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Teenagers’ mental health problems predict probable mental diagnosis 3 years later among girls, but what about the boys?
University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). The Research School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden. (Family-Centred Health (FamCeH))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0183-896X
University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland. (Medborgarcentrerad hälsa (MeCH), Research on Citizen Centered Health, University of Skövde (Reacch US))ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6648-603X
CHILD, School of Learning and Communication, Jönköping University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4079-8902
Departments of Child Neurology and General Practice, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
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2022 (English)In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-10, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The prevalence of mental disorders is increasing, and there seems to be a gender difference in prevalence, with girls reporting more mental health problems than boys, especially regarding internalizing problems. Most mental disorders debut early but often remain untreated into adulthood. Early detection of mental disorders is essential for successful treatment, which is not always happening. The study aimed to estimate to what extent teenagers’ self-reports predict probable mental diagnosis as they enter adulthood, particularly regarding gender differences. Methods: Self-reported mental health problems, Youth Self-Report (YSR) at 15 years (range 3–110, n = 504) from the ongoing Finnish family competence study (FFC) using modified multivariable Poisson regression analysis for prediction of DAWBA (Development and Wellbeing Assessment) interview outcomes 3 years later. Results: One unit’s increase in YSR was estimated to correspond to an increase in the relative risk of a probable DAWBA-based diagnosis by 3.3% [RR (95% CI) 1.03 (1.03–1.04), p < 0.001]. In gender-specific analysis, the findings applied, particularly to girls. Conclusions: Youth Self-Report (YSR) scores at pubertal age predicted the risk of a probable mental diagnosis at the onset of adulthood, particularly in girls. Further research is needed to explain the lower sensitivity of YSR among boys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2022. Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-10, article id 41
Keywords [en]
DAWBA, Internalized problems, Externalized problems, Self-report, YSR
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Family-Centred Health; Research on Citizen Centered Health, University of Skövde (Reacch US)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21387DOI: 10.1186/s13034-022-00473-yISI: 000809153000001PubMedID: 35681228Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85131764693OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-21387DiVA, id: diva2:1675496
Note

CC BY 4.0

© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data

Correspondence: kristina.carlen@his.se

Open access funding provided by University of Skövde. The data collection was supported by government research funding (VTR) allocated to the city of Turku, Welfare Division.

Available from: 2022-06-23 Created: 2022-06-23 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Predictors of mental health in adolescents - with a salutogenic perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of mental health in adolescents - with a salutogenic perspective
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mental health in adolescence is an increasing public health concern. Over half of all mental disorders debut by 14 years of age and remain largely untreated up to adulthood, which underlines the importance of early detection. Mental health is a complex concept that consists of both mental well-being and mental ill-health (including mental health problems and mental disorders). However, the development of mental health during the transition period from childhood to adulthood is dependent on the coping strategies used to meet everyday stressors. Therefore, the framework is salutogenic, looking at the world from a resource perspective to promote mental well-being. However, finding predictors also include identifying risk factors of mental ill-health.

The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate predictors of mental health in adolescents from a longitudinal perspective. The Finnish Family Competence (FFC) study was used with adolescents at 15 years of age and their parents, with a follow-up at 18 years of age. Also, Swedish data material was used, The Longitudinal Research on Development In Adolescence (LoRDIA) with adolescents at 12-13 years and a follow-up at 17 years. In sub-studies I, II, and III the outcome was a probable mental health diagnosis determined by a standardised Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA) interview. In sub-study IV the outcome was perceived mental health status (MHS).

The results showed that a strong sense of coherence was associated with a decreased risk for subsequent mental disorders (sub-study I) and that self-esteem was negatively associated with future mental well-being (sub[1]study IV). Further, low levels of mental health problems reported by the adolescents (sub-study II) or by their parents (sub-study III) were related to a decreased risk for subsequent mental disorders. There was a gender aspect that affected the results and which showed girls as having more internal mental health problems or mental disorders. Other factors indicating an increased risk of mental ill-health were parental low age at childbirth and socioeconomic factors such as the mother’s low educational level, father’s blue-collar profession, and a poor economic situation in the family.

The results from this thesis underline the importance of having a salutogenic approach when dealing with mental health in adolescence to identify coping resources for stressors in Antonovsky’s ‘River of Life’. The school might be an arena for creating interventions with a resource perspective for strengthening a sense of coherence and self-esteem, and for alleviating perceived mental health problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, 2022. p. 114
Series
Dissertation series, ISSN 1654-3602 ; 121
Keywords
adolescents, DAWBA, mental health, predictors, resources, salutogenesis
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychiatry Medical and Health Sciences Pediatrics
Research subject
Family-Centred Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21888 (URN)978-91-88669-20-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-11-04, G110, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-10-12 Created: 2022-09-30 Last updated: 2022-12-21Bibliographically approved

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Carlén, KristinaSuominen, Sakari

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