AIM: To evaluate whether there are gender differences in insomnia, sleep quality, sleep efficiency (%), general arousal, disease-specific and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease, compared with an age- and gender-matched randomly selected group from the general population.
BACKGROUND: There are gender difference effects of sleep disturbances in the general population, but this perspective among patients with coronary artery disease has been poorly analysed.
DESIGN: In this prospective study, comparative, descriptive and model testing designs were used.
METHOD: The patients with coronary artery disease, 556 men and 324 women aged 25-86, were compared with a matched population-based group. Data were collected by validated and reliability-tested questionnaires.
RESULTS: The prevalence of severe insomnia varied between 17-44% in all four groups. The severe insomniac coronary artery disease patients displayed a two- or threefold higher presleep arousal, had two hours shorter nocturnal sleep duration/night and were more limited in their physical exercise level than the population-based group. Gender differences in sleep quality, sleep efficiency (%) and general arousal disappeared with increased insomnia severity.
CONCLUSIONS: Independent of gender, age and comorbidity, physical exercise, general arousal behaviour and delayed poststress recovery after mental stress were found to have a negative impact on the coronary artery disease patients' sleep quality and sleep efficiency (%), interfering with their health-related quality of life. The variables significantly explained 41% of the sleep quality outcome and 29% of the sleep efficiency (%).
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Insomnia because of hyperarousal behaviour can be an important factor in the development of an individual self-care management programme supported by a healthcare team.
John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Vol. 20, no 19-20, 2787-2801 p.