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Nightmares: Risk factors among the Finnish general adult population
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland. (Kognitiv Neurovetenskap och Filosofi, Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5133-8664
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health, Unit of Chronic Disease Prevention, Turku, Finland.
University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland. (Kognitiv Neurovetenskap och Filosofi, Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2771-1588
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2015 (English)In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 4, 507-514 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations.

DESIGN: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study.

SETTING: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25-74 y.

INTERVENTIONS: N/A.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all).

CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Associated Professional Sleep Societies , 2015. Vol. 38, no 4, 507-514 p.
Keyword [en]
adult, epidemiology, depression, dreaming, insomnia, nightmare, risk factor
National Category
Biological Sciences Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11461DOI: 10.5665/sleep.4560ISI: 000351993600001PubMedID: 25325474Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84926223075OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-11461DiVA: diva2:849956
Available from: 2015-08-31 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2016-05-31Bibliographically approved

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