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Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument
Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. (Interaction Lab)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9287-9507
Centre for Prehospital Research, Swedish School of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden / Swedish Armed Forces Centre for Defence Medicine, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
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2016 (English)In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2016, no 1, 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


Immersion is important for simulation-based education; however, questionnaire-based instruments to measure immersion have some limitations. The aim of the present work is to develop a new instrument to measure immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.


The instrument was developed in four phases: trigger identification, content validity scores, inter-rater reliability analysis and comparison with an existing immersion measure instrument. A modified Delphi process was used to develop the instrument and to establish validity and reliability. The expert panel consisted of 10 researchers. All the researchers in the team had previous experience of simulation in the health and/or fire and rescue services as researchers and/or educators and simulation designers. To identify triggers, the panel members independently screened video recordings from simulation scenarios. Here, a trigger is an event in a simulation that is considered a sign of reduced or enhanced immersion among simulation participants.


The result consists of the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI). It contains 10 triggers, of which seven indicate reduced and three enhanced immersion. When using ISRI, a rater identifies trigger occurrences and assigns them strength between 1 and 3. The content validity analysis shows that all the 10 triggers meet an acceptable content validity index for items (I-CVI) standard. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) among raters was assessed using a two-way mixed, consistency, average-measures intra-class correlation (ICC). The ICC for the difference between weighted positive and negative triggers was 0.92, which indicates that the raters are in agreement. Comparison with results from an immersion questionnaire mirrors the ISRI results.


In conclusion, we present a novel and non-intrusive instrument for identifying and rating the level of immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016. Vol. 2016, no 1, 17
Keyword [en]
Healthcare simulation, Immersion, Measure, Instrument
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12293DOI: 10.1186/s41077-016-0018-xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-12293DiVA: diva2:930412
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2016-10-31Bibliographically approved

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Backlund, PerLebram, MikaelEngström, Henrik
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