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The effect of smileys as motivational incentives on children's fruit and vegetable choice, consumption and waste: A field experiment in schools in five European countries
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Nutritional Sciences and Environmental Management, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen, Germany / Department of Management, Society, and Communication, CBS Sustainability, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
Department of Management, Society, and Communication, CBS Sustainability, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). (Individ och samhälle VIDSOC, Individual and Society)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4397-3721
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Arvid Wallgrens Backe, Gothenburg, Sweden.
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2020 (English)In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, article id 101852Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

To assess whether smiley stamps work as a motivational incentive to promote fruit and vegetable eating among children, we conducted a field experiment in ten primary schools in five European countries using one control and one treatment school per country. The six-week experiment was split into three two-week phases before, during and after the smiley was implemented. During the smiley phase, the children received a smiley stamp for choosing a portion of fruits or vegetables. We find an increase attributed to the smiley stamp on children's fruit and vegetable choice and consumption, but also waste. Comparing the effects across countries, we observe significant variations in the smiley effect. This study thus demonstrates, in general, that a low-cost, easy-to-implement incentive such as a smiley stamp has the potential to motivate school children to increase their fruit and vegetable consumption; the study simultaneously underscores the high relevance of context for the effects of incentives. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020. article id 101852
Keywords [en]
Children, Cross-country, Field experiment, Food choice, Motivational incentives
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18338DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101852Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85081273791OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-18338DiVA, id: diva2:1416024
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on behalf of the I.Family consortium

Available from: 2020-03-20 Created: 2020-03-20 Last updated: 2020-03-24

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Eiben, Gabriele

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