Nightmares: Risk factors among the Finnish general adult population
2015 (English)In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 4, 507-514 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations.
DESIGN: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study.
SETTING: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25-74 y.
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all).
CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Associated Professional Sleep Societies , 2015. Vol. 38, no 4, 507-514 p.
adult, epidemiology, depression, dreaming, insomnia, nightmare, risk factor
Biological Sciences Clinical Medicine
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11461DOI: 10.5665/sleep.4560ISI: 000351993600001PubMedID: 25325474ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84926223075OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-11461DiVA: diva2:849956